2(N,N,N-trimethyl)ammonium-acetate, Betaína Anhidra, Betaine, Bétaïne Anhydre, Bétaïne de Glycine, Bétaïne de Glycocoll, Cystadane, Glycine Betaine, Glycocoll Betaine, Glycylbetaine, Lycine, Oxyneurine, TMG, Trimethyl Glycine, Trimethylbetaine, Trimethylglycine, Trimethylglycine Anhydre, Trimethylglycine Anhydrous.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationBetaine anhydrous is a chemical that occurs naturally in the body. It can also be found in foods such as beets, spinach, cereals, seafood, and wine.
Betaine anhydrous is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of high urine levels of a chemical called homocysteine (homocystinuria) in people with certain inherited disorders. High homocysteine levels are associated with heart disease, weak bones (osteoporosis), skeletal problems, and eye lens problems.
Betaine anhydrous supplements are most commonly used for reducing blood homocysteine levels and trying to improve athletic performance.
How does it work?Betaine anhydrous helps in the metabolism of a chemical called homocysteine. Homocysteine is involved in the normal function of many different parts of the body, including blood, bones, eyes, heart, muscles, nerves, and the brain. Betaine anhydrous prevents the buildup of homocysteine in the blood. Levels of homocysteine are very high in some people who have problems with its metabolism.
Uses & Effectiveness
- High homocysteine levels in the urine (homocystinuria). Taking betaine anhydrous lowers homocysteine levels in the urine. Betaine anhydrous is FDA approved for treating this condition in both children and adults.
Possibly Effective for
- Dry mouth. Using betaine anhydrous in a toothpaste seems to reduce symptoms of dry mouth. Also, using mouthwash containing betaine anhydrous, xylitol, and sodium fluoride seems to improve dry mouth symptoms.
- High homocysteine levels in the blood (hyperhomocysteinemia). Research shows that taking betaine anhydrous can decrease homocysteine levels in the blood of some people. However, it is not clear if this also decreases the risk of heart disease. Taking betaine along with folic acid doesn't reduce blood homocysteine levels better than taking folic acid alone.
Possibly Ineffective for
- Genetic disorder that causes intellectual disability (Angelman syndrome). Taking betaine anhydrous does not seem to prevent seizures or improve mental function in children with Angelman syndrome.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Noncancerous tumors in the colon and rectum (colorectal adenomas). Early research has found that higher dietary intake of betaine anhydrous is not linked with a reduced risk of colon and rectum tumors.
- Depression. Early research shows that taking betaine anhydrous along with s-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) improves symptoms of depression in more people than does taking the antidepressant amitriptyline.
- Exercise performance. Some research suggests that betaine anhydrous can improve certain aspects of exercise performance, including body composition and strength, in men who participate in strength training. However, betaine anhydrous does not seem to improve strength in untrained men.
- Acid reflux. Early research suggests that taking betaine anhydrous, along with melatonin, L-tryptophan, vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin B12, and methionine daily can reduce symptoms of acid reflux.
- Hepatitis C. Early research shows that taking betaine anhydrous (Cystadane) plus S-adenosyl-L-methionine along with hepatitis C medications can reduce the amount of active virus in people with hepatitis C who did not respond to treatment with hepatitis C medications alone. However, this effect does not appear to last long-term in most people.
- Liver disease not due to alcohol use (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH). Developing research has found that betaine anhydrous might improve liver disease in people with NASH.
- Sunburn. Early research has found that applying a specific betaine anhydrous-containing cream for one month before exposure to sunlight reduces sunburn. However, applying this cream only 20 minutes before exposure does not have any benefit.
- Nervous system disorder called Rett syndrome. Early research shows that taking a combination of folate and betaine anhydrous daily for 12 months does not improve growth, development, or function in girls with Rett syndrome.
- Weight loss. In one small study, adding betaine anhydrous to a low-calorie diet did not produce extra weight loss in obese adults.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyBetaine anhydrous is LIKELY SAFE for most children and adults when taken by mouth appropriately. Betaine anhydrous can cause some minor side effects. These include nausea, stomach upset, and diarrhea, as well as body odor. Cholesterol levels sometimes go up.
Betaine anhydrous is also available as a prescription drug in the U.S. Prescription betaine anhydrous is standardized, which means it contains a set dose of active chemicals.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking betaine anhydrous if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
High cholesterol: Betaine anhydrous can increase levels of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "good") cholesterol in healthy people, obese people, and people with kidney failure. Using betaine might make already high cholesterol levels even higher. People with high cholesterol should use betaine anhydrous cautiously.
