After ovarian cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the ovaries or to other parts of the body.
The process used to find out whether cancer has spread within the ovaries or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The results of the tests used to diagnose ovarian cancer are often also used to stage the disease. (See the General Information section.)
There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.
The three ways that cancer spreads in the body are:
- Through tissue. Cancer invades the surrounding normal tissue.
- Through the lymph system. Cancer invades the lymph system and travels through the lymph vessels to other places in the body.
- Through the blood. Cancer invades the veins and capillaries and travels through the blood to other places in the body.
When cancer cells break away from the primary (original) tumor and travel through the lymph or blood to other places in the body, another (secondary) tumor may form. This process is called metastasis. The secondary (metastatic) tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if breast cancer spreads to the bones, the cancer cells in the bones are actually breast cancer cells. The disease is metastatic breast cancer, not bone cancer.
The following stages are used for ovarian epithelial cancer:
Ovarian cancer stage IA, IB, and IC. In stage IA, cancer is found inside a single ovary. In stage IB, cancer is found inside both ovaries. In stage IC, cancer is found in one or both ovaries and one of the following is true: (a) cancer is found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries, (b) the capsule (outer covering) of the ovary has broken open, or (c) cancer cells are found floating in the peritoneal fluid surrounding abdominal organs or in washings of the peritoneum.