Beta-glucans are most commonly used for heart disease and high cholesterol. They are also used for many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support many of these uses.
In manufacturing, beta-glucans are used as a food additive in products such as salad dressings, frozen desserts, sour cream, and cheese spreads.
There are several beta-glucans supplement products that claim beta-glucans taken by mouth can only be absorbed if the product is prepared by a special patented process that "micronizes" beta-glucans particles. However, there is no reliable evidence to support such a claim.
How does it work ?
Uses & Effectiveness ?
Likely Effective for
- Heart disease. Foods high in beta-glucans can be used as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet to prevent heart disease. Research shows that a person must eat at least 3.6 grams of beta-glucans or other soluble fibers each day to reduce the risk for heart disease. Oat and barley products contain large amounts of beta-glucans.
- High cholesterol. Taking beta-glucans made from oats or barley for several weeks seems to reduce total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol in people with high cholesterol. The typical dose used is 3-10 grams daily. But not all research agrees. This may be due to how beta-glucans products are processed.
Possibly Effective for
- Hay fever. Some research shows that taking beta-glucans daily for 4 weeks reduces symptoms of hay fever.
- Cancer of the cervix. There is some evidence that giving a specific kind of beta-glucans as an injection into the vein (by IV) can extend life in women with advanced cervical cancer when used with standard cancer treatment. However, beta-glucans treatment has to be given for at least one year.
- Infection after surgery. Giving a specific kind of beta-glucans made from yeast as an injection into the vein (by IV) seems to lower the chance for infection after surgery. Beta-glucans also seem to reduce the risk of a serious infection called sepsis in trauma patients.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Eczema (atopic dermatitis). Early research shows that applying a cream containing beta-glucans to the skin daily for 6 months can improve itching and flares from eczema by a small amount.
- Canker sores. Early research shows that taking 10 mg of beta-glucans daily for 20 days reduces canker sores.
- Colon cancer, rectal cancer. Early research shows that giving a specific kind of beta-glucans as an injection into the vein (by IV) might delay cancer growth in some people with colon and rectal cancer when used with standard cancer treatment.
- Critical illness (trauma). Early research in people who are hospitalized due to trauma shows that adding beta-glucans to tube feeds does not improve survival or reduce the length of time in the hospital. But it might help them to breathe on their own sooner.
- Diabetes. Beta-glucans don't seem to improve blood sugar levels in people with type 1 diabetes. It isn't clear if beta-glucans are helpful in people with type 2 diabetes. Some early research shows that eating bread containing beta-glucans made from oat improves glucose, insulin, and cholesterol levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Switching out rice for barley containing beta-glucans also seems to keep blood sugar from rising too much after a meal. But other research shows that eating bread or soup containing beta-glucans does not affect blood sugar or cholesterol levels in people with type 2 diabetes. The mixed results may be due to differences in the length of time that beta-glucans were used, the amounts of beta-glucans taken, or how the beta-glucans product was prepared.
- Airway infections caused by exercise. It isn't clear if beta-glucans can help to prevent airway infections in athletes. Some early research shows that taking beta-glucans made from oat daily for 14 days does not prevent airway infections in male cyclists. Other early research shows that taking beta-glucans made from yeast daily for 45 days before and after a marathon does not prevent airway infections, although it might make symptoms less severe. But other early research shows that taking beta-glucans made from yeast daily for 4 weeks after a marathon can help prevent airway infections in runners. Also, taking beta-glucans made from mushrooms along with vitamin C for 3 months seems to reduce symptoms of airway infections in athletes.
- Head and neck cancer. Early research shows that giving a specific kind of beta-glucans as an injection into the vein (by IV) can extend life in some people with head and neck cancer when used with standard treatment.
- High blood pressure. Evidence about the effects of beta-glucans on blood pressure in people with high blood pressure is not clear. Some research shows that eating oat cereal containing beta-glucans for 6 weeks reduces blood pressure in adults with high blood pressure, while other research shows that eating oat cereal containing beta-glucans for 12 weeks does not reduce blood pressure in people with high blood pressure. However, it does appear to reduce blood pressure in some people with a higher body mass index.
- Lung cancer. Some research shows that giving a specific kind of beta-glucans as an injection into the vein (by IV) along with standard cancer treatment does not improve survival or delay cancer growth.
- A grouping of symptoms that increase the risk of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke (metabolic syndrome). Early research shows that taking beta-glucans might help to lower cholesterol levels by a small amount in people with metabolic syndrome. But it doesn't seem to improve levels of blood sugar.
- Obesity. The research on the effects of beta-glucans for weight loss is not clear. Most research shows that eating beta-glucans can increase weight loss. But other research does not agree. It is not clear which dose or type of beta-glucans, if any, might help the most with weight loss.
- Pain after surgery. Early research shows that eating bread containing 3 grams of beta-glucans made from barley daily for 3 months reduces bloating and stomach pain after stomach surgery.
- Quality of life. Early research shows that taking beta-glucans made from lentinan might help to improve mood in some people.
- Upper airway infection. Early research shows that taking beta-glucans made from yeast daily for 12 weeks improves quality of life in healthy people with upper airway infections. But it doesn't seem to shorten airway infections or make them occur less often.
- A long-term disorder of the large intestines that causes stomach pain (irritable bowel syndrome or IBS).
- Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
- Diabetic ulcers.
- Ear infections.
- Liver problems.
- Long-term swelling (inflammation) in the digestive tract (inflammatory bowel disease or IBD).
- Lyme disease.
- Multiple sclerosis.
- Physical and emotional stress.
- Radiation burns.
- Rheumatoid arthritis.
- Skin problems.
- Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
- Other conditions.
When applied to the skin: Beta-glucans are POSSIBLY SAFE when applied in medicinal amounts for a short time period. Beta-glucans can cause skin rash.
When given by IV: Beta-glucans are POSSIBLY SAFE when used intravenously (by IV) in medicinal amounts for a short time period. Beta-glucans can cause chills, fever, pain at the injection site, headache, back and joint pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, high or low blood pressure, flushing, rashes, tiredness, decreased number of white blood cells, and increased urine.
When given as a shot: Beta-glucans are POSSIBLY SAFE when injected into the muscle. Beta-glucans can cause chills, fever, pain at the injection site, headache, back and joint pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, high or low blood pressure, flushing, rashes, tiredness, decreased number of white blood cells, and increased urine.
Special Precautions and Warnings
AIDS/HIV or AIDS-related complex (ARC): Thick patches of skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet (keratoderma) can develop in people with AIDS/HIV or ARC who receive beta-glucans made from yeast. The condition can start during the first 2 weeks of treatment and then disappear 2 to 4 weeks after use of beta-glucans stops.
Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants) interacts with BETA-GLUCANS
Beta glucans increase the immune system. By increasing the immune system beta glucans might decrease the effectiveness of medications that decrease the immune system.
Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.
Be cautious with this combination
- For heart disease: Oat or barley products that contain 3.6 grams of soluble fiber, such as beta-glucans, daily, as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet.
- For high cholesterol: 7.5 grams of beta-glucans made from yeast has been added to juice and taken twice daily for 7-8 weeks. 3-10 grams of beta-glucans made from barley or oat have also been taken daily for up to 12 weeks.
- For hay fever: 250 mg of beta-glucans made from yeast (Wellmune WGP) daily for 4 weeks has been used.
- For cancer of the cervix: Healthcare providers give 20-40 mg of the fungal beta-glucan schizophyllan (SPG) as an injection into the vein (by IV) once or twice weekly for at least one year.
- For infection after surgery: Healthcare providers give 50 mg/m2 of beta-glucans made from yeast as an injection into the vein (by IV) once per day for 7 days to prevent infection in trauma patients undergoing exploratory surgical procedures. Also, healthcare providers give 0.5-2 mg/kg of beta-glucans made from yeast (Betafectin) by IV 1-6 hours before surgery and then repeated 4 hours, 48 hours, and 96 hours after surgery in surgical patients at high-risk for infection.
Panahi, S., Ezatagha, A., Temelli, F., Vasanthan, T., and Vuksan, V. Beta-glucan from two sources of oat concentrates affect postprandial glycemia in relation to the level of viscosity. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 2007;26(6):639-644. View abstract.
Pazos, C., Moragues, M. D., Quindos, G., Ponton, J., and del Palacio, A. Diagnostic potential of (1,3)-beta-D-glucan and anti-Candida albicans germ tube antibodies for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of invasive candidiasis in neutropenic adult patients. Rev Iberoam.Micol. 2006;23(4):209-215. View abstract.
Peters, H. P., Boers, H. M., Haddeman, E., Melnikov, S. M., and Qvyjt, F. No effect of added beta-glucan or of fructooligosaccharide on appetite or energy intake. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2009;89(1):58-63. View abstract.
