STRONTIUM

OTHER NAME(S):

Atomic number 38, Chlorure de Strontium, Chlorure de Strontium-89, Citrate de Strontium, Estroncio, Gluconate de Strontium, Numéro Atomique 38, Ranélate de Strontium, Stable Strontium, Strontium Chloride, Strontium-89 Chloride, Strontium Citrate, Strontium Gluconate, Strontium Ranelate, Strontium Stable.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Strontium is a silvery metal found naturally as a non-radioactive element. About 99% of the strontium in the human body is concentrated in the bones.

Several different forms of strontium are used as medicine. Scientists are testing strontium ranelate to see if it can be taken by mouth to treat thinning bones (osteoporosis) and arthritis. Radioactive strontium-89 is given intravenously (by IV) for prostate cancer and advanced bone cancer. Strontium chloride hexahydrate is added to toothpaste to reduce pain in sensitive teeth.

Strontium chloride is the most common form of strontium found in dietary supplements. People use supplements for building bones. But there isn't much scientific information about the safety or effectiveness of strontium chloride when taken by mouth.

How does it work?

A special form of strontium called strontium ranelate can increase bone formation and prevent bone loss when used in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. It's not known if strontium contained in dietary supplements has these effects.

A radioactive form of strontium may kill some cancer cells. This type of strontium is not available in dietary supplements.

There is some interest in using strontium for osteoarthritis because developing research suggests it might boost the formation of collagen and cartilage in joints.

There is also interest in studying strontium for preventing tooth decay because researchers have noticed fewer dental caries in some population groups who drink public water that contains relatively high levels of strontium.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Effective for

  • Sensitive teeth. Research shows that using strontium chloride with strontium acetate in toothpaste relieves pain in sensitive teeth. Brushing twice daily seems to work best.
  • Bone pain related to bone cancer. Research shows that a special prescription form of strontium (strontium-89 chloride) given intravenously (by IV) reduces pain from metastatic bone cancer.

Likely Effective for

  • Osteoporosis ("bone thinning"). Research shows that taking strontium ranelate by mouth reduces the risk of fractures and increases bone density in people with osteoporosis. Strontium ranelate is approved as a medicine in Europe for this condition. But it can cause serious side effects. So other treatments are usually used instead. Strontium ranelate is not available in the U.S.
  • Possibly Effective for

    • Osteoarthritis. Some research shows that taking strontium ranelate helps prevent arthritis of the spine from becoming worse. Taking strontium ranelate also seems to decrease pain, stiffness, and loss of cartilage in people with arthritis of the knee.
    • Prostate cancer. Some research shows that giving a special prescription form of strontium (strontium-89 chloride) intravenously (by IV) slows the growth of prostate cancer that is resistant to treatment and also relieves pain.

    Insufficient Evidence for

    • Fractures (broken bones). Early research shows that strontium ranelate does not improve fracture healing in older people.
    • Itching. Early research shows that applying strontium chloride 4% to the skin may decrease itch intensity and duration (length). It may work better than hydrocortisone or diphenhydramine that is applied to the skin.
    • Dental cavities.
    • Other conditions.
    More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of strontium for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Strontium is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in amounts found in food. The typical diet includes 0.5-1.5 mg of strontium per day.

The prescription form of strontium known as strontium-89 chloride is also LIKELY SAFE when given intravenously (by IV) under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Toothpastes (Sensodyne-SC) that contain strontium are also LIKELY SAFE and have received safety approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Taking another prescription form of strontium known as strontium ranelate by mouth for up to 10 years is POSSIBLY SAFE. Strontium ranelate might cause side effects such as stomach pain, diarrhea, and headache in some people.

Taking very high doses of strontium by mouth is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. High doses of strontium might damage the bones.

There's not enough information to know if the form of strontium contained in dietary supplements (strontium chloride) is safe.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Strontium is LIKELY SAFE during pregnancy and breast-feeding when taken by mouth in food amounts or when used in toothpaste (Sensodyne-SC).

Strontium-89 is LIKELY UNSAFE during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It is a radioactive material that might harm the fetus. It may also pass into breast milk and could harm a nursing infant.

There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking strontium in greater amounts than found in foods or in supplements if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Heart disease: Don't use strontium if you have high blood pressure or heart disease.

