is a chronic, disabling mental illness characterized by a wide range of symptoms, including:
loss of contact with reality
It is strongly linked to an increased risk of suicide attempts and completed suicides.
Among people diagnosed with schizophrenia, an estimated 20% to 40% attempt suicide. From 5% to 13% actually complete the act of suicide. Compared to the general population, people with schizophrenia have a more than...
Often believe some things that aren't true (delusions).
May think that some people are trying
to harm them (paranoia).
With treatment, they may come to understand
that these experiences aren't real but are a problem with how their brains
There are several types of schizophrenia. The most common is paranoid schizophrenia, which causes people to have frightening
thoughts, believe that people or forces are trying to harm them, and hear
voices. Some people think that schizophrenia is the same as a "split
personality" (dissociative identity disorder), but that is a
different mental health problem.
Living with schizophrenia can
cause many challenges. It's a difficult disease. It changes your life and the lives of your
family. But you can live a full and meaningful life if:
You are willing to work at helping yourself.
get professional help.
You have the support and understanding of your
What causes schizophrenia?
Experts don't know
what causes schizophrenia. It may have different causes for different people.
In some people, brain chemistry and brain structure aren't normal.
history may play a role.
Problems that harm a baby's brain during pregnancy may help cause it.
It is not caused by
anything you did, by personal weakness, or by the way your parents raised you.
What are the symptoms?
Symptoms of schizophrenia
Negative symptoms. "Negative" doesn't
mean "bad." Negative symptoms are things that are "lost" from your personality
or how you experience life. You may:
Not care about things.
Have no interest or drive to do things.
take care of yourself, such as not bathing or not eating regularly.
Find it hard to say how you feel.
Become angry with strangers for no
reason and react to others in other harmful ways.
Positive symptoms. "Positive" doesn't mean "good." Positive
symptoms are things "added" or "new" to your personality or how you experience
life. They include:
Thoughts and speech that are confusing.
Cognitive symptoms. These symptoms have to do with how you think. They often aren't
obvious to you or others. They can include:
Not being able to understand things well enough to make decisions.
Having trouble talking clearly to others.
Symptoms usually start when you are a
teen or a young adult, but they may start later in life. They may appear
suddenly or may develop slowly. You may not be aware of your symptoms.
Negative symptoms usually appear first. They may be hard to recognize as
schizophrenia, because they are similar to symptoms of other problems, such as
depression. Positive symptoms can start days, months,
or years after the negative symptoms.
Early signs of
schizophrenia may include doing worse in school, thinking that people are
trying to harm you, or having changes in your personality, such as not wanting
to see people.
These signs don't mean you have schizophrenia. But
if you notice these signs, see a doctor.