Peterson, DM and Qureshi, AA. Genotype and environment effects on tocols of barley and oats. Cereal Chem 1993;70:157-162.
Pietrantoni, E., Signore, F., Berardi, G., Donadio, F., and Donadio, C. [Role of beta-glucan in the treatment of recurrent candidiasis and HPV-correlated lesions and reparative process of epidermis]. Minerva Ginecol. 2010;62(1):1-5. View abstract.
Pins, J. J., Geleva, D., Keenan, J. M., Frazel, C., O'Connor, P. J., and Cherney, L. M. Do whole-grain oat cereals reduce the need for antihypertensive medications and improve blood pressure control? J.Fam.Pract. 2002;51(4):353-359. View abstract.
Pomeroy, R, Cehun-Aders, S, Nestel, M, and Tupper, P. Oat beta-glucan lowers total and LDL-cholesterol. Australian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics 2001;58(1):151-155.
Poppitt, S. D., van Drunen, J. D., McGill, A. T., Mulvey, T. B., and Leahy, F. E. Supplementation of a high-carbohydrate breakfast with barley beta-glucan improves postprandial glycaemic response for meals but not beverages. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2007;16(1):16-24. View abstract.
Queenan, K. M., Stewart, M. L., Smith, K. N., Thomas, W., Fulcher, R. G., and Slavin, J. L. Concentrated oat beta-glucan, a fermentable fiber, lowers serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults in a randomized controlled trial. Nutr.J. 2007;6:6. View abstract.
Rami, B., Zidek, T., and Schober, E. Influence of a beta-glucan-enriched bedtime snack on nocturnal blood glucose levels in diabetic children. J.Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr. 2001;32(1):34-36. View abstract.
Regand, A., Chowdhury, Z., Tosh, S. M., Wolever, T. M., and Wood, P. The molecular weight, solubility and viscosity of oat beta-glucan affect human glycemic response by modifying starch digestibility. Food Chemistry 2011;129(2):297-304.
Regand, A., Tosh, S. M., Wolever, T. M., and Wood, P. J. Physicochemical properties of beta-glucan in differently processed oat foods influence glycemic response. J Agric.Food Chem 10-14-2009;57(19):8831-8838. View abstract.
Reyna, N. Y., Cano, C., Bermudez, V. J., Medina, M. T., Souki, A. J., Ambard, M., Nunez, M., Ferrer, M. A., and Inglett, G. E. Sweeteners and beta-glucans improve metabolic and anthropometrics variables in well controlled type 2 diabetic patients. Am.J Ther. 2003;10(6):438-443. View abstract.
Reyna-Villasmil, N., Bermudez-Pirela, V., Mengual-Moreno, E., Arias, N., Cano-Ponce, C., Leal-Gonzalez, E., Souki, A., Inglett, G. E., Israili, Z. H., Hernandez-Hernandez, R., Valasco, M., and Arraiz, N. Oat-derived beta-glucan significantly improves HDLC and diminishes LDLC and non-HDL cholesterol in overweight individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia. Am J Ther 2007;14(2):203-212. View abstract.
Robitaille, J., Fontaine-Bisson, B., Couture, P., Tchernof, A., and Vohl, M. C. Effect of an oat bran-rich supplement on the metabolic profile of overweight premenopausal women. Ann.Nutr.Metab 2005;49(3):141-148. View abstract.
Rondanelli, M., Opizzi, A., and Monteferrario, F. [The biological activity of beta-glucans]. Minerva Med. 2009;100(3):237-245. View abstract.
Rondanelli, M., Opizzi, A., Monteferrario, F., Klersy, C., Cazzola, R., and Cestaro, B. Beta-glucan- or rice bran-enriched foods: a comparative crossover clinical trial on lipidic pattern in mildly hypercholesterolemic men. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2011;65(7):864-871. View abstract.
Rylander, R. Organic dust induced pulmonary disease - the role of mould derived beta-glucan. Ann.Agric.Environ.Med. 2010;17(1):9-13. View abstract.
Sable, C. A., Strohmaier, K. M., and Chodakewitz, J. A. Advances in antifungal therapy. Annu.Rev.Med. 2008;59:361-379. View abstract.
Sadiq, Butt M., Tahir-Nadeem, M., Khan, M. K., Shabir, R., and Butt, M. S. Oat: unique among the cereals. Eur.J.Nutr. 2008;47(2):68-79. View abstract.
Scully, E. P., Baden, L. R., and Katz, J. T. Fungal brain infections. Curr.Opin.Neurol. 2008;21(3):347-352. View abstract.
Shimizu, C., Kihara, M., Aoe, S., Araki, S., Ito, K., Hayashi, K., Watari, J., Sakata, Y., and Ikegami, S. Effect of high beta-glucan barley on serum cholesterol concentrations and visceral fat area in Japanese men--a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 2008;63(1):21-25. View abstract.
Singh, R., De, S., and Belkheir, A. Avena sativa (Oat), a potential neutraceutical and therapeutic agent: an overview. Crit Rev.Food Sci.Nutr. 2013;53(2):126-144. View abstract.
Smith, K. N., Queenan, K. M., Thomas, W., Fulcher, R. G., and Slavin, J. L. Physiological effects of concentrated barley beta-glucan in mildly hypercholesterolemic adults. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 2008;27(3):434-440. View abstract.
Sundberg B. Cholesterol lowering effects of a barley fibre flake products. AgroGOOD Industry Hi-tech 2008;19:14-17.
Takahashi, H., Ohno, N., Adachi, Y., and Yadomae, T. Association of immunological disorders in lethal side effect of NSAIDs on beta-glucan-administered mice. FEMS Immunol.Med.Microbiol. 2001;31(1):1-14. View abstract.
Talati, R., Baker, W. L., Pabilonia, M. S., White, C. M., and Coleman, C. I. The effects of barley-derived soluble fiber on serum lipids. Ann.Fam.Med. 2009;7(2):157-163. View abstract.
Talbott S, Talbott J. Effect of beta 1,3/1,6 glucan on respiratory tract infection symptoms and mood state in marathon athletes. J Sports Sci Med 2009;8(4):509-515.
Talbott SM, Talbott JA Talbott TL Dingler E. Beta-Glucan supplementation, allergy symptoms, and quality of life in self-described ragweed allergy sufferers. Food Science & Nutrition 2013;1(1):1-12.
Tapola, N., Karvonen, H., Niskanen, L., Mikola, M., and Sarkkinen, E. Glycemic responses of oat bran products in type 2 diabetic patients. Nutr.Metab Cardiovasc.Dis. 2005;15(4):255-261. View abstract.
Theuwissen, E. and Mensink, R. P. Simultaneous intake of beta-glucan and plant stanol esters affects lipid metabolism in slightly hypercholesterolemic subjects. J Nutr 2007;137(3):583-588. View abstract.
Theuwissen, E. and Mensink, R. P. Water-soluble dietary fibers and cardiovascular disease. Physiol Behav. 5-23-2008;94(2):285-292. View abstract.
Theuwissen, E., Plat, J., and Mensink, R. P. Consumption of oat beta-glucan with or without plant stanols did not influence inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Mol.Nutr.Food Res. 2009;53(3):370-376. View abstract.
Thondre, P. S. and Henry, C. J. Effect of a low molecular weight, high-purity beta-glucan on in vitro digestion and glycemic response. Int.J.Food Sci.Nutr. 2011;62(7):678-684. View abstract.
Thondre, P. S. and Henry, C. J. High-molecular-weight barley beta-glucan in chapatis (unleavened Indian flatbread) lowers glycemic index. Nutr Res 2009;29(7):480-486. View abstract.
Tiwari, U. and Cummins, E. Meta-analysis of the effect of beta-glucan intake on blood cholesterol and glucose levels. Nutrition 2011;27(10):1008-1016. View abstract.
Tosh SM, Brummer Y Wolever TMS Wood PJ. Glycemic response to oat bran muf?ns treated to vary molecular weight of b-glucan. Cereal Chem 2008;85:211-217.
Tsikitis, V. L., Albina, J. E., and Reichner, J. S. Beta-glucan affects leukocyte navigation in a complex chemotactic gradient. Surgery 2004;136(2):384-389. View abstract.
Turunen, K., Tsouvelakidou, E., Nomikos, T., Mountzouris, K. C., Karamanolis, D., Triantafillidis, J., and Kyriacou, A. Impact of beta-glucan on the faecal microbiota of polypectomized patients: a pilot study. Anaerobe. 2011;17(6):403-406. View abstract.
Naumann, E., van Rees, A. B., Onning, G., Oste, R., Wydra, M., and Mensink, R. P. Beta-glucan incorporated into a fruit drink effectively lowers serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83(3):601-605. View abstract.