Cerebrovascular disease (stroke): Don't use strontium if you have a history of stroke or poor circulation to the brain.

Paget's disease (a bone disease): Use strontium with caution. The bones of people with Paget's disease seem to take up more strontium than normal. It's not known how important this finding is for health.

Peripheral arterial disease (decreased blood flow through veins): Don't use strontium if you have peripheral arterial disease. Kidney problems: Strontium is eliminated by the kidneys and can build up in people with poor kidney function. Use strontium supplements with caution if you have kidney disease. Strontium ranelate should not be used if kidney disease is advanced.

Blood clotting disorders: Strontium ranelate is associated with a small increased risk of blood clots. There is concern that strontium might be more likely to cause blot clots in people with blood clotting disorders or those at high risk of blood clotting. It's best not to use strontium if you have a clotting disorder.

Interactions

Interactions?

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

!
  • Antacids interacts with STRONTIUM

    Antacids are used to decrease stomach acid. They can decrease strontium absorption. To avoid this interaction take antacids at least two hours after taking strontium products.<br><nb>Some antacids include calcium carbonate (Tums, others), dihydroxyaluminum sodium carbonate (Rolaids, others), magaldrate (Riopan), aluminum hydroxide (Amphojel), aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide combinations (Maalox, Mylanta, others), and others.

  • Antibiotics (Quinolone antibiotics) interacts with STRONTIUM

    Strontium can attach to some antibiotics called quinolones in the stomach. This decreases the amount of quinolones that can be absorbed. Taking strontium with quinolones might decrease their effectiveness. To avoid this interaction take strontium at least 2 hours before or after taking quinolones.<br><nb>Some quinolones include ciprofloxacin (Cipro), enoxacin (Penetrex), norfloxacin (Chibroxin, Noroxin), sparfloxacin (Zagam), and trovafloxacin (Trovan).

  • Antibiotics (Tetracycline antibiotics) interacts with STRONTIUM

    Strontium can attach to some antibiotics called tetracyclines in the stomach. This decreases the amount of tetracyclines that can be absorbed. Taking strontium with tetracyclines might decrease their effectiveness. To avoid this interaction take strontium at least 2 hours before or after taking tetracyclines.<br><nb>Some tetracyclines include demeclocycline (Declomycin), minocycline (Minocin), and tetracycline (Achromycin, and others).

  • Estrogens interacts with STRONTIUM

    Estrogens might decrease how fast the body gets rid of strontium. This could cause the body to have too much strontium and potentially cause side effects.<br><nb>Some estrogen pills include conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.

  • Male hormones (Androgens) interacts with STRONTIUM

    Male hormones (Androgens) might decrease how fast the body gets rid of strontium. This could cause the body to have too much strontium and potentially cause side effects.<br><nb>Some male hormones include testosterone, nandrolone, oxandrolone, and oxymetholone.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

ADULTS

BY MOUTH:

