Healthy Eating With Diabetes: Your Menu Plan

What you choose to eat and drink can raise or lower your blood sugar levels after meals. So which foods are smart choices when you have diabetes?

There are four things in food that can affect your blood sugar:

  1. Carbohydrates
  2. Protein
  3. Fat
  4. Fiber

Carbohydrates raise blood sugar faster than proteins or fats. They also have the biggest effect on your blood sugar. Fiber, protein, and fat can curb the rise in blood sugar after a meal.

So aim for variety. Eat a mixture of carbohydrates, protein, and fat to manage your blood sugar better and stay full longer.  But make sure to choose quality carbohydrates and smart fats, such as:

  • Healthy carbs: Vegetables, beans, whole grains, and fruit
  • Smart fats: Fish, nuts and seeds, avocado, olives, extra virgin olive oil, and canola oil

Check your blood sugar after meals. Look for patterns between what you eat and drink and your blood sugar levels after. You also may want to track how many grams or servings of carbohydrates you eat with each meal and try to keep it about the same from meal to meal. This can also help you take charge of your blood sugar.

Eating a healthy, balanced diet when you have diabetes doesn't mean you can't eat foods that taste good. In the sample menu and recipes below, the meals have a good balance of protein and fat and a great source of fiber. You can plug them into your diet -- in the right portion sizes -- along with the other fruit, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein, or fats in your plan.

Don’t forget to watch salt, too. That's part of healthy eating with diabetes. Eating less salt has been shown to help prevent and treat high blood pressure. Read labels and choose foods that are low in sodium.

Sample Daily Menu Options

Breakfast

Here's how you might work in a high-fiber carbohydrate along with some lean protein and "good" fat.

High-fiber carbs:

  • Whole-grain cereal (hot or cold) with fruit
  • Whole-grain bread, English muffin, or bagel
  • Whole-grain waffles or pancakes with fruit

Lean protein (low in saturated fat):

  • A higher omega-3 egg blended with 2 egg whites for an egg dish. Add vegetables such as spinach, broccoli, or tomatoes.
  • Low-fat milk or soy milk for your cereal or as a beverage
  • Part skim-milk cheese added to your omelet
  • Low-fat or nonfat yogurt with fruit or cereal, or in a smoothie

Continued

Smart fats:

  • Avocado added to your omelet
  • Nuts for cereals or a yogurt parfait
  • Extra virgin olive oil used in omelet
  • Canola oil used in whole-grain muffins, pancakes, or waffles

Lunch

A sandwich or wrap with whole-grain bread or tortilla and a lean protein such as:

  • Roasted turkey, skinless chicken, or lean beef or pork
  • Part skim-milk cheese or soy cheese
  • Water-packed tuna dressed in vinaigrette, yogurt, or light mayo

A bean-based lunch such as:

  • Bean burrito with whole-grain tortilla
  • Hummus with whole grain-bread or vegetable dippers
  • Vegetarian or lean-meat chili or bean stew

Main-course salad made with:

  • Dark green lettuce
  • Lots of vegetables
  • Lean meat, fish, beans, or cheese plus avocado and nuts, if desired
  • Dressing made with extra virgin olive oil, canola oil, or yogurt

Dinner

High-fiber carb choices:

  • Cooked grains like brown rice, quinoa, barley, bulgur, or amaranth
  • Whole wheat bread, tortilla, pita bread, or buns
  • Colorful vegetables on the side or in the main course
  • Dark green lettuce for a side or dinner salad
  • Fresh fruit on the side or with the entrée

Lean protein (low in saturated fat):

  • Grilled or baked fish, by itself or in a mixed dish such as tacos
  • Skinless poultry -- grilled, baked, or stir-fried
  • Lean beef or pork -- sirloin, tenderloin -- with no visible fat
  • Part skim-milk cheese in entrees, such as eggplant parmesan, vegetarian pizza on whole wheat crust, vegetable lasagna, or enchiladas

Smart fats:

  • A sensible amount of extra virgin olive oil or canola oil used for cooking
  • Nuts added to entrée or side dishes
  • Avocado or olives with entrée or side dishes

Sample Recipes

Homemade Napa Almond Chicken Salad Sandwich

To add a couple of servings of higher-fiber and nutrient-rich whole grains, serve this chicken salad on 2 slices of 100% whole-grain bread or in a whole-wheat pita pocket. Or make a wrap sandwich with a whole-wheat flour tortilla.

Makes 4 or more servings.

3 cups shredded roasted or rotisserie chicken, skin removed
1 cup red grapes, cut in half
2/3 cup finely chopped celery
1/3 cup sliced almonds, honey roasted or plain roasted

Continued

Dressing:

1/2 cup low-fat or light mayonnaise (or nonfat plain Greek yogurt)
2 tablespoons honey
2 tablespoons Dijon mustard
1/4 teaspoon black pepper

Garnish (optional):

8 leaves romaine lettuce
8 slices of tomato

  1. In a medium bowl, combine shredded chicken, grapes, celery, and almonds.
  2. In a small bowl, combine dressing ingredients with whisk or spoon until smooth and blended. Drizzle dressing over the chicken and grape mixture and stir to blend.
  3. Spoon chicken mixture onto bread to make 4 or more sandwiches. Garnish with lettuce and tomato, if desired.