Nazare, J. A., Normand, S., Oste, Triantafyllou A., Brac, de la Perriere, Desage, M., and Laville, M. Modulation of the postprandial phase by beta-glucan in overweight subjects: effects on glucose and insulin kinetics. Mol.Nutr.Food Res. 2009;53(3):361-369. View abstract.
Nelson, E. D., Ramberg, J. E., Best, T., and Sinnott, R. A. Neurologic effects of exogenous saccharides: a review of controlled human, animal, and in vitro studies. Nutr.Neurosci. 2012;15(4):149-162. View abstract.
Newman RK, Lewis SE Newman CW Boik RJ Ramage RT. Hypocholesterolemic effect of barley foods on healthy-men. Nutr Rep Int 1989;39:749-760.
Nieman, D. C. Immunonutrition support for athletes. Nutr.Rev. 2008;66(6):310-320. View abstract.
Nieman, D. C., Henson, D. A., McMahon, M., Wrieden, J. L., Davis, J. M., Murphy, E. A., Gross, S. J., McAnulty, L. S., and Dumke, C. L. Beta-glucan, immune function, and upper respiratory tract infections in athletes. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2008;40(8):1463-1471. View abstract.
Nilsson, A. C., Ostman, E. M., Holst, J. J., and Bjorck, I. M. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast. J.Nutr. 2008;138(4):732-739. View abstract.
Nilsson, A. C., Ostman, E. M., Knudsen, K. E., Holst, J. J., and Bjorck, I. M. A cereal-based evening meal rich in indigestible carbohydrates increases plasma butyrate the next morning. J.Nutr. 2010;140(11):1932-1936. View abstract.
Nimura, H., Mitsumori, N., Takahashi, N., Kashimura, H., Takayama, S., Kashiwagi, H., and Yanaga, K. [S-1 combined with lentinan in patients with unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2006;33 Suppl 1:106-109. View abstract.
Ohno, N. [Structure and function of fungal cell wall]. Nihon Rinsho 2008;66(12):2268-2272. View abstract.
Okamoto, Takashil, Kodoi, Riel, Nonaka, Yujil, Fukuda, Itosukol, Hashimoto, Kanazawa, Kazukil, Mizuno, Masashi, and Ashida Hitoshi. Lentinan from shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) supresses expression of cytochrome p450 1A subfamily in the mouse liver. Biofactors 2004;21(1/4):407-410.
Olsson J, Sundberg B. Clinical Study Report. Effects of boiled, flaked, milled barley powder product (Aktiv) on LDL-, HDL- and total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin and HS-CRP levels in healthy hypercholesterolemic men and women. Centre for Human Studies of Foodstuffs 2005;
Onning, G., Wallmark, A., Persson, M., Akesson, B., Elmstahl, S., and Oste, R. Consumption of oat milk for 5 weeks lowers serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in free-living men with moderate hypercholesterolemia. Ann.Nutr.Metab 1999;43(5):301-309. View abstract.
Ostman E, Rossi E Larsson H Brighenti F Bj orck I. Glucose and insulin responses in healthy men to barley bread with different levels of (1/3; 1/4)-b-glucans; predictions using ?uidity measurements of in vitro enzyme digests. J Cereal Sci 2006;43:230-235.
Ostrosky-Zeichner, L. Invasive mycoses: diagnostic challenges. Am.J.Med. 2012;125(1 Suppl):S14-S24. View abstract.
Othman, R. A., Moghadasian, M. H., and Jones, P. J. Cholesterol-lowering effects of oat beta-glucan. Nutr.Rev. 2011;69(6):299-309. View abstract.
Aarsaether, E., Rydningen, M., Einar, Engstad R., and Busund, R. Cardioprotective effect of pretreatment with beta-glucan in coronary artery bypass grafting. Scand Cardiovasc.J 2006;40(5):298-304. View abstract.
Alminger, M. and Eklund-Jonsson, C. Whole-grain cereal products based on a high-fibre barley or oat genotype lower post-prandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans. Eur.J.Nutr. 2008;47(6):294-300. View abstract.
Almyroudis, N. G. and Segal, B. H. Prevention and treatment of invasive fungal diseases in neutropenic patients. Curr.Opin.Infect.Dis. 2009;22(4):385-393. View abstract.
Amundsen, AL, Haugum, B, and Andersson, H. Changes in serum cholesterol and sterol metabolites after intake of products enriched with an oat bran concentrate with a controlled diet. Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition 2003;47 (2):68-75.
Andersson, M., Ellegard, L., and Andersson, H. Oat bran stimulates bile acid synthesis within 8 h as measured by 7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2002;76(5):1111-1116. View abstract.
Barone, Lumaga R., Azzali, D., Fogliano, V., Scalfi, L., and Vitaglione, P. Sugar and dietary fibre composition influence, by different hormonal response, the satiating capacity of a fruit-based and a beta-glucan-enriched beverage. Food Funct. 2012;3(1):67-75. View abstract.
Battilana, P., Ornstein, K., Minehira, K., Schwarz, J. M., Acheson, K., Schneiter, P., Burri, J., Jequier, E., and Tappy, L. Mechanisms of action of beta-glucan in postprandial glucose metabolism in healthy men. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2001;55(5):327-333. View abstract.
Bazzano, L. A. Effects of soluble dietary fiber on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary heart disease risk. Curr.Atheroscler.Rep. 2008;10(6):473-477. View abstract.
Beck, E. J., Tapsell, L. C., Batterham, M. J., Tosh, S. M., and Huang, X. F. Increases in peptide Y-Y levels following oat beta-glucan ingestion are dose-dependent in overweight adults. Nutr.Res. 2009;29(10):705-709. View abstract.
Beck, E. J., Tapsell, L. C., Batterham, M. J., Tosh, S. M., and Huang, X. F. Oat beta-glucan supplementation does not enhance the effectiveness of an energy-restricted diet in overweight women. Br.J.Nutr. 2010;103(8):1212-1222. View abstract.
Beck, E. J., Tosh, S. M., Batterham, M. J., Tapsell, L. C., and Huang, X. F. Oat beta-glucan increases postprandial cholecystokinin levels, decreases insulin response and extends subjective satiety in overweight subjects. Mol.Nutr.Food Res. 2009;53(10):1343-1351. View abstract.
Beer, M. U., Arrigoni, E., and Amado, R. Effects of oat gum on blood cholesterol levels in healthy young men. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 1995;49(7):517-522. View abstract.
Behall, K. M., Scholfield, D. J., and Hallfrisch, J. Comparison of hormone and glucose responses of overweight women to barley and oats. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 2005;24(3):182-188. View abstract.
Behall, K. M., Scholfield, D. J., and Hallfrisch, J. Diets containing barley significantly reduce lipids in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2004;80(5):1185-1193. View abstract.
Behall, K. M., Scholfield, D. J., and Hallfrisch, J. Effect of beta-glucan level in oat fiber extracts on blood lipids in men and women. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 1997;16(1):46-51. View abstract.
Bergendiova, K., Tibenska, E., and Majtan, J. Pleuran (beta-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus) supplementation, cellular immune response and respiratory tract infections in athletes. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 2011;111(9):2033-2040. View abstract.
Biorklund, M., Holm, J., and Onning, G. Serum lipids and postprandial glucose and insulin levels in hyperlipidemic subjects after consumption of an oat beta-glucan-containing ready meal. Ann.Nutr.Metab 2008;52(2):83-90. View abstract.
Biorklund, M., van, Rees A., Mensink, R. P., and Onning, G. Changes in serum lipids and postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations after consumption of beverages with beta-glucans from oats or barley: a randomised dose-controlled trial. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2005;59(11):1272-1281. View abstract.
Bobovcak, M., Kuniakova, R., Gabriz, J., and Majtan, J. Effect of Pleuran (beta-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus) supplementation on cellular immune response after intensive exercise in elite athletes. Appl.Physiol Nutr.Metab 2010;35(6):755-762. View abstract.
Borneo, R. and Leon, A. E. Whole grain cereals: functional components and health benefits. Food Funct. 2012;3(2):110-119. View abstract.
Bourdon, I., Yokoyama, W., Davis, P., Hudson, C., Backus, R., Richter, D., Knuckles, B., and Schneeman, B. O. Postprandial lipid, glucose, insulin, and cholecystokinin responses in men fed barley pasta enriched with beta-glucan. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1999;69(1):55-63. View abstract.
Cabezas, J., Albaina, O., Montanez, D., Sevilla, M. J., Moragues, M. D., and Ponton, J. Potential of anti-Candida antibodies in immunoprophylaxis. Immunotherapy. 2010;2(2):171-183. View abstract.
Casiraghi, M. C., Garsetti, M., Testolin, G., and Brighenti, F. Post-prandial responses to cereal products enriched with barley beta-glucan. J Am Coll.Nutr 2006;25(4):313-320. View abstract.