  • For sensitive teeth: Two formulations of strontium have been used. Strontium acetate 8% has been used twice daily for up to 8 weeks. Strontium chloride 10% (Hyposen by Lege Artis Pharma GmbH) has been used for up to 6 months.
  • For osteoporosis (thinning bones): 0.5-2 grams of strontium ranelate has been taken daily for up to 10 years. The highest dose of 2 grams daily seems to work the best.
  • For ostearthritis: 1-2 grams of strontium ranelate has been taken daily for up to 3 years.
BY IV
  • For bone pain related to cancer. Healthcare providers administer strontium through the vein for bone pain due to cancer.
    • Prostate cancer. Healthcare providers administer strontium through the vein for prostate cancer.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Middleton ET, Steel SA, Aye M, Doherty SM. The effect of prior bisphosphonate therapy on the subsequent therapeutic effects of strontium ranelate over 2 years. Osteoporosis Int. 2012;23(1):295-303. doi: 10.1007/s00198-011-1547-8. View abstract.
  • Minkoff S, Axelrod S. Efficacy of strontium chloride in dental hypersensitivity. J Periodontol 1987;58:470-4. View abstract.
  • Moise H, Chettle DR, Pejovic-Milic A. Monitoring bone strontium intake in osteoporotic females self-supplementing with strontium citrate with a novel in-vivo X-ray fluorescence based diagnostic tool. Bone. 2014 Apr;61:48-54. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2014.01.002. View abstract.
  • O'Donnell S, Cranney A, Wells GA, et al. Strontium ranelate for preventing and treating postmenopausal osteoporosis. Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;(4):CD005326. View abstract.
  • Omdahl JL, DeLuca HF. Rachitogenic activity of dietary strontium. I. Inhibition of intestinal calcium absorption and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol synthesis. J Biol Chem 1972;247:5520-6. View abstract.
  • Oosterhof GO, Roberts JT, de Reijke TM, et al. Strontium(89) chloride versus palliative local field radiotherapy in patients with hormonal escaped prostate cancer: a phase III study of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Genitourinary Group. Eur Urol 2003;44:519-26. View abstract.
  • Ozgur S, Sumer H, Kocoglu G. Rickets and soil strontium. Arch Dis Child 1996;75:524-6. View abstract.
  • Papoiu AD, Valdes-Rodriguez R, Nattkemper LA, Chan YH, Hahn GS, Yosipovitch G. A novel topical formulation containing strontium chloride significantly reduces the intensity and duration of cowhage-induced itch. Acta Derm Venereol. 2013 Sep 4;93(5):520-6. doi: 10.2340/00015555-1564. View abstract.
  • Pelletier JP, Roubille C, Raynauld JP, et al. Disease-modifying effect of strontium ranelate in a subset of patients from the Phase III knee osteoarthritis study SEKOIA using quantitative MRI: reduction in bone marrow lesions protects against cartilage loss. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015 Feb;74(2):422-9. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-203989. View abstract.
  • Pennington JA, Jones JW. Molybdenum, nickel, cobalt, vanadium, and strontium in total diets. J Am Diet Assoc 1987;87:1644-50. View abstract.
  • Protelos European Public Assessment Report, Scientific Discussion. European Medicines Agency, 2005. Available at: www.emea.eu.int/humandocs/Humans/EPAR/protelos/protelos.htm. (Accessed 10 October 2006).
  • Protelos European Summary of Product Characteristics. Les Laboratoires Servier, 2006. Available at: www.servier.com/pro/osteoporose/protelos/protelos_spc.asp. (Accessed 01 August 2006).
  • Protos [Product Information]. Available at: http://www.guildlink.com.au/gc/ws/servier/pi.cfm?product=sepproto. Accessed May 1, 2018.
  • Quilty PM, Kirk D, Bolger JJ, et al. A comparison of the palliative effects of strontium-89 and external beam radiotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol 1994;31:33-40. View abstract.
  • Reginster JY, Badurski J, Bellamy N, Bensen W, Chapurlat R, Chevalier X, Christiansen C, Genant H, Navarro F, Nasonov E, Sambrook PN, Spector TD, Cooper C. Efficacy and safety of strontium ranelate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: results of a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2013 Feb;72(2):179-86. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-202231. View abstract.