We currently have no information for BETAINE ANHYDROUS Interactions.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For a condition called homocystinuria: A maintenance dose of 3 grams is usually taken twice daily in both adults and children. In children, the dose usually starts low and is gradually raised to this level. For children under three years-old, the starting dose is 100 mg/kg per day; the next week the dose is raised to 200 mg/kg per day for the week; the following week, the dose is raised to 300 mg/kg per day for the week, and so on until the maintenance dose is reached. All patients can receive dose increases until the level of homocysteine in the blood is very low or too low to measure; sometimes doses up to 20 grams per day are needed to achieve this. Dissolve the powder in water immediately before taking.
- For high homocysteine levels in the blood (hyperhomocysteinemia): 3-6 grams of betaine anhydrous has been used daily for up to 12 weeks.
- For a dry mouth: Betaine anhydrous in a toothpaste has been used twice daily for 2 weeks. Mouthwash containing betaine anhydrous, xylitol, and sodium fluoride has been used each evening for 4 weeks.
- Abdelmalek, M. F., Sanderson, S. O., Angulo, P., Soldevila-Pico, C., Liu, C., Peter, J., Keach, J., Cave, M., Chen, T., McClain, C. J., and Lindor, K. D. Betaine for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results of a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Hepatology 2009;50(6):1818-1826. View abstract.
- Apicella, J. M., Lee, E. C., Bailey, B. L., Saenz, C., Anderson, J. M., Craig, S. A., Kraemer, W. J., Volek, J. S., and Maresh, C. M. Betaine supplementation enhances anabolic endocrine and Akt signaling in response to acute bouts of exercise. Eur J Appl.Physiol 2013;113(3):793-802. View abstract.
- Armstrong, L. E., Casa, D. J., Roti, M. W., Lee, E. C., Craig, S. A., Sutherland, J. W., Fiala, K. A., and Maresh, C. M. Influence of betaine consumption on strenuous running and sprinting in a hot environment. J Strength.Cond.Res 2008;22(3):851-860. View abstract.
- Atkinson, W., Elmslie, J., Lever, M., Chambers, S. T., and George, P. M. Dietary and supplementary betaine: acute effects on plasma betaine and homocysteine concentrations under standard and postmethionine load conditions in healthy male subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87(3):577-585. View abstract.
- Atkinson, W., Slow, S., Elmslie, J., Lever, M., Chambers, S. T., and George, P. M. Dietary and supplementary betaine: effects on betaine and homocysteine concentrations in males. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc.Dis 2009;19(11):767-773. View abstract.
- Bidulescu, A., Chambless, L. E., Siega-Riz, A. M., Zeisel, S. H., and Heiss, G. Usual choline and betaine dietary intake and incident coronary heart disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. BMC.Cardiovasc.Disord. 2007;7:20. View abstract.
- Bird, L. M., Tan, W. H., Bacino, C. A., Peters, S. U., Skinner, S. A., Anselm, I., Barbieri-Welge, R., Bauer-Carlin, A., Gentile, J. K., Glaze, D. G., Horowitz, L. T., Mohan, K. N., Nespeca, M. P., Sahoo, T., Sarco, D., Waisbren, S. E., and Beaudet, A. L. A therapeutic trial of pro-methylation dietary supplements in Angelman syndrome. Am J Med Genet.A 2011;155A(12):2956-2963. View abstract.
- Bishop, L., Kanoff, R., Charnas, L., Krenzel, C., Berry, S. A., and Schimmenti, L. A. Severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency: a case report of nonclassical homocystinuria. J Child Neurol. 2008;23(7):823-828. View abstract.
- Bostom, A. G., Shemin, D., Nadeau, M. R., Shih, V., Stabler, S. P., Allen, R. H., and Selhub, J. Short term betaine therapy fails to lower elevated fasting total plasma homocysteine concentrations in hemodialysis patients maintained on chronic folic acid supplementation. Atherosclerosis 1995;113(1):129-132. View abstract.
- Brattstrom, L., Wilcken, D. E., Ohrvik, J., and Brudin, L. Common methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene mutation leads to hyperhomocysteinemia but not to vascular disease: the result of a meta-analysis. Circulation 12-8-1998;98(23):2520-2526. View abstract.