Cavallero A, Empilli S Brighenti F Stanca AM. High (1/3, 1/4)-b-glucan barley fractions in bread making and their effects on human glycemic response. J Cereal Sci 2002;36:59-66.
Chan, G. C., Chan, W. K., and Sze, D. M. The effects of beta-glucan on human immune and cancer cells. J.Hematol.Oncol. 2009;2:25. View abstract.
Chandrasekar, P. Invasive mold infections: recent advances in management approaches. Leuk.Lymphoma 2009;50(5):703-715. View abstract.
Charlton, K. E., Tapsell, L. C., Batterham, M. J., O'Shea, J., Thorne, R., Beck, E., and Tosh, S. M. Effect of 6 weeks' consumption of beta-glucan-rich oat products on cholesterol levels in mildly hypercholesterolaemic overweight adults. Br.J.Nutr. 2012;107(7):1037-1047. View abstract.
Chen, CY, Milbury, PE, Kwak, HK, Collins, FW, Samuel, P, and Blumberg, JB. Avenanthramides and phenolic acids from oats are bioavailable and act synergistically with vitamin C to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation. J Nutr 2004;134:1459-1466.
Chen, J. and Raymond, K. Beta-glucans in the treatment of diabetes and associated cardiovascular risks. Vasc.Health Risk Manag. 2008;4(6):1265-1272. View abstract.
Chen, J., He, J., Wildman, R. P., Reynolds, K., Streiffer, R. H., and Whelton, P. K. A randomized controlled trial of dietary fiber intake on serum lipids. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2006;60(1):62-68. View abstract.
Chillo, S., Ranawana, D. V., Pratt, M., and Henry, C. J. Glycemic response and glycemic index of semolina spaghetti enriched with barley beta-glucan. Nutrition 2011;27(6):653-658. View abstract.
Chrouser, K. L., Fick, F., Goel, A., Itano, N. B., Sweat, S. D., and Lightner, D. J. Carbon coated zirconium beads in beta-glucan gel and bovine glutaraldehyde cross-linked collagen injections for intrinsic sphincter deficiency: continence and satisfaction after extended followup. J.Urol. 2004;171(3):1152-1155. View abstract.
Ciacci, C., Franceschi, F., Purchiaroni, F., Capone, P., Buccelletti, F., Iacomini, P., Ranaudo, A., Andreozzi, P., Tondi, P., Gentiloni, Silveri N., Gasbarrini, A., and Gasbarrini, G. Effect of beta-glucan, inositol and digestive enzymes in GI symptoms of patients with IBS. Eur.Rev.Med.Pharmacol.Sci. 2011;15(6):637-643. View abstract.
Cleary, J. A., Kelly, G. E., and Husband, A. J. The effect of molecular weight and beta-1,6-linkages on priming of macrophage function in mice by (1,3)-beta-D-glucan. Immunol Cell Biol 1999;77(5):395-403. View abstract.
Cloetens, L., Ulmius, M., Johansson-Persson, A., Akesson, B., and Onning, G. Role of dietary beta-glucans in the prevention of the metabolic syndrome. Nutr.Rev. 2012;70(8):444-458. View abstract.
Cugnet-Anceau, C., Nazare, J. A., Biorklund, M., Le, Coquil E., Sassolas, A., Sothier, M., Holm, J., Landin-Olsson, M., Onning, G., Laville, M., and Moulin, P. A controlled study of consumption of beta-glucan-enriched soups for 2 months by type 2 diabetic free-living subjects. Br.J.Nutr. 2010;103(3):422-428. View abstract.
Cushion, M. T. and Walzer, P. D. Preclinical drug discovery for new anti-pneumocystis compounds. Curr.Med.Chem. 2009;16(20):2514-2530. View abstract.
Damiani, V., Di, Carlo M., Grappasonni, G., Di, Domenico R., and Dominici, P. Efficacy of a new medical device based on colloidal silver and carbossimetyl beta glucan in treatment of upper airways disease in children. Minerva Pediatr. 2011;63(5):347-354. View abstract.
Davy, B. M., Davy, K. P., Ho, R. C., Beske, S. D., Davrath, L. R., and Melby, C. L. High-fiber oat cereal compared with wheat cereal consumption favorably alters LDL-cholesterol subclass and particle numbers in middle-aged and older men. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2002;76(2):351-358. View abstract.
Delatte, S. J., Evans, J., Hebra, A., Adamson, W., Othersen, H. B., and Tagge, E. P. Effectiveness of beta-glucan collagen for treatment of partial-thickness burns in children. J.Pediatr.Surg. 2001;36(1):113-118. View abstract.
Demark-Wahnefried, W., Bowering, J., and Cohen, P. S. Reduced serum cholesterol with dietary change using fat-modified and oat bran supplemented diets. J.Am.Diet.Assoc. 1990;90(2):223-229. View abstract.
Demir, G., Klein, H. O., Mandel-Molinas, N., and Tuzuner, N. Beta glucan induces proliferation and activation of monocytes in peripheral blood of patients with advanced breast cancer. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007;7(1):113-116. View abstract.
Driscoll, M., Hansen, R., Ding, C., Cramer, D. E., and Yan, J. Therapeutic potential of various beta-glucan sources in conjunction with anti-tumor monoclonal antibody in cancer therapy. Cancer Biol.Ther. 2009;8(3):218-225. View abstract.
Egan, L., Connolly, P., Wheat, L. J., Fuller, D., Dais, T. E., Knox, K. S., and Hage, C. A. Histoplasmosis as a cause for a positive Fungitell (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan test. Med.Mycol. 2008;46(1):93-95. View abstract.
Estrada, A., Yun, C. H., Van Kessel, A., Li, B., Hauta, S., and Laarveld, B. Immunomodulatory activities of oat beta-glucan in vitro and in vivo. Microbiol.Immunol. 1997;41(12):991-998. View abstract.
Frank, J., Sundberg, B., Kamal-Eldin, A., Vessby, B., and Aman, P. Yeast-leavened oat breads with high or low molecular weight beta-glucan do not differ in their effects on blood concentrations of lipids, insulin, or glucose in humans. J.Nutr. 2004;134(6):1384-1388. View abstract.
Gaullier, J. M., Sleboda, J., Ofjord, E. S., Ulvestad, E., Nurminiemi, M., Moe, C., Tor, A., and Gudmundsen, O. Supplementation with a soluble beta-glucan exported from Shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Berk.) singer mycelium: a crossover, placebo-controlled study in healthy elderly. Int.J.Med.Mushrooms. 2011;13(4):319-326. View abstract.
Gautier, S., Xhauflaire-Uhoda, E., Gonry, P., and Pierard, G. E. Chitin-glucan, a natural cell scaffold for skin moisturization and rejuvenation. Int.J.Cosmet.Sci. 2008;30(6):459-469. View abstract.
Giacosa, A. and Rondanelli, M. The right fiber for the right disease: an update on the psyllium seed husk and the metabolic syndrome. J.Clin.Gastroenterol. 2010;44 Suppl 1:S58-S60. View abstract.
Granfeldt, Y., Nyberg, L., and Bjorck, I. Muesli with 4 g oat beta-glucans lowers glucose and insulin responses after a bread meal in healthy subjects. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2008;62(5):600-607. View abstract.
Gunness, P. and Gidley, M. J. Mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering properties of soluble dietary fibre polysaccharides. Food Funct. 2010;1(2):149-155. View abstract.
Hachem, R. Y., Kontoyiannis, D. P., Chemaly, R. F., Jiang, Y., Reitzel, R., and Raad, I. Utility of galactomannan enzyme immunoassay and (1,3) beta-D-glucan in diagnosis of invasive fungal infections: low sensitivity for Aspergillus fumigatus infection in hematologic malignancy patients. J.Clin.Microbiol. 2009;47(1):129-133. View abstract.
Hallfrisch J, Schol eld DJ Behall KM. Physiological responses of men and women to barley and oat extracts (Nu-trim X). II. Comparison of glucose and insulin responses. Cereal Chem 2003;80:80-83.
Hallfrisch, J., Scholfield, D. J., and Behall, K. M. Diets containing soluble oat extracts improve glucose and insulin responses of moderately hypercholesterolemic men and women. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1995;61(2):379-384. View abstract.
Hazama, S., Watanabe, S., Ohashi, M., Yagi, M., Suzuki, M., Matsuda, K., Yamamoto, T., Suga, Y., Suga, T., Nakazawa, S., and Oka, M. Efficacy of orally administered superfine dispersed lentinan (beta-1,3-glucan) for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. Anticancer Res 2009;29(7):2611-2617. View abstract.
Hetland and Geir. Anti-infective action of immuno-modulating polysaccharides (beta-glucan and plantago major L. Pectin) against intracellular (mycobacteria sp.) and extracellular (streptococcus pneumoniae sp.) respiratory pathogens. Curr.Med.Chem.- Anti-infective Agents 2003;2(2):135-147.