  • Reginster JY, Kaufman JM, Goemaere S, et al. Maintenance of antifracture efficacy over 10 years with strontium ranelate in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2012;23(3):1115-1122. doi: 10.1007/s00198-011-1847-z. View abstract.
  • Reginster, J. Y. The efficacy of glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis: financial and nonfinancial conflict of interest. Arthritis Rheum 2007;56(7):2105-2110. View abstract.
  • Reichenbach S, Sterchi R, Scherer M, et al. Meta-analysis: chondroitin for osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. Ann Intern Med 2007;146:580-90. View abstract.
  • Richy F, Bruyere O, Ethgen O, et al. Structural and symptomatic efficacy of glucosamine and chondroitin in knee osteoarthritis: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:1514-22. View abstract.
  • Rizzoli R, Chapurlat RD, Laroche JM, et al. Effects of strontium ranelate and alendronate on bone microstructure in women with osteoporosis. Results of a 2-year study. Osteoporosis Int. 2012. 23(1):305-315. doi: 10.1007/s00198-011-1758-z. View abstract.
  • Robinson RG, Preston DF, Schiefelbein M, Baxter KG. Strontium 89 therapy for the palliation of pain due to osseous metastases. JAMA 1995;274:420-4. View abstract.
  • Rousselet F, El Solh N, Maurat JP, et al. Strontium and calcium metabolism. Interaction of strontium and vitamin D. C R Seances Soc Biol Fil 1975;169:322-9. View abstract.
  • Sairanen S, Karkkainen M, Tahtela R, et al. Bone mass and markers of bone and calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women treated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (Calcitrol) for four years. Calcif Tissue Int 2000;67:122-7. View abstract.
  • Scaglione M, Fabbri L, Casella F, Guido G. Strontium ranelate as an adjuvant for fracture healing: clinical, radiological, and ultrasound findings in a randomized controlled study on wrist fractures. Osteoporos Int. 2016 Jan;27(1):211-8. doi: 10.1007/s00198-015-3266-z. View abstract.
  • Schrooten I, Elseviers MM, Lamberts LV, et al. Increased serum strontium levels in dialysis patients: an epidemiological survey. Kidney Int 1999;56:1886-92. View abstract.
  • Seeman E, Boonen S, Borgström F, et al. Five years treatment with strontium ranelate reduces vertebral and nonvertebral fractures and increases the number and quality of remaining life-years in women over 80 years of age. Bone. 2010;46(4):1038-1042. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2009.12.006. View abstract.
  • Skoryna SC. Effects of oral supplementation with stable strontium. Can Med Assoc J 1981;125:703-12.. View abstract.
  • Strontium biokinetics in humans: influence of alginate on the uptake of ingested strontium. Health Phys 2004;86:193-6. View abstract.
  • Towheed TE, Maxwell L, Anastassiades TP, et al. Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;(2):CD002946. View abstract.
  • US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for strontium. April 2004. Available at: www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp159.pdf. (Accessed 8 August 2006).
  • Verberckmoes SC, De Broe ME, D'Haese PC. Dose-dependent effects of strontium on osteoblast function and mineralization. Kidney Int 2003;64:534-43. . View abstract.
  • Vlad, S. C., LaValley, M. P., McAlindon, T. E., and Felson, D. T. Glucosamine for pain in osteoarthritis: why do trial results differ? Arthritis Rheum 2007;56(7):2267-2277. View abstract.
  • Adami, S. Protelos: nonvertebral and hip antifracture efficacy in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Bone 2006;38(2 Suppl 1):23-27. View abstract.
  • Addy, M., Mostafa, P., and Newcombe, R. G. Effect of plaque of five toothpastes used in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. Clin.Prev.Dent. 1990;12(4):28-33. View abstract.
  • Afflitto, J., Schmid, R., Esposito, A., Toddywala, R., and Gaffar, A. Fluoride availability in human saliva after dentifrice use: correlation with anticaries effects in rats. J.Dent.Res. 1992;71 Spec No:841-845. View abstract.
  • Ananthraman, J. and Shahani, S. N. Clinical management of dentin hypersensitivity using cathode and anode iontophoresis. Fed.Oper.Dent. 1990;1(1):19-23. View abstract.