Per serving, including bread (if 4 per recipe): 500 calories, 42 g protein, 51 g carbohydrate, 14 g fat, 2.6 g saturated fat, 6 g monounsaturated fat, 5 g polyunsaturated fat, 96 mg cholesterol, 7 g fiber, 764 mg sodium. Calories from fat: 25%. Omega-3 fatty acids = 0.4 gram, omega-6 fatty acids = 4.5 grams.

Spinach & Mushroom Bagel Pizza

Compared to a personal pan pizza at a popular pizza chain, a serving of these spinach and mushroom bagel pizzas has about half of the calories, fat, and sodium. It also has two-thirds less saturated fat and cholesterol and three times the fiber.

Makes 2 servings (2 bagel pizzas each)

2 whole wheat bagels
1/3 cup pizza sauce (or 2 tablespoons pesto or light garlic & herb spreadable cheese)
2/3 cup shredded, reduced-fat mozzarella cheese
2 teaspoons extra virgin olive oil
1 1/2 cups sliced mushrooms (button, crimini, or baby portobello)
2 cups fresh spinach leaves
2 teaspoons minced garlic
Black pepper to taste

  1. Cut whole wheat bagels in half with a serrated knife to make 4 pizza crust circles. Place them cut side up on a baking sheet. Spread about 1 1/2 tablespoons of pizza sauce (or 1/2 tablespoon of pesto or light garlic & herb cheese spread) over each pizza half.
  2. Top each bagel half with 1/4 of the shredded cheese.
  3. Heat a medium nonstick frying pan over medium-high heat and add olive oil. When oil is hot, add the sliced mushrooms and sauté, stirring often, until lightly browned. Stir in the spinach leaves and minced garlic. Stir and sauté until the spinach is bright green and shrunken down (about 1 minute). Add black pepper to taste.
  4. Spread the spinach and mushroom mixture evenly over the pizza halves and broil about 4 inches from the heat until cheese is bubbling. Watch carefully so it doesn't burn.

Continued

Per serving (using pizza sauce): 452 calories, 25 g protein, 62 g carbohydrate, 12.5 g fat, 4.7 g saturated fat, 4.8 g monounsaturated fat, 3 g polyunsaturated fat, 21 mg cholesterol, 11.5 g fiber, 836 mg sodium. Calories from fat: 25%. Omega-3 fatty acids = 0.2 grams, omega-6 fatty acids = 2.8 grams

Slow Cooker Coconut Curry Chicken Casserole

This provides you with veggies, whole grains, and lean meat all in one delicious dish. You can use light coconut milk instead of the fat-free half-and-half and coconut extract.

Makes 4 servings

1 tablespoon extra-virgin olive oil (or canola oil)
4 skinless, boneless chicken breasts
Ground pepper
Salt to taste (optional)
2 cups fat-free half-and-half
2 teaspoons coconut extract
2 cups reduced-sodium chicken broth
1 1/2 to 2 teaspoons red curry powder
3/4 cup uncooked brown rice
2 small red bell peppers (ribs and seeds removed), cut into thin strips or 1-inch pieces
3 cups fresh or frozen green beans (stem ends removed), cut into 1-inch long pieces

Garnish: 2 tablespoons toasted coconut, natural unsweetened or flaked (optional)

  1. Heat olive oil in a large, nonstick skillet or frying pan over medium-high heat. Season chicken with pepper and salt (if desired) and add to skillet. Brown well on both sides (about 3 minutes each).
  2. While chicken is browning, combine fat-free half-and-half, coconut extract, chicken broth, red curry, and brown rice in slow cooker dish. Add browned chicken on top and arrange bell pepper and green beans over it. Cover the slow cooker and heat on low for 4 to 6 hours, or until rice is tender.
  3. Serve chicken with some of the rice, vegetables, and curry coconut sauce. Sprinkle on some toasted coconut, if desired. (To toast coconut on a stove, spread it in the bottom of a nonstick skillet or frying pan. Cook over medium heat, stirring frequently, until the coconut is golden brown.

Per serving: 371 calories, 36 g protein, 40 g carbohydrate, 7.5 g fat, 1.7 g saturated fat, 4 g monounsaturated fat, 1.4 g polyunsaturated fat, 75 mg cholesterol, 5.5 g fiber, 271 mg sodium. Calories from fat: 18%. Omega-3 fatty acids = 0.1 gram, omega-6 fatty acids = 1.3 grams.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Nayana Ambardekar, MD on May 11, 2019

Sources

SOURCES:

Megrette Fletcher, MEd, RD, CDE, executive director, Center for Mindful Eating.

Hu, F. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, October 2010.

www.diabetesandmindfuleating.com: “How does eating affect my blood sugars?”

De Koning, L. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, April 2011.

Nilsson, A. Journal of Nutrition, April 2008.

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