- Brouwer, I. A., Verhoef, P., and Urgert, R. Betaine supplementation and plasma homocysteine in healthy volunteers. Arch.Intern.Med. 9-11-2000;160(16):2546-2547. View abstract.
- Burke, A. E., Barnhart, K., Jensen, J. T., Creinin, M. D., Walsh, T. L., Wan, L. S., Westhoff, C., Thomas, M., Archer, D., Wu, H., Liu, J., Schlaff, W., Carr, B. R., and Blithe, D. Contraceptive efficacy, acceptability, and safety of C31G and nonoxynol-9 spermicidal gels: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet.Gynecol. 2010;116(6):1265-1273. View abstract.
- Cave, M., Deaciuc, I., Mendez, C., Song, Z., Joshi-Barve, S., Barve, S., and McClain, C. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: predisposing factors and the role of nutrition. J Nutr Biochem. 2007;18(3):184-195. View abstract.
- Chaabene-Masmoudi, A., Mesrati, F., Zittoun, J., and Landrieu, P. Insidious peripheral neuropathy occurring under treatment in infantile MTHFR deficiency. J Inherit.Metab Dis 2009;32 Suppl 1:S303-S306. View abstract.
- Cheng, K. H., Hung, M. C., Chen, S. J., Kao, C. H., and Niu, D. M. Lenticular subluxation in a patient with homocystinuria undetected by neonatal screening. J Chin Med Assoc. 2007;70(12):562-564. View abstract.
- Cholewa, J. M., Wyszczelska-Rokiel, M., Glowacki, R., Jakubowski, H., Matthews, T., Wood, R., Craig, S. A., and Paolone, V. Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone. J Int Soc.Sports Nutr 2013;10(1):39. View abstract.
- del Favero, S., Roschel, H., Artioli, G., Ugrinowitsch, C., Tricoli, V., Costa, A., Barroso, R., Negrelli, A. L., Otaduy, M. C., da Costa, Leite C., Lancha-Junior, A. H., and Gualano, B. Creatine but not betaine supplementation increases muscle phosphorylcreatine content and strength performance. Amino Acids 2012;42(6):2299-2305. View abstract.
- Fernandez-Figares, I., Wray-Cahen, D., Steele, N. C., Campbell, R. G., Hall, D. D., Virtanen, E., and Caperna, T. J. Effect of dietary betaine on nutrient utilization and partitioning in the young growing feed-restricted pig. J Anim Sci 2002;80(2):421-428. View abstract.
- Forges, T., Chery, C., Audonnet, S., Feillet, F., and Gueant, J. L. Life-threatening methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency with extremely early onset: characterization of two novel mutations in compound heterozygous patients. Mol.Genet.Metab 2010;100(2):143-148. View abstract.
- Garcia-Jimenez, M. C., Baldellou, A., Garcia-Silva, M. T., Dalmau-Serra, J., Garcia-Cazorla, A., Gomez-Lopez, L., Giner, C. P., Luengo, O. A., Pena, Quintana L., Couce, M. L., Martinez-Pardo, M., and Lambruschini, N. [Epidemiological study of the metabolic diseases with homocystinuria in Spain]. An Pediatr.(Barc.) 2012;76(3):133-139. View abstract.
- Glaze, D. G., Percy, A. K., Motil, K. J., Lane, J. B., Isaacs, J. S., Schultz, R. J., Barrish, J. O., Neul, J. L., O'Brien, W. E., and Smith, E. O. A study of the treatment of Rett syndrome with folate and betaine. J Child Neurol. 2009;24(5):551-556. View abstract.
- Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Kang, J., Gonzalez, A. M., Beller, N. A., and Craig, S. A. Effect of 15 days of betaine ingestion on concentric and eccentric force outputs during isokinetic exercise. J Strength.Cond.Res 2011;25(8):2235-2241. View abstract.
- Horrocks, A. Prontosan wound irrigation and gel: management of chronic wounds. Br J Nurs. 12-14-2006;15(22):1222, 1224-1222, 1228. View abstract.
- Kemeny, L., Koreck, A., Kis, K., Kenderessy-Szabo, A., Bodai, L., Cimpean, A., Paunescu, V., Raica, M., and Ghyczy, M. Endogenous phospholipid metabolite containing topical product inhibits ultraviolet light-induced inflammation and DNA damage in human skin. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2007;20(3):155-161. View abstract.