  • Anastasilakis, A. D., Polyzos, S. A., Avramidis, A., Papatheodorou, A., and Terpos, E. Effect of strontium ranelate on lumbar spine bone mineral density in women with established osteoporosis previously treated with teriparatide. Horm.Metab Res. 2009;41(7):559-562. View abstract.
  • Appelboom, T., Schuermans, J., Verbruggen, G., Henrotin, Y., and Reginster, J. Y. Symptoms modifying effect of avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) in knee osteoarthritis. A double blind, prospective, placebo-controlled study. Scand J Rheumatol 2001;30(4):242-247. View abstract.
  • Arrich, J., Piribauer, F., Mad, P., Schmid, D., Klaushofer, K., and Mullner, M. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: systematic review and meta-analysis. CMAJ. 4-12-2005;172(8):1039-1043. View abstract.
  • Barenholdt, O., Kolthoff, N., and Nielsen, S. P. Effect of long-term treatment with strontium ranelate on bone strontium content. Bone 2009;45(2):200-206. View abstract.
  • Bellamy, N., Campbell, J., Robinson, V., Gee, T., Bourne, R., and Wells, G. Viscosupplementation for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;(2):CD005321. View abstract.
  • Bingham, C. O., III, Buckland-Wright, J. C., Garnero, P., Cohen, S. B., Dougados, M., Adami, S., Clauw, D. J., Spector, T. D., Pelletier, J. P., Raynauld, J. P., Strand, V., Simon, L. S., Meyer, J. M., Cline, G. A., and Beary, J. F. Risedronate decreases biochemical markers of cartilage degradation but does not decrease symptoms or slow radiographic progression in patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee: results of the two-year multinational knee osteoarthritis structural arthritis study. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54(11):3494-3507. View abstract.
  • Black, D. M., Cummings, S. R., Karpf, D. B., Cauley, J. A., Thompson, D. E., Nevitt, M. C., Bauer, D. C., Genant, H. K., Haskell, W. L., Marcus, R., Ott, S. M., Torner, J. C., Quandt, S. A., Reiss, T. F., and Ensrud, K. E. Randomised trial of effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with existing vertebral fractures. Fracture Intervention Trial Research Group. Lancet 12-7-1996;348(9041):1535-1541. View abstract.
  • Black, D. M., Delmas, P. D., Eastell, R., Reid, I. R., Boonen, S., Cauley, J. A., Cosman, F., Lakatos, P., Leung, P. C., Man, Z., Mautalen, C., Mesenbrink, P., Hu, H., Caminis, J., Tong, K., Rosario-Jansen, T., Krasnow, J., Hue, T. F., Sellmeyer, D., Eriksen, E. F., and Cummings, S. R. Once-yearly zoledronic acid for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. N.Engl.J.Med. 5-3-2007;356(18):1809-1822. View abstract.
  • Blake, G. M., Zivanovic, M. A., McEwan, A. J., and Ackery, D. M. Sr-89 therapy: strontium kinetics in disseminated carcinoma of the prostate. Eur.J.Nucl.Med. 1986;12(9):447-454. View abstract.
  • Blitzer, B. A consideration of the possible causes of dental hypersensitivity: treatment by a strontium-ion dentifrice. Periodontics. 1967;5(6):318-321. View abstract.
  • Blotman, F., Maheu, E., Wulwik, A., Caspard, H., and Lopez, A. Efficacy and safety of avocado/soybean unsaponifiables in the treatment of symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee and hip. A prospective, multicenter, three-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Rev Rhum Engl Ed 1997;64(12):825-834. View abstract.
  • Boivin, G., Farlay, D., Khebbab, M. T., Jaurand, X., Delmas, P. D., and Meunier, P. J. In osteoporotic women treated with strontium ranelate, strontium is located in bone formed during treatment with a maintained degree of mineralization. Osteoporos.Int. 2010;21(4):667-677. View abstract.
  • Bolland, M. J., Grey, A. B., Gamble, G. D., and Reid, I. R. Effect of osteoporosis treatment on mortality: a meta-analysis. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 2010;95(3):1174-1181. View abstract.
  • Boonen, S., Laan, R. F., Barton, I. P., and Watts, N. B. Effect of osteoporosis treatments on risk of non-vertebral fractures: review and meta-analysis of intention-to-treat studies. Osteoporos.Int. 2005;16(10):1291-1298. View abstract.