Hiss, S. and Sauerwein, H. Influence of dietary ss-glucan on growth performance, lymphocyte proliferation, specific immune response and haptoglobin plasma concentrations in pigs. J.Anim Physiol Anim Nutr.(Berl) 2003;87(1-2):2-11. View abstract.
Hlebowicz, J., Darwiche, G., Bjorgell, O., and Almer, L. O. Effect of muesli with 4 g oat beta-glucan on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized crossover trial. J Am Coll.Nutr 2008;27(4):470-475. View abstract.
Hofer, M. and Pospisil, M. Modulation of animal and human hematopoiesis by beta-glucans: a review. Molecules. 2011;16(9):7969-7979. View abstract.
Hong, F., Yan, J., Baran, J. T., Allendorf, D. J., Hansen, R. D., Ostroff, G. R., Xing, P. X., Cheung, N. K., and Ross, G. D. Mechanism by which orally administered beta-1,3-glucans enhance the tumoricidal activity of antitumor monoclonal antibodies in murine tumor models. J Immunol 7-15-2004;173(2):797-806. View abstract.
Howarth, N. C., Saltzman, E., McCrory, M. A., Greenberg, A. S., Dwyer, J., Ausman, L., Kramer, D. G., and Roberts, S. B. Fermentable and nonfermentable fiber supplements did not alter hunger, satiety or body weight in a pilot study of men and women consuming self-selected diets. J.Nutr. 2003;133(10):3141-3144. View abstract.
Isoda, N., Eguchi, Y., Nukaya, H., Hosho, K., Suga, Y., Suga, T., Nakazawa, S., and Sugano, K. Clinical efficacy of superfine dispersed lentinan (beta-1,3-glucan) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology 2009;56(90):437-441. View abstract.
Jenkins, A. L., Jenkins, D. J., Zdravkovic, U., Wursch, P., and Vuksan, V. Depression of the glycemic index by high levels of beta-glucan fiber in two functional foods tested in type 2 diabetes. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2002;56(7):622-628. View abstract.
Jenkins, D. J., Kendall, C. W., Vuksan, V., Vidgen, E., Parker, T., Faulkner, D., Mehling, C. C., Garsetti, M., Testolin, G., Cunnane, S. C., Ryan, M. A., and Corey, P. N. Soluble fiber intake at a dose approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for a claim of health benefits: serum lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease assessed in a randomized controlled crossover trial. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2002;75(5):834-839. View abstract.
Jenkins, D. J., Nguyen, T. H., Kendall, C. W., Faulkner, D. A., Bashyam, B., Kim, I. J., Ireland, C., Patel, D., Vidgen, E., Josse, A. R., Sesso, H. D., Burton-Freeman, B., Josse, R. G., Leiter, L. A., and Singer, W. The effect of strawberries in a cholesterol-lowering dietary portfolio. Metabolism 2008;57(12):1636-1644. View abstract.
Johnston LRH, Hunninghake DB Schultz K Westereng B. Cholesterol-lowering benefits of a whole grain oat ready to eat cereal. Nutr Clin Care. 1998;1:6-12.
Juntunen, K. S., Niskanen, L. K., Liukkonen, K. H., Poutanen, K. S., Holst, J. J., and Mykkanen, H. M. Postprandial glucose, insulin, and incretin responses to grain products in healthy subjects. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2002;75(2):254-262. View abstract.
Juvonen, K. R., Purhonen, A. K., Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., Lahteenmaki, L., Laaksonen, D. E., Herzig, K. H., Uusitupa, M. I., Poutanen, K. S., and Karhunen, L. J. Viscosity of oat bran-enriched beverages influences gastrointestinal hormonal responses in healthy humans. J Nutr 2009;139(3):461-466. View abstract.
Juvonen, K. R., Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., Lyly, M., Liukkonen, K. H., Lahteenmaki, L., Laaksonen, D. E., Uusitupa, M. I., Herzig, K. H., Poutanen, K. S., and Karhunen, L. J. Semisolid meal enriched in oat bran decreases plasma glucose and insulin levels, but does not change gastrointestinal peptide responses or short-term appetite in healthy subjects. Nutr.Metab Cardiovasc.Dis. 2011;21(9):748-756. View abstract.
Kabir, M., Oppert, J. M., Vidal, H., Bruzzo, F., Fiquet, C., Wursch, P., Slama, G., and Rizkalla, S. W. Four-week low-glycemic index breakfast with a modest amount of soluble fibers in type 2 diabetic men. Metabolism 2002;51(7):819-826. View abstract.
Kakeya, H. and Kohno, S. [Clinically documented fungal infections]. Nihon Rinsho 2008;66(12):2299-2304. View abstract.
Karmally, W., Montez, M. G., Palmas, W., Martinez, W., Branstetter, A., Ramakrishnan, R., Holleran, S. F., Haffner, S. M., and Ginsberg, H. N. Cholesterol-lowering benefits of oat-containing cereal in Hispanic americans. J.Am.Diet.Assoc. 2005;105(6):967-970. View abstract.
Kataoka, H., Shimura, T., Mizoshita, T., Kubota, E., Mori, Y., Mizushima, T., Wada, T., Ogasawara, N., Tanida, S., Sasaki, M., Togawa, S., Sano, H., Hirata, Y., Ikai, M., Mochizuki, H., Seno, K., Itoh, S., Kawai, T., and Joh, T. Lentinan with S-1 and paclitaxel for gastric cancer chemotherapy improve patient quality of life. Hepatogastroenterology 2009;56(90):547-550. View abstract.
Katragkou, A. and Roilides, E. Best practice in treating infants and children with proven, probable or suspected invasive fungal infections. Curr.Opin.Infect.Dis. 2011;24(3):225-229. View abstract.
Katz, D. L., Nawaz, H., Boukhalil, J., Giannamore, V., Chan, W., Ahmadi, R., and Sarrel, P. M. Acute effects of oats and vitamin E on endothelial responses to ingested fat. Am.J.Prev.Med. 2001;20(2):124-129. View abstract.
Keenan, J. M., Goulson, M., Shamliyan, T., Knutson, N., Kolberg, L., and Curry, L. The effects of concentrated barley beta-glucan on blood lipids in a population of hypercholesterolaemic men and women. Br J Nutr 2007;97(6):1162-1168. View abstract.
Keenan, J. M., Pins, J. J., Frazel, C., Moran, A., and Turnquist, L. Oat ingestion reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with mild or borderline hypertension: a pilot trial. J.Fam.Pract. 2002;51(4):369. View abstract.
Kelly, S. A., Summerbell, C. D., Brynes, A., Whittaker, V., and Frost, G. Wholegrain cereals for coronary heart disease. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2007;(2):CD005051. View abstract.
Kim H, Behall KM Vinyard B et al. Short-term satiety and glycemic response after consumption of whole grains with various amounts of b-glucans. Cereal Food World. 2006;51:29-33.
Kim, H., Stote, K. S., Behall, K. M., Spears, K., Vinyard, B., and Conway, J. M. Glucose and insulin responses to whole grain breakfasts varying in soluble fiber, beta-glucan: a dose response study in obese women with increased risk for insulin resistance. Eur.J Nutr 2009;48(3):170-175. View abstract.
Koray, M., Ak, G., Kurklu, E., Tanyeri, H., Aydin, F., Oguz, F. S., Temurhan, S., Ciltci, H., Carin, M., Onal, A. E., and Ozdilli, K. The effect of beta-glucan on recurrent aphthous stomatitis. J Altern.Complement Med 2009;15(2):111-112. View abstract.
Krajicek, B. J., Limper, A. H., and Thomas, C. F., Jr. Advances in the biology, pathogenesis and identification of Pneumocystis pneumonia. Curr.Opin.Pulm.Med. 2008;14(3):228-234. View abstract.
Lamoth, F., Cruciani, M., Mengoli, C., Castagnola, E., Lortholary, O., Richardson, M., and Marchetti, O. beta-Glucan antigenemia assay for the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections in patients with hematological malignancies: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies from the Third European Conference on Infections in Leukemia (ECIL-3). Clin.Infect.Dis. 3-1-2012;54(5):633-643. View abstract.
Lan-Pidhainy X, Brummer Y Tosh SM Wolever TM Wood PJ. Reducing beta-glucan solubility in oat bran muf?ns by freeze-thaw treatment attenuates its hypoglycaemic effect. Cereal Chem 2007;84(512):517.
Lattimer, J. M. and Haub, M. D. Effects of dietary fiber and its components on metabolic health. Nutrients. 2010;2(12):1266-1289. View abstract.
Lesher, A. P., Curry, R. H., Evans, J., Smith, V. A., Fitzgerald, M. T., Cina, R. A., Streck, C. J., and Hebra, A. V. Effectiveness of Biobrane for treatment of partial-thickness burns in children. J.Pediatr.Surg. 2011;46(9):1759-1763. View abstract.