- Knopman, D. and Patterson, M. An open-label, 24-week pilot study of the methyl donor betaine in Alzheimer disease patients. Alzheimer Dis.Assoc.Disord. 2001;15(3):162-165. View abstract.
- Lin, N. C., Niu, D. M., Loong, C. C., Hsia, C. Y., Tsai, H. L., Yeh, Y. C., Tsou, M. Y., and Liu, C. S. Liver transplantation for a patient with homocystinuria. Pediatr.Transplant. 2012;16(7):E311-E314. View abstract.
- Liu, L. L., Hou, X. L., Zhou, C. L., and Yang, Y. L. [Combined methylmalonic aciduria and homocysteinemia with hydrocephalus as an early presentation: a case report]. Zhongguo Dang.Dai Er.Ke.Za Zhi. 2013;15(4):313-315. View abstract.
- Lopez-Jornet, P., Camacho-Alonso, F., and Rodriguez-Aguado, C. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of a betaine-containing mouthwash and an intraoral device for the treatment of dry mouth. J Oral Pathol.Med 2012;41(3):201-206. View abstract.
- Menni, F., Testa, S., Guez, S., Chiarelli, G., Alberti, L., and Esposito, S. Neonatal atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome due to methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria. Pediatr.Nephrol. 2012;27(8):1401-1405. View abstract.
- Miglio, F., Rovati, L. C., Santoro, A., and Setnikar, I. Efficacy and safety of oral betaine glucuronate in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled prospective clinical study. Arzneimittelforschung. 2000;50(8):722-727. View abstract.
- Moat, S. J., Madhavan, A., Taylor, S. Y., Payne, N., Allen, R. H., Stabler, S. P., Goodfellow, J., McDowell, I. F., Lewis, M. J., and Lang, D. High- but not low-dose folic acid improves endothelial function in coronary artery disease. Eur J Clin Invest 2006;36(12):850-859. View abstract.
- Muller, P., Horneff, G., and Hennermann, J. B. [A rare inborn error of intracellular processing of cobalamine presenting with microcephalus and megaloblastic anemia: a report of 3 children]. Klin.Padiatr. 2007;219(6):361-367. View abstract.
- Navratil, T., Petr, M., Senholdova, Z., Pristoupilova, K., Pristoupil, T. I., Heyrovsky, M., Pelclova, D., and Kohlikova, E. Diagnostic significance of urinary thiodiglycolic acid as a possible tool for studying the role of vitamins B12 and folates in the metabolism of thiolic substances. Physiol Res 2007;56(1):113-122. View abstract.
- Olthof, M. R., van Vliet, T., Boelsma, E., and Verhoef, P. Low dose betaine supplementation leads to immediate and long term lowering of plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women. J.Nutr. 2003;133(12):4135-4138. View abstract.
- Peters, S. U., Bird, L. M., Kimonis, V., Glaze, D. G., Shinawi, L. M., Bichell, T. J., Barbieri-Welge, R., Nespeca, M., Anselm, I., Waisbren, S., Sanborn, E., Sun, Q., O'Brien, W. E., Beaudet, A. L., and Bacino, C. A. Double-blind therapeutic trial in Angelman syndrome using betaine and folic acid. Am J Med Genet.A 2010;152A(8):1994-2001. View abstract.
- Prasad, A. N., Rupar, C. A., and Prasad, C. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency and infantile epilepsy. Brain Dev. 2011;33(9):758-769. View abstract.
- Roblin, X., Pofelski, J., and Zarski, J. P. [Steatosis, chronic hepatitis virus C infection and homocysteine]. Gastroenterol.Clin Biol 2007;31(4):415-420. View abstract.
- Rojas-Cano, M. L., Lara, L., Lachica, M., Aguilera, J. F., and Fernandez-Figares, I. Influence of betaine and conjugated linoleic acid on development of carcass cuts of Iberian pigs growing from 20 to 50 kg body weight. Meat.Sci 2011;88(3):525-530. View abstract.
- Romanelli, M., Dini, V., Barbanera, S., and Bertone, M. S. Evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of a solution containing propyl betaine and polihexanide for wound irrigation. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2010;23 Suppl:41-44. View abstract.
- Saad, S., Greenman, J., and Shaw, H. Comparative effects of various commercially available mouthrinse formulations on oral malodor. Oral Dis 2011;17(2):180-186. View abstract.
