Make a Daily Plan for a Child With Type 1 Diabetes

Whether your child is getting ready for a full day of school or is heading off to soccer practice in the afternoon, you don't have to let her type 1 diabetes get in the way. A little advance planning goes a long way to make sure the day goes right -- and her blood sugar levels stay on track.

1. Check Your Child's Diabetes Supplies

Your child needs a bunch of items to manage her blood sugar. Make a checklist and run through it every morning to make sure she has everything for the day.

If your child can carry her own supplies, check that they're in her bag. Some things she'll need to bring with her:

  • Blood sugar meter, testing strips, and lancets
  • Insulin, syringes, or insulin pens. Even if your child uses an insulin pump, she still needs a backup in case it breaks.
  • Ketone meter and blood or urine test strips
  • Fast-acting source of carbohydrates, such as glucose tablets or juice
  • Glucagon emergency kit (if your doctor prescribes it)
  • Antiseptic or wet wipes

If her school lets you keep diabetes supplies at the nurse's office, make sure everything is up to date. Many items, including insulin, blood sugar meters, and testing strips, have expiration dates. You'll have to replace them regularly.

2. Map Out Meals and Snacks

Eating the right foods can help keep blood sugar levels steady. That's why you should follow the meal plan from your child's doctor or dietitian. Many recommend counting carbohydrates. That means setting a limit for the amount of carbs that your child can eat at each meal.

To stay on track, plan your child's meals and snacks ahead of time. If she eats the school lunch, find out what the cafeteria is serving. Many schools list their menus and nutritional information online at the start of the week. You can check the carbohydrate numbers of the dishes to figure out what your child can have.

If your child brings food from home, write down the number of carbs each item contains. This can help determine how much insulin she needs. Your doctor may adjust the dose if your child doesn't eat the whole meal, or if she swaps a food with a classmate.

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3. Be Prepared for 'Lows'

Your child's blood sugar can drop too low. You may hear your doctor call this is called hypoglycemia. Without the right care, it can lead to seizures.

It's important to get quick treatment. Your child should have a "low box" handy at all times. Inside this kit, pack a few fast-acting sources of carbohydrates, such as glucose tablets, hard candy, and juice.

Give a kit to your child's teachers, bus drivers, coaches, and care providers, and ask them to keep it handy.

4. Factor in Physical Activity

Whether your child is at baseball practice or gym class, exercise has an effect on her blood sugar. For a lot of kids, it causes a drop. In others, physical activity increases stress hormones and raises blood sugar levels.

To figure out how your child may react to exercise, test her blood sugar before and after her activity. This info can help manage her blood sugar levels. Your child may need to eat some carbs before she starts moving, or her doctor may need to tweak her insulin dose.

In some cases, blood sugar can drop hours after exercising. It can even happen in the middle of the night. If this happens, talk to your doctor. He may tell you to check your child's blood sugar more often before bedtime, or change the insulin dose.

5. Ask About Special Events

At times, your child will have an occasion that requires extra prep work. They include field trips, parties, and after-school activities. Try these tips to keep your child healthy:

  • Tell instructors, coaches, and chaperones about your child's diabetes. You should also make sure that someone with diabetes training will be on hand to help.
  • Confirm that your child will have her diabetes supplies available.
  • Check the location. Your child needs food, restrooms, and water throughout the day.
  • Learn what dishes and snacks are being served. You can help your child choose what foods to eat, or you may decide to send your own diabetes-friendly treats.
  • Ask about the program's schedule. Your child may be more active during these events, or she may eat at different times than normal, which could affect her blood sugar levels.

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6. Have an Emergency Plan

Even with careful planning, your child's blood sugar can get too high or low. There should always be an adult nearby who has diabetes training. At school, that's someone on staff, such as a school nurse. For after-school activities, it can be a supervisor or sports coach. Give each person a copy of your emergency care plan. This written list explains what to do if a problem comes up and who to contact.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Michael Dansinger, MD on April 13, 2017

Sources

SOURCES:

Rachel Head, registered dietitian and certified diabetes educator; spokeswoman, American Association of Diabetes Educators.

Mayo Clinic: "Type 1 Diabetes," "Diabetic Hypoglycemia."

CDC: "Managing Diabetes at School Playbook."

American Diabetes Association: "Safe at School," "Carbohydrate Counting," "Exercise and Type 1 Diabetes," "Extracurricular Activities and Field Trips."

UCSF Children's Hospital: "Making Adjustments for Exercise."

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: "Helping the Student with Diabetes Succeed: A Guide for School Personnel."

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