Li, J., Kaneko, T., Qin, L. Q., Wang, J., and Wang, Y. Effects of barley intake on glucose tolerance, lipid metabolism, and bowel function in women. Nutrition 2003;19(11-12):926-929. View abstract.
Liatis, S., Tsapogas, P., Chala, E., Dimosthenopoulos, C., Kyriakopoulos, K., Kapantais, E., and Katsilambros, N. The consumption of bread enriched with betaglucan reduces LDL-cholesterol and improves insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab 2009;35(2):115-120. View abstract.
Liljeberg, H. G., Granfeldt, Y. E., and Bjorck, I. M. Products based on a high fiber barley genotype, but not on common barley or oats, lower postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans. J.Nutr. 1996;126(2):458-466. View abstract.
Liu, J., Gunn, L., Hansen, R., and Yan, J. Combined yeast-derived beta-glucan with anti-tumor monoclonal antibody for cancer immunotherapy. Exp.Mol.Pathol. 2009;86(3):208-214. View abstract.
Liu, J., Gunn, L., Hansen, R., and Yan, J. Yeast-derived beta-glucan in combination with anti-tumor monoclonal antibody therapy in cancer. Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov. 2009;4(2):101-109. View abstract.
Lyly, M., Liukkonen, K. H., Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., Karhunen, L., Poutanen, K., and Lahteenmaki, L. Fibre in beverages can enhance perceived satiety. Eur.J.Nutr. 2009;48(4):251-258. View abstract.
Lyly, M., Ohls, N., Lahteenmaki, L., Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., Liukkonen, K. H., Karhunen, L., and Poutanen, K. The effect of fibre amount, energy level and viscosity of beverages containing oat fibre supplement on perceived satiety. Food Nutr.Res. 2010;54 View abstract.
Majtan, J. Pleuran (beta-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus ): an effective nutritional supplement against upper respiratory tract infections? Med.Sport Sci. 2012;59:57-61. View abstract.
Makelainen, H., Anttila, H., Sihvonen, J., Hietanen, R. M., Tahvonen, R., Salminen, E., Mikola, M., and Sontag-Strohm, T. The effect of beta-glucan on the glycemic and insulin index. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007;61(6):779-785. View abstract.
Maki, K. C., Davidson, M. H., Witchger, M. S., Dicklin, M. R., and Subbaiah, P. V. Effects of high-fiber oat and wheat cereals on postprandial glucose and lipid responses in healthy men. Int.J.Vitam.Nutr.Res. 2007;77(5):347-356. View abstract.
Maki, K. C., Galant, R., Samuel, P., Tesser, J., Witchger, M. S., Ribaya-Mercado, J. D., Blumberg, J. B., and Geohas, J. Effects of consuming foods containing oat beta-glucan on blood pressure, carbohydrate metabolism and biomarkers of oxidative stress in men and women with elevated blood pressure. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007;61(6):786-795. View abstract.
Maki, K. C., Shinnick, F., Seeley, M. A., Veith, P. E., Quinn, L. C., Hallissey, P. J., Temer, A., and Davidson, M. H. Food products containing free tall oil-based phytosterols and oat beta-glucan lower serum total and LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults. J.Nutr. 2003;133(3):808-813. View abstract.
Mårtensson O, Biörklund M Lambo AM et al. Fermented, ropy, oat-based products reduce cholesterol levels and stimulate the bifidobacteria flora in humans. Nutr Res. 2005;25:429-442.
McIntosh, G. H., Whyte, J., McArthur, R., and Nestel, P. J. Barley and wheat foods: influence on plasma cholesterol concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1991;53(5):1205-1209. View abstract.
Mean, M., Marchetti, O., and Calandra, T. Bench-to-bedside review: Candida infections in the intensive care unit. Crit Care 2008;12(1):204. View abstract.
Mello, V. D. and Laaksonen, D. E. [Dietary fibers: current trends and health benefits in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes]. Arq Bras.Endocrinol.Metabol. 2009;53(5):509-518. View abstract.
Melo, L. H. [Echinocandins and the 2009 guidelines for treatment of candidiasis]. Drugs Today (Barc.) 2010;46 Suppl B:7-12. View abstract.
Mitsou, E. K., Kirtzalidou, E., Pramateftaki, P., and Kyriacou, A. Antibiotic resistance in faecal microbiota of Greek healthy infants. Benef.Microbes. 2010;1(3):297-306. View abstract.
Uusitupa, M. I., Miettinen, T. A., Sarkkinen, E. S., Ruuskanen, E., Kervinen, K., and Kesaniemi, Y. A. Lathosterol and other non-cholesterol sterols during treatment of hypercholesterolaemia with beta-glucan-rich oat bran. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 1997;51(9):607-611. View abstract.
Uusitupa, M. I., Ruuskanen, E., Makinen, E., Laitinen, J., Toskala, E., Kervinen, K., and Kesaniemi, Y. A. A controlled study on the effect of beta-glucan-rich oat bran on serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic subjects: relation to apolipoprotein E phenotype. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 1992;11(6):651-659. View abstract.
Vetvicka, V., Thornton, B. P., and Ross, G. D. Soluble beta-glucan polysaccharide binding to the lectin site of neutrophil or natural killer cell complement receptor type 3 (CD11b/CD18) generates a primed state of the receptor capable of mediating cytotoxicity of iC3b-opsonized target cells. J.Clin.Invest 7-1-1996;98(1):50-61. View abstract.
Vitaglione, P., Lumaga, R. B., Montagnese, C., Messia, M. C., Marconi, E., and Scalfi, L. Satiating effect of a barley beta-glucan-enriched snack. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 2010;29(2):113-121. View abstract.
Vitaglione, P., Lumaga, R. B., Stanzione, A., Scalfi, L., and Fogliano, V. beta-Glucan-enriched bread reduces energy intake and modifies plasma ghrelin and peptide YY concentrations in the short term. Appetite 2009;53(3):338-344. View abstract.
Volman, J. J., Ramakers, J. D., and Plat, J. Dietary modulation of immune function by beta-glucans. Physiol Behav. 5-23-2008;94(2):276-284. View abstract.
Weitberg, A. B. A phase I/II trial of beta-(1,3)/(1,6) D-glucan in the treatment of patients with advanced malignancies receiving chemotherapy. J.Exp.Clin.Cancer Res. 2008;27:40. View abstract.
Wolever, T. M., Gibbs, A. L., Brand-Miller, J., Duncan, A. M., Hart, V., Lamarche, B., Tosh, S. M., and Duss, R. Bioactive oat beta-glucan reduces LDL cholesterol in Caucasians and non-Caucasians. Nutr.J. 2011;10:130. View abstract.
Wolever, T. M., Tosh, S. M., Gibbs, A. L., Brand-Miller, J., Duncan, A. M., Hart, V., Lamarche, B., Thomson, B. A., Duss, R., and Wood, P. J. Physicochemical properties of oat beta-glucan influence its ability to reduce serum LDL cholesterol in humans: a randomized clinical trial. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2010;92(4):723-732. View abstract.
Yan, J., Allendorf, D. J., Li, B., Yan, R., Hansen, R., and Donev, R. The role of membrane complement regulatory proteins in cancer immunotherapy. Adv.Exp.Med.Biol. 2008;632:159-174. View abstract.
Yap, A and Ng, M. Immunopotentiating Properties of Lentinan (1-3)-Beta-D-glucan Extracted from culinary-medicinal shiitake mushrooms. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 2003;5(4):339-359.
Yokoyama WH, Hudson CA Knuckles BE Chiu MCM Sayre RN Turnlund J. Schneeman RO. Effect of barley b-glucan in durum wheat pasta on human glycaemic response. Cereal Chem 1997;74:293-296.
Yoshida, K., Shoji, H., Takuma, T., and Niki, Y. Clinical viability of Fungitell, a new (1-->3)-beta-D: -glucan measurement kit, for diagnosis of invasive fungal infection, and comparison with other kits available in Japan. J.Infect.Chemother. 2011;17(4):473-477. View abstract.
Young, S. H., Robinson, V. A., Barger, M., Frazer, D. G., Castranova, V., and Jacobs, R. Partially opened triple helix is the biologically active conformation of 1 &rarr3-beta-glucans that induces pulmonary inflammation in rats. J.Toxicol.Environ.Health A 3-28-2003;66(6):551-564. View abstract.
Yun, C. H., Estrada, A., Van Kessel, A., Gajadhar, A., Redmond, M., and Laarveld, B. Immunomodulatory effects of oat beta-glucan administered intragastrically or parenterally on mice infected with Eimeria vermiformis. Microbiol.Immunol. 1998;42(6):457-465. View abstract.