  • Bruyere, O., Burlet, N., Delmas, P. D., Rizzoli, R., Cooper, C., and Reginster, J. Y. Evaluation of symptomatic slow-acting drugs in osteoarthritis using the GRADE system. BMC.Musculoskelet.Disord. 2008;9:165. View abstract.
  • Bruyere, O., Delferriere, D., Roux, C., Wark, J. D., Spector, T., Devogelaer, J. P., Brixen, K., Adami, S., Fechtenbaum, J., Kolta, S., and Reginster, J. Y. Effects of strontium ranelate on spinal osteoarthritis progression. Ann.Rheum.Dis. 2008;67(3):335-339. View abstract.
  • Bruyere, O., Roux, C., Detilleux, J., Slosman, D. O., Spector, T. D., Fardellone, P., Brixen, K., Devogelaer, J. P., Diaz-Curiel, M., Albanese, C., Kaufman, J. M., Pors-Nielsen, S., and Reginster, J. Y. Relationship between bone mineral density changes and fracture risk reduction in patients treated with strontium ranelate. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 2007;92(8):3076-3081. View abstract.
  • Busse, B., Jobke, B., Hahn, M., Priemel, M., Niecke, M., Seitz, S., Zustin, J., Semler, J., and Amling, M. Effects of strontium ranelate administration on bisphosphonate-altered hydroxyapatite: Matrix incorporation of strontium is accompanied by changes in mineralization and microstructure. Acta Biomater. 2010;6(12):4513-4521. View abstract.
  • Chesnut III, C. H., Skag, A., Christiansen, C., Recker, R., Stakkestad, J. A., Hoiseth, A., Felsenberg, D., Huss, H., Gilbride, J., Schimmer, R. C., and Delmas, P. D. Effects of oral ibandronate administered daily or intermittently on fracture risk in postmenopausal osteoporosis. J.Bone Miner.Res. 2004;19(8):1241-1249. View abstract.
  • Chesnut, C. H., III, Silverman, S., Andriano, K., Genant, H., Gimona, A., Harris, S., Kiel, D., LeBoff, M., Maricic, M., Miller, P., Moniz, C., Peacock, M., Richardson, P., Watts, N., and Baylink, D. A randomized trial of nasal spray salmon calcitonin in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis: the prevent recurrence of osteoporotic fractures study. PROOF Study Group. Am J Med. 2000;109(4):267-276. View abstract.
  • Cheung, K. M., Lu, W. W., Luk, K. D., Wong, C. T., Chan, D., Shen, J. X., Qiu, G. X., Zheng, Z. M., Li, C. H., Liu, S. L., Chan, W. K., and Leong, J. C. Vertebroplasty by use of a strontium-containing bioactive bone cement. Spine (Phila Pa 1976.) 9-1-2005;30(17 Suppl):S84-S91. View abstract.
  • Cohen-Solal, M. E., Augry, F., Mauras, Y., Morieux, C., Allain, P., and De Vernejoul, M. C. Fluoride and strontium accumulation in bone does not correlate with osteoid tissue in dialysis patients. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. 2002;17(3):449-454. View abstract.
  • Collins, J. F. and Perkins, L. Clinical evaluation of the effectiveness of three dentifrices in relieving dentin sensitivity. J.Periodontol. 1984;55(12):720-725. View abstract.
  • Cummings SR, McClung MR Christiansen C et al. A phase III study of the effects of denosumab on vertebral, nonvertebral, and hip fracture in women with osteoporosis: results from the FREEDOM trial [Abstract 1286]. J Bone Miner Res 2008;23(S80)
  • Cummings, S. R., Black, D. M., Thompson, D. E., Applegate, W. B., Barrett-Connor, E., Musliner, T. A., Palermo, L., Prineas, R., Rubin, S. M., Scott, J. C., Vogt, T., Wallace, R., Yates, A. J., and LaCroix, A. Z. Effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with low bone density but without vertebral fractures: results from the Fracture Intervention Trial. JAMA 12-23-1998;280(24):2077-2082. View abstract.
  • D'Haese, P. C., Schrooten, I., Goodman, W. G., Cabrera, W. E., Lamberts, L. V., Elseviers, M. M., Couttenye, M. M., and De Broe, M. E. Increased bone strontium levels in hemodialysis patients with osteomalacia. Kidney Int. 2000;57(3):1107-1114. View abstract.
  • Doggrell, S. A. Recent important clinical trials of drugs in osteoporosis. Expert.Opin.Pharmacother. 2004;5(7):1635-1638. View abstract.
  • Doublier, A., Farlay, D., Khebbab, M. T., Jaurand, X., Meunier, P. J., and Boivin, G. Distribution of strontium and mineralization in iliac bone biopsies from osteoporotic women treated long-term with strontium ranelate. Eur.J.Endocrinol. 2011;165(3):469-476. View abstract.