- Schiff, M., Benoist, J. F., Tilea, B., Royer, N., Giraudier, S., and Ogier de, Baulny H. Isolated remethylation disorders: do our treatments benefit patients? J Inherit.Metab Dis 2011;34(1):137-145. View abstract.
- Schwab, U., Alfthan, G., Aro, A., and Uusitupa, M. Long-term effect of betaine on risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 2011;65(1):70-76. View abstract.
- Schwab, U., Torronen, A., Meririnne, E., Saarinen, M., Alfthan, G., Aro, A., and Uusitupa, M. Orally administered betaine has an acute and dose-dependent effect on serum betaine and plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy humans. J Nutr 2006;136(1):34-38. View abstract.
- Sharma, A. P., Greenberg, C. R., Prasad, A. N., and Prasad, C. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) secondary to cobalamin C (cblC) disorder. Pediatr.Nephrol. 2007;22(12):2097-2103. View abstract.
- Ship, J. A., McCutcheon, J. A., Spivakovsky, S., and Kerr, A. R. Safety and effectiveness of topical dry mouth products containing olive oil, betaine, and xylitol in reducing xerostomia for polypharmacy-induced dry mouth. J Oral Rehabil. 2007;34(10):724-732. View abstract.
- Steenge, G. R., Verhoef, P., and Katan, M. B. Betaine supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women. J.Nutr. 2003;133(5):1291-1295. View abstract.
- Surtees, R., Bowron, A., and Leonard, J. Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma total homocysteine and related metabolites in children with cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency: the effect of treatment. Pediatr Res 1997;42(5):577-582. View abstract.
- Trepanowski, J. F., Farney, T. M., McCarthy, C. G., Schilling, B. K., Craig, S. A., and Bloomer, R. J. The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men. J Strength.Cond.Res 2011;25(12):3461-3471. View abstract.
- Tsuji, M., Takagi, A., Sameshima, K., Iai, M., Yamashita, S., Shinbo, H., Furuya, N., Kurosawa, K., and Osaka, H. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency with progressive polyneuropathy in an infant. Brain Dev. 2011;33(6):521-524. View abstract.
- Ucar, S. K., Koroglu, O. A., Berk, O., Yalaz, M., Kultursay, N., Blom, H. J., and Coker, M. Titration of betaine therapy to optimize therapy in an infant with 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency. Eur J Pediatr. 2010;169(2):241-243. View abstract.
- Urreizti, R., Moya-Garcia, A. A., Pino-Angeles, A., Cozar, M., Langkilde, A., Fanhoe, U., Esteves, C., Arribas, J., Vilaseca, M. A., Perez-Duenas, B., Pineda, M., Gonzalez, V., Artuch, R., Baldellou, A., Vilarinho, L., Fowler, B., Ribes, A., Sanchez-Jimenez, F., Grinberg, D., and Balcells, S. Molecular characterization of five patients with homocystinuria due to severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency. Clin Genet. 2010;78(5):441-448. View abstract.
- van Guldener, C., Janssen, M. J., de Meer, K., Donker, A. J., and Stehouwer, C. D. Effect of folic acid and betaine on fasting and postmethionine-loading plasma homocysteine and methionine levels in chronic haemodialysis patients. J.Intern.Med. 1999;245(2):175-183. View abstract.
- van Guldener, C., Janssen, M. J., Lambert, J., ter Wee, P. M., Donker, A. J., and Stehouwer, C. D. Folic acid treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in peritoneal dialysis patients: no change in endothelial function after long-term therapy. Perit.Dial.Int 1998;18(3):282-289. View abstract.
- Wilcken, D. E., Dudman, N. P., and Tyrrell, P. A. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency--the effects of betaine treatment in pyridoxine-responsive patients. Metabolism 1985;34(12):1115-1121. View abstract.
- Yap, S., Boers, G. H., Wilcken, B., Wilcken, D. E., Brenton, D. P., Lee, P. J., Walter, J. H., Howard, P. M., and Naughten, E. R. Vascular outcome in patients with homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency treated chronically: a multicenter observational study. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol 2001;21(12):2080-2085. View abstract.
- Yokoi, K., Ito, T., Ohkubo, Y., Sumi, S., Ueta, A., Sugiyama, N., and Togari, H. Long follow up of betaine therapy in two Japanese siblings with cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency. Pediatr.Int 2008;50(5):694-695. View abstract.
