Causes of Spinal Compression Fractures

It’s easy to think back pain is just part of getting older. But be careful. If you’re nearing age 60, it may be a sign that you have tiny cracks in the bones called vertebrae that form your spine. When these small hairline fractures add up, they can eventually cause a vertebra to collapse, which is called spinal compression fracture.

How Fractures Happen

Soft, weakened bones are at the heart of the problem. Compression fractures are usually caused by the bone-thinning condition osteoporosis, especially if you are a woman over age 50 who has been through menopause.

When bones are brittle, your vertebrae aren’t strong enough to support your spine in everyday activities. When you bend to lift an object, miss a step, or slip on a carpet, you can put your spinal bones at risk of fracture. Even coughing or sneezing can cause compression fractures if you have severe osteoporosis.

After a number of small compression fractures, your body begins to show the effects. The strength and shape of the spine can change. You lose height because your spine is shorter.

Most compression fractures happen in the front of the vertebra. When you get enough of them, the front part of the bone can collapse. The back of the vertebra is made of harder bone, so it stays intact. That creates a wedge-shaped vertebra, which can lead to the stooped posture you might know as a dowager's hump. Doctors call it kyphosis.

Who’s at Risk?

Two groups of people are at highest risk for spinal compression fractures:

  • People with osteoporosis
  • People with cancer that has spread to their bones

If you have been diagnosed with certain kinds of cancer -- including multiple myeloma and lymphoma -- your doctor may monitor you for compression fractures. On the other hand, sometimes a spinal fracture may be the first sign that a person has cancer.

But most spinal compression fractures happen because of osteoporosis. Some people have a higher chance of getting the disease because of:

  • Race: White and Asian women have the greatest risk.
  • Age: The chances are higher for women over 50 and go up with age.
  • Weight: Thin women are at higher risk.
  • Early menopause: Women who went through it before age 50 have higher chances of getting osteoporosis.
  • Smokers: People who smoke lose bone thickness faster than nonsmokers.

Continued

You can have osteoporosis and not even know it. In fact, about two-thirds of spinal compression fractures are never diagnosed because many people think the back pain is just a part of aging and arthritis.

But if osteoporosis isn't treated, it can lead to more fractures. It’s important to see your doctor if you’re in pain. Osteoporosis treatment won’t guarantee that you’ll never get another compression fracture, but it will significantly lower your odds.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Laura J. Martin, MD on September 26, 2016

Sources

SOURCES: 

Black D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2000. 

Cooper C. Bone, 1993.

Kado D. Arch Intern Med, 1999. 

Michael Schaufele, MD, physiatrist and professor of orthopaedics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta. 

Rex Marco, MD, chief of spine surgery and musculoskeletal oncology, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston. 

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. 

National Osteoporosis Foundation.

 

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