  • Ettinger, B., Black, D. M., Mitlak, B. H., Knickerbocker, R. K., Nickelsen, T., Genant, H. K., Christiansen, C., Delmas, P. D., Zanchetta, J. R., Stakkestad, J., Gluer, C. C., Krueger, K., Cohen, F. J., Eckert, S., Ensrud, K. E., Avioli, L. V., Lips, P., and Cummings, S. R. Reduction of vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with raloxifene: results from a 3-year randomized clinical trial. Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) Investigators. JAMA 8-18-1999;282(7):637-645. View abstract.
  • Fidelix, T. S., Soares, B. G., and Trevisani, V. F. Diacerein for osteoarthritis. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;(1):CD005117. View abstract.
  • Gedalia, I., Brayer, L., Kalter, N., Richter, M., and Stabholz, A. The effect of fluoride and strontium application on dentin: in vivo and in vitro studies. J.Periodontol. 1978;49(5):269-272. View abstract.
  • Gillam, D. G., Bulman, J. S., Jackson, R. J., and Newman, H. N. Comparison of 2 desensitizing dentifrices with a commercially available fluoride dentifrice in alleviating cervical dentine sensitivity. J Periodontol. 1996;67(8):737-742. View abstract.
  • Gillam, D. G., Newman, H. N., and Bulman, J. S. The effect of strontium chloride hexahydrate dentifrices on plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. J.Clin.Periodontol. 1992;19(10):737-740. View abstract.
  • Gillam, D. G., Newman, H. N., Bulman, J. S., and Davies, E. H. Dentifrice abrasivity and cervical dentinal hypersensitivity. Results 12 weeks following cessation of 8 weeks' supervised use. J.Periodontol. 1992;63(1):7-12. View abstract.
  • Gillam, D. G., Newman, H. N., Davies, E. H., and Bulman, J. S. Clinical efficacy of a low abrasive dentifrice for the relief of cervical dentinal hypersensitivity. J.Clin.Periodontol. 1992;19(3):197-201. View abstract.
  • Hahn, G. S. Strontium is a potent and selective inhibitor of sensory irritation. Dermatol.Surg. 1999;25(9):689-694. View abstract.
  • Harris, S. T., Watts, N. B., Genant, H. K., McKeever, C. D., Hangartner, T., Keller, M., Chesnut, C. H., III, Brown, J., Eriksen, E. F., Hoseyni, M. S., Axelrod, D. W., and Miller, P. D. Effects of risedronate treatment on vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial. Vertebral Efficacy With Risedronate Therapy (VERT) Study Group. JAMA 10-13-1999;282(14):1344-1352. View abstract.
  • Hernandez, F., Mohammed, C., Shannon, I., Volpe, A., and King, W. Clinical study evaluating the desensitizing effect and duration of two commercially available dentifrices. J.Periodontol. 1972;43(6):367-372. View abstract.
  • Hollriegl, V., Li, W. B., and Oeh, U. Human biokinetics of strontium--part II: Final data evaluation of intestinal absorption and urinary excretion of strontium in human subjects after stable tracer administration. Radiat.Environ.Biophys. 2006;45(3):179-185. View abstract.
  • Hughes, N., Mason, S., Jeffery, P., Welton, H., Tobin, M., O'Shea, C., and Browne, M. A comparative clinical study investigating the efficacy of a test dentifrice containing 8% strontium acetate and 1040 ppm sodium fluoride versus a marketed control dentifrice containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity. J Clin.Dent. 2010;21(2):49-55. View abstract.
  • Hwang, J. S., Chen, J. F., Yang, T. S., Wu, D. J., Tsai, K. S., Ho, C., Wu, C. H., Su, S. L., Wang, C. J., and Tu, S. T. The effects of strontium ranelate in Asian women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Calcif.Tissue Int. 2008;83(5):308-314. View abstract.
  • Johnson, G. H., Bales, D. J., Gordon, G. E., and Powell, L. V. Clinical performance of posterior composite resin restorations. Quintessence.Int. 1992;23(10):705-711. View abstract.
  • Kanapka, J. A. Over-the-counter dentifrices in the treatment of tooth hypersensitivity. Review of clinical studies. Dent.Clin.North Am. 1990;34(3):545-560. View abstract.
  • Kanis, J. A., Johansson, H., Oden, A., and McCloskey, E. V. A meta-analysis of the effect of strontium ranelate on the risk of vertebral and non-vertebral fracture in postmenopausal osteoporosis and the interaction with FRAX((R)). Osteoporos.Int. 2011;22(8):2347-2355. View abstract.
  • Kobler, A., Kub, O., Schaller, H. G., and Gernhardt, C. R. Clinical effectiveness of a strontium chloride- containing desensitizing agent over 6 months: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Quintessence.Int