Yun, C. H., Estrada, A., Van Kessel, A., Park, B. C., and Laarveld, B. Beta-glucan, extracted from oat, enhances disease resistance against bacterial and parasitic infections. FEMS Immunol.Med.Microbiol. 1-21-2003;35(1):67-75. View abstract.
Zhuang, C. Medicinal value of culinary-medicinal Maitake Mushroom Grifola frondosa. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 2004;6(4):287-314.
AbuMweis SS, Jew S, Ames NP. Beta-glucan from barley and its lipid-lowering capacity: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr 2010;64:1472-80. View abstract.
Akyol A, Dasgin H, Ayaz A, Buyuktuncer Z, Besler HT. ß-Glucan and dark chocolate: a randomized crossover study on short-term satiety and energy intake. Nutrients. 2014;6(9):3863-77. View abstract.
Aldwinckle J, Kristiansen B. A quality-of-life study in healthy adults supplemented with Lentinex beta-glucan of shiitake culinary-medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes). Int J Med Mushrooms. 2020;22(5):407-415. View abstract.
Anderson JW, Gilinsky NH, Deakins DA, et al. Lipid responses of hypocholesterolemic men to oat-bran and wheat-bran intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:678-83. View abstract.
Anttila H, Sontag-Strohm T, Salovaara H. Viscosity of beta-glucan in oat products. Agri Food Sci. 2004;13:80-87.
Aoe S, Ichinose Y, Kohyama N, et al. Effects of high ß-glucan barley on visceral fat obesity in Japanese individuals: a randomized, double-blind study. Nutrition 2017;42:1-6. View abstract.
Arinaga S, Karimine N, Takamuku K, et al. Enhanced induction of lymphokine-activated killer activity after lentinan administration in patients with gastric carcinoma. Int J Immunopharmac 1992;14:535-539. View abstract.
Ashar B, Vargo E. Shark cartilage-induced hepatitis [letter]. Ann Intern Med 1996;125:780-1. View abstract.
Babineau TJ, Hackford A, Kenler A, et al. A phase II multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of three dosages of an immunomodulator (PGG-glucan) in high-risk surgical patients. Arch Surg 1994;129:1204-10. View abstract.
Babineau TJ, Marcello P, Swails W, et al. Randomized phase I/II trial of a macrophage-specific immunomodulator (PGG-glucan) in high-risk surgical patients. Ann Surg 1994;220:601-9. View abstract.
Behall KM, Scholfield DJ, Hallfrisch J. Lipids significantly reduced by diets containing barley in moderately hypercholesterolemic men. J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23:55-62. View abstract.
Bell S, Goldman VM, Bistrian BR, et al. Effect of beta-glucan from oats and yeast on serum lipids. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1999;39:189-202. View abstract.
Borchers AT, Stern JS, Hackman RM, et al. Mushrooms, tumors, and immunity. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1999;221:281-293. View abstract.
Braaten JT, Wood PJ, Scott FW, et al. Oat beta-glucan reduces blood cholesterol concentration in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1994;48:465-74. View abstract.
Browder W, Williams D, Pretus H, et al. Beneficial effect of enhanced macrophage function in the trauma patient. Ann Surg 1990;211:605-12; discussion 612-3. View abstract.
Brown L, Rosner B, Willett WW, Sacks FM. Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:30-42. View abstract.
Brown L, Rosner B, Willett WW, Sacks FM. Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:30-42. View abstract.
Davidson MH, Dugan LD, Burns JH, et al. The hypocholesterolemic effects of beta-glucan in oatmeal and oat bran. JAMA 1991;265:1833-9. View abstract.
Davy BM, Melby CL, Beske SD, et al. Oat consumption does not affect resting casual and ambulatory 24-h arterial blood pressure in men with high-normal blood pressure to stage I hypertension. J Nutr 2002;132:394-8.. View abstract.
Dellinger EP, Babineau TJ, Bleicher P, et al. Effect of PGG-glucan on the rate of serious postoperative infection or death observed after high-risk gastrointestinal operations. Betafectin Gastrointestinal Study Group. Arch Surg 1999;134:977-83. View abstract.
Durk H, Haase K, Saal J, et al. Nephrotic syndrome after injections of bovine cartilage and marrow extract. [letter] Lancet 1989;1:614.
Duvic M, Reisman M, Finley V, et al. Glucan-induced keratoderma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Dermatol 1987;123:751-6. View abstract.
El Khoury D, Cuda C, Luhovyy BL, Anderson GH. Beta glucan: health benefits in obesity and metabolic syndrome. J Nutr Metab. 2012;2012:851362.View abstract.
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 101. Subpart E - Specific Requirement for Health Claims. Available at: https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c7e427855f12554dbc292b4c8a7545a0&mc=true&node=pt21.2.101&rgn=div5#se21.2.101_176. Accessed on March 9, 2020.
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
Fazilaty Z, Chenari H, Shariatpanahi ZV. Effect of ß-glucan on serum levels of IL-12, hs-CRP, and clinical outcomes in multiple-trauma patients: a prospective randomized study. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg. 2018;24(4):287-293. View abstract.
FDA Talk Paper. FDA Allows Whole Oat Foods to make Claim on Reducing the Risk of Heart Disease. 1997. Available at: vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/tpoats.html.
Feldman S, Schwartz HI Kalman DS Mayers A Kohrman HM Clemens R Krieger DR. Randomized phase II clinical trials of Wellmune WGP® for immune support during cold and flu season. The Journal of Applied Research 2009;9(1-2):30-42.
Food and Drug Administration. Food labeling: health claims: oats and coronary heart disease. Fed Regist 1996;61:296-313.
Foulke J. FDA Allows Whole Oat Foods To Make Health Claim on Reducing the Risk of Heart Disease. FDA Talk Paper. 1997. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/ANSWERS/ANS00782.html.
Frid A, Tura A, Pacini G, Ridderstråle M. Effect of oral pre-meal administration of betaglucans on glycaemic control and variability in subjects with type 1 diabetes. Nutrients 2017;9(9). pii:E1004. View abstract.
Fuse Y, Higa M, Miyashita N, et al. Effect of high ß-glucan barley on postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels in type 2 diabetic patients. Clin Nutr Res 2020;9(1):43-51. View abstract.
Fusté NP, Guasch M, Guillen P, et al. Barley β-glucan accelerates wound healing by favoring migration versus proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts. Carbohydr Polym. 2019;210:389-398. View abstract.
Gerhardt AL, Gallo NB. Full-fat rice bran and oat bran similarly reduce hypercholesterolemia in humans. J Nutr 1998;128:865-9. View abstract.
Gordon M, Bihari B, Goosby E, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of the immune modulator, lentinan, in HIV-positive patients: a phase I/II trial. J Med 1998;29:305-30. View abstract.
He J, Klag MJ, Whelton PK, et al. Oats and buckwheat intakes and cardiovascular disease risk factors in an ethnic minority of China. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:366-72. View abstract.
Ho HV, Sievenpiper JL, Zurbau A, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the effect of barley ß-glucan on LDL-C, non-HDL-C and apoB for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Eur J Clin Nutr 2016;70(11):1239-45. View abstract.
Ho HV, Sievenpiper JL, Zurbau A, et al. The effect of oat ß-glucan on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB for CVD risk reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised-controlled trials. Br J Nutr 2016;116(8):1369-82. View abstract.
Jesenak M, Hrubisko M, Majtan J, Rennerova Z, Banovcin P. Anti-allergic effect of Pleuran (ß-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus) in children with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Phytother Res. 2014;28(3):471-4. View abstract.
Jesenak M, Urbancek S, Majtan J, Banovcin P, Hercogova J. ß-Glucan-based cream (containing pleuran isolated from pleurotus ostreatus) in supportive treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis. J Dermatolog Treat 2016;27(4):351-4. View abstract.
Keogh GF, Cooper GJ, Mulvey TB, et al. Randomized controlled crossover study of the effect of a highly beta-glucan-enriched barley on cardiovascular disease risk factors in mildly hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:711-18. View abstract.
Kerckhoffs DA, Hornstra G, Mensink RP. Cholesterol-lowering effect of beta-glucan from oat bran in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects may decrease when beta-glucan is incorporated into bread and cookies. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:221-7.. View abstract.
Khaw KT, Barrett-Connor E. Dietary fiber and reduced ischemic heart disease mortality rates in men and women: a 12-year prospective study. Am J Epidemiol 1987;126:1093-102. View abstract.
Kimura Y, Tojima H, Fukase S, Takeda K. Clinical evaluation of sizofilan as assistant immunotherapy in treatment of head and neck cancer. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 1994;511:192-5. View abstract.
Kromhout D, de Lezenne C, Coulander C. Diet, prevalence and 10-year mortality from coronary heart disease in 871 middle-aged men. The Zutphen Study. Am J Epidemiol 1984;119:733-41. View abstract.
