Most doctors check for it between 24 and 28 weeks. But if you have any of the health problems that could lead to diabetes -- you’re overweight, have high blood pressure, or a family history of the disease -- talk to your doctor before you get pregnant.
High blood sugar during pregnancy can cause your baby to grow very large. That can lead to complications during delivery. The baby could be born with low blood sugar, yellowish skin and eyes (jaundice), breathing trouble, and other problems.
If you are diagnosed with gestational diabetes, though, your doctor will work with you to keep your blood sugar under control throughout your pregnancy.
Who Gets It?
If you answer yes to two or more of these questions, you could be more likely to get gestational diabetes:
- Are you overweight?
- Are you related to anyone who has or had diabetes?
- Are you Hispanic/Latina, African-American, American Indian, Alaska Native, Asian American, or Pacific Islander?
- Are you older than 25?
- In a previous pregnancy, did you have any of the following:
- Gestational diabetes
- Stillbirth or miscarriage
- Large baby (weighing more than 9 pounds)
- Do you have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or another health condition linked to problems with insulin?
- Have you ever had problems with insulin or blood sugar, such as insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, or “prediabetes”?
- Do you have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or heart disease?
If your doctor thinks you’re at risk, he’ll give you a "glucose challenge" test. You'll drink a really sweet beverage. One hour later, you'll get a blood sugar reading.
If the results come out higher than 130 to 140 mg/dL, you'll go back to the doctor's office on another day for a more involved process. This is called the 3-hour glucose tolerance test. You might have to follow some diet instructions, like fasting for 8 to 12 hours before you take the test.
The doctor will check your fasting blood sugar level when you get to his office. Then he'll give you a drink that's even sweeter than the one in the first test. You'll get blood sugar readings 1, 2, and 3 hours later. If two or more of the results are higher than the normal values, you’ll be diagnosed with gestational diabetes.” Values are: fasting: Higher than 94 mg/dL, 1 hr - higher than179 mg/dL, 2 hr higher than 154mg/dL, 3 hr higher than 139 mg/dL.
If you have the condition, your doctor will tell you about healthy lifestyle changes you'll need to make -- these involve your diet and physical activity. You will be educated about following a pregnancy diabetic diet and will start checking your sugars throughout the day.