- Zeisel, S. H., Mar, M. H., Howe, J. C., and Holden, J. M. Concentrations of choline-containing compounds and betaine in common foods. J.Nutr. 2003;133(5):1302-1307. View abstract.
- Zhang, Y., Song, J. Q., Liu, P., Yan, R., Dong, J. H., Yang, Y. L., Wang, L. F., Jiang, Y. W., Zhang, Y. H., Qin, J., and Wu, X. R. [Clinical studies on fifty-seven Chinese patients with combined methylmalonic aciduria and homocysteinemia]. Zhonghua Er.Ke.Za Zhi. 2007;45(7):513-517. View abstract.
- Abdelmalek MF, Angulo P, Jorgensen RA, et al. Betaine, a promising new agent for patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: results of a pilot study. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96:2711-7.. View abstract.
- Alfthan G, Tapani K, Nissinen K, et al. The effect of low doses of betaine on plasma homocysteine in healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr 2004;92:665-9. View abstract.
- Anon. Betaine. Monograph. Altern Med Rev 2003;8:193-6. View abstract.
- Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Tuma DJ. Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. Alcohol 1996;13:395-8. View abstract.
- Boushey CJ, Beresford SA, Omenn GS, Motulsky AG. A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes. JAMA 1995;274:1049-57. View abstract.
- Brouwer IA, Verhoef P, Urgert R. Betaine supplementation and plasma homocysteine in healthy volunteers (letter). Arch Intern Med 2000;160:2546-7.
- Cho E, Willett WC, Colditz GA, et al. Dietary choline and betaine and the risk of distal colorectal adenoma in women. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007;99:1224-31. View abstract.
- Craig SA. Betaine in human nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:539-49. View abstract.
- Cystadane (betaine anhydrous for oral solution) Package insert. Orphan Medical, Inc. Minnetonka, MN. November 2005.
- Di Pierro F, Settembre R. Preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial carried out with a fixed combination of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and betaine versus amitriptyline in patients with mild depression. Int J Gen Med 2015;8:73-8. View abstract.
- Filipowicz M., Bernsmeier C., Terracciano L., Duong F. H., Heim M. H. S-adenosyl-methionine and betaine improve early virological response in chronic hepatitis C patients with previous nonresponse. PLoS One 2010;5(11):e15492. View abstract.
- Frosst P, Blom HJ, Milos R, et al. A candidate genetic risk factor for vascular disease: a common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Nat Genet 1995;10:111-3.. View abstract.
- Mar MH, Zeisel SH. Betaine in wine: answer to the French paradox? Med Hypotheses 1999;53:383-5. View abstract.
- Mayer EL, Jacobsen DW, Robinson K. Homocysteine and coronary atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27:517-27. View abstract.
- McCarty MF. Co-administration of equimolar doses of betaine may alleviate the hepatotoxic risk associated with niacin therapy. Med Hypotheses 2000;55:189-94. View abstract.
- McGregor DO, Dellow WJ, Robson RA, et al. Betaine supplementation decreases post-methionine hyperhomocysteinemia in chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 2002;61:1040-6. View abstract.
- Olthof MR, van Vliet T, Verhoef P, et al. Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans. PloS Med 2005;2:e135. View abstract.
- Periera Rde S. Regression of gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms using dietary supplementation with melatonin, vitamins and aminoacids: comparison with omeprazole. J Pineal Res 2006;41:195-200. View abstract.
- Schwab U, Torronen A, Toppinen L, et al. Betaine supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine concentrations but does not affect body weight, body composition, or resting energy expenditure in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:961-7. View abstract.
- Schwahn BC, Hafner D, Hohlfeld T, et al. Pharmacokinetics of oral betaine in healthy subjects and patients with homocystinuria. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003;55:6-13. View abstract.
- Sledzinski T, Goyke E, Smolenski RT, et al. Decreased serum betaine concentrations in patients after bariatric surgery. Obes Surg 2011;21(10):1634-9. View abstract.
- Soderling E, Le Bell A, Kirstila V, Tenovuo J. Betaine-containing toothpaste relieves subjective symptoms of dry mouth. Acta Odontol Scand 1998;56:65-9. View abstract.
- Wilcken DE, Wilcken B, Dudman NP, Tyrrell PA. Homocystinuria - the effects of betaine in the treatment of patients not responsive to pyridoxine. N Engl J Med 1983;309:448-53. View abstract.