Leentjens J, Quintin J, Gerretsen J, et al. The effects of orally administered Beta-glucan on innate immune responses in humans, a randomized open-label intervention pilot-study. PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e108794. View abstract.
Liang J, Melican D, Cafro L, et al. Enhanced clearance of a multiple antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus in rats treated with PGG-glucan is associated with increased leukocyte counts and increased neutrophil oxidative burst activity. Int J Immunopharmacol 1998;20:595-614. View abstract.
Lovegrove JA, Clohessy A, Milon H, et al. Modest doses of beta-glucan do not reduce concentrations of potentially atherogenic lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:49-55. View abstract.
Ludwig DS, Pereira MA, Kroenke CH, et al. Dietary fiber, weight gain, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adults. JAMA 1999;282:1539-46. View abstract.
Lupton JR, Robinson MC, Morin JL. Cholesterol-lowering effect of barley bran flour and oil. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:65-70.. View abstract.
Mah E, Kaden VN, Kelley KM, Liska DJ. Beverage containing dispersible yeast ß-glucan decreases cold/flu symptomatic days after intense exercise: a randomized controlled trial. J Diet Suppl 2020;17(2):200-10. View abstract.
Matsuoka H, Seo Y, Wakasugi H, et al. Lentinan potentiates immunity and prolongs the survival time of some patients. Anticancer Res 1997;17:2751-5. View abstract.
McFarlin BK, Carpenter KC, Davidson T, McFarlin MA. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases salivary IgA and decreases cold/flu symptomatic days after intense exercise. J Diet Suppl. 2013;10(3):171-83. View abstract.
Miyazaki K, Mizutani H, Katabuchi H, et al. Activated (HLA-DR+) T-lymphocyte subsets in cervical carcinoma and effects of radiotherapy and immunotherapy with sizofiran on cell-mediated immunity and survival. Gynecol Oncol 1995;56:412-40. View abstract.
Morris JN, Marr JW, Clayton DG. Diet and heart: a postscript. Br Med J 1977;2:1307-14. View abstract.
Mosikanon K, Arthan D, Kettawan A, Tungtrongchitr R, Prangthip P. Yeast ß-glucan modulates inflammation and waist circumference in overweight and obese subjects. J Diet Suppl 2017;14(2):173-85. View abstract.
Mueller A, Raptis J, Rice PJ, et al. The influence of glucan polymer structure and solution conformation on binding to (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan receptors in a human monocyte-like cell line. Glycobiology 2000;10:339-46. View abstract.
Muller A, Rice PJ, Ensley HE, et al. Receptor binding and internalization of a water-soluble (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan biologic response modifier in two monocyte/macrophage cell lines. J Immunol 1996;156:3418-25. View abstract.
Nicolosi R, Bell SJ, Bistrian BR, et al. Plasma lipid changes after supplementation with beta-glucan fiber from yeast. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:208-12. View abstract.
Okamura K, Suzuki M, Chihara T, et al. Clinical evaluation of schizophyllan combined with irradiation in patients with cervical cancer. A randomized controlled study. Cancer 1986;58:865-72. View abstract.
Ooi VE, Liu F. Immunomodulation and anti-cancer activity of polysaccharide-protein complexes. Curr Med Chem 2000;7:715-29. View abstract.
Penna C, Dean PA, Nelson H. Pulmonary metastases neutralization and tumor rejection by in vivo administration of beta glucan and bispecific antibody. Int J Cancer 1996;65:377-382. View abstract.
Pick ME, Hawrysh ZJ, Gee MI, et al. Oat bran concentrate bread products improve long-term control of diabetes: a pilot study. J Am Diet Assoc 1996;96:1254-61. View abstract.
Pietinen P, Rimm EB, Korhonen P, et al. Intake of dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men. The alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study. Circulation 1996;94:2720-7. View abstract.
Portera CA, Love EJ, Memore L, et al. Effect of macrophage stimulation on collagen biosynthesis in the healing wound. Am Surg 1997;63:125-31. View abstract.
Rahmani J, Miri A, Černevičiūtė R, et al. Effects of cereal beta-glucan consumption on body weight, body mass index, waist circumference and total energy intake: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Complement Ther Med. 2019;43:131-139. View abstract.
Rimm EB, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, et al. Vegetable, fruit, and cereal fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. JAMA 1996;275:447-51. View abstract.
Ripsen CM, Keenan JM, Jacobs DR, et al. Oat products and lipid lowering. A meta-analysis. JAMA 1992;267:3317-25. View abstract.
Ross GD, Vetvicka V, Yan J, et al. Therapeutic intervention with complement and beta-glucan in cancer. Immunopharmacology 1999;42:61-74. View abstract.
Segal NH, Gada P, Senzer N, Gargano MA, Patchen ML, Saltz LB. A phase II efficacy and safety, open-label, multicenter study of imprime PGG injection in combination with cetuximab in patients with stage IV KRAS-mutant colorectal cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer 2016;15(3):222-7. View abstract.
Sherwood ER, Williams DL, McNamee RB, et al. Enhancement of interleukin-1 and interleukin-2 production by soluble glucan. Int J Immunopharmacol 1987;9:261-7. View abstract.
Spagnuolo R, Cosco C, Mancina RM, et al. Beta-glucan, inositol and digestive enzymes improve quality of life of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2017;21(2 Suppl):102-7. View abstract.
Tessari P, Lante A. A multifunctional bread rich in beta glucans and low in starch improves metabolic control in type 2 diabetes: a controlled trial. Nutrients 2017;9(3). pii:E297. View abstract.
Thomas M, Sadjadian P, Kollmeier J, et al. A randomized, open-label, multicenter, phase II study evaluating the efficacy and safety of BTH1677 (1,3-1,6 beta glucan; Imprime PGG) in combination with cetuximab and chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Invest New Drugs 2017;35(3):345-58. View abstract.
Tsiapali E, Whaley S, Kalbfleisch J, et al. Glucans exhibit weak antioxidant activity, but stimulate macrophage free radical activity. Free Radic Biol Med 2001;30:393-402. View abstract.
Van Horn L, Liu K, Gerber J, et al. Oats and soy in lipid-lowering diets for women with hypercholesterolemia: is there synergy? J Am Diet Assoc 2001;101:1319-25. View abstract.
Van Horn L. Fiber, lipids, and coronary heart disease. A statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutr Committee, Am Heart Assn. Circulation 1997;95:2701-4. View abstract.
Van Horn LV, Liu K, Parker D, et al. Serum lipid response to oat product intake with a fat-modified diet. J Am Diet Assoc 1986;86:759-64. View abstract.
Velikonja A, Lipoglavšek L, Zorec M, Orel R, Avguštin G. Alterations in gut microbiota composition and metabolic parameters after dietary intervention with barley beta glucans in patients with high risk for metabolic syndrome development. Anaerobe. 2019;55:67-77. View abstract.
Wakshull E, Brunke-Reese D, Lindermuth J, et al. PGG-Glucan, a soluble beta-(1,3)-glucan, enhances the oxidative burst response, microbicidal activity, and activates an NF-kappa B-like factor in human PMN: evidence for a glycosphingolipid beta-(1,3)-glucan receptor. Immunopharmacology 1999;4:89-107. View abstract.
Whitehead A, Beck EJ, Tosh S, Wolever TM. Cholesterol-lowering effects of oat ß-glucan: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(6):1413-21. View abstract.
Williams DL, Pretus HA, McNamee RB, et al. Development, physicochemical characterization and preclinical efficacy evaluation of a water soluble glucan sulfate derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Immunopharmacology 1991;22:139-55. View abstract.
Williams DL, Sherwood ER, Browder IW, et al. Pre-clinical safety evaluation of soluble glucan. Int J Immunopharmacol 1988;10;405-14. View abstract.
Willis, H. J., Eldridge, A. L., Beiseigel, J., Thomas, W., and Slavin, J. L. Greater satiety response with resistant starch and corn bran in human subjects. Nutr Res 2009;29(2):100-105. View abstract.
Wood PJ, Braaten JT, Scott FW, et al. Effect of dose and modification of viscous properties of oat gum on plasma glucose and insulin following an oral glucose load. Br J Nutr 1994;72:731-43. View abstract.
Yan J, Vetvicka V, Xia Y, et al. Beta-glucan, a "specific" biologic response modifier that uses antibodies to target tumors for cytotoxic recognition by leukocyte complement receptor type 3 (CD11b/CD18). J Immunol 1999;163:3045-52. View abstract.
Yoshioka S, Ohno N, Miura T, et al. Immunotoxicity of soluble beta-glucans induced by indomethacin treatment. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1998;21:171-179. View abstract.
Select a condition to view a list of vitamins
You Might Also Like
CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.
This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2020.