Next Slideshow Title
IMAGES PROVIDED BY:
1) spukkato / Thinkstock
2) AndreyPopov / Thinkstock
3) blyjak / Thinkstock
4) icefront / Thinkstock
5) Lisovskaya / Thinkstock
6) (Left to right) Janie Airey / Thinkstock, nehopelon / Thinkstock
7) smartstock / Thinkstock
8) danielle71 / Thinkstock
9) John Foxx / Thinkstock
10) Blend RF / Jon Feingersh
11) Ridofranz / Thinkstock
12) Amy_Lv / Thinkstock
13) nito100 / Thinkstock
14) Madiz / Thinkstock
15) Will & Deni McIntyre / Science Source
16) doc stock RM / Pro Health Media / Medical Images
UpToDate: "Patient education: Diabetic neuropathy (Beyond the Basics)," "Patient education: Nerve damage caused by diabetes (The Basics)."
Cleveland Clinic: "High Blood Sugar Is Toxic to Your Nerves — Here's How to Avoid It."
BMC Neurology: "Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study."
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: "Peripheral Neuropathy," "Relaxation Techniques."
Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications: "Exercise training can modify the natural history of diabetic peripheral neuropathy."
Clinical Therapeutics: "Declining Skeletal Muscle Function in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy."
Clinical Diabetes: "Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2015 Abridged for Primary Care Providers."
Journal of General Internal Medicine: "The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis."
Journal of Clinical and Translational Endocrinology: "The association between vitamin D level and diabetic peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: An update systematic review and meta-analysis."
Singapore Medical Journal: "Vitamin B supplementation for diabetic peripheral neuropathy."
Mayo Clinic: "Diabetic neuropathy: Can dietary supplements help?" "Diabetes care: 10 ways to avoid complications."
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy: "Guidelines in the management of diabetic nerve pain: clinical utility of pregabalin."
British Journal of Anaesthesia: "Topical capsaicin for pain management: therapeutic potential and mechanisms of action of the new high-concentration capsaicin 8% patch."
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion: "Acupuncture for distal symmetric multiple peripheral neuropathy of diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial."
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: "Acupuncture for the Treatment of Peripheral Neuropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis."
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health: "Chronic Pain: In Depth."
Journal of Pharmacy & BioAllied Sciences: "Alternative therapies useful in the management of diabetes: A systematic review."
American Journal of Clinical Dermatology: "Dermatological care of the diabetic foot."
American Diabetes Association: "Foot Complications."
Foundation for Peripheral Neuropathy: "Biofeedback Therapy."
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice: "Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials."
Cochrane: "Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for neuropathic pain."
Reviewed by Michael Dansinger, MD on December 11, 2018
This tool does not provide medical advice. See additional information.
THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.
View our slideshows to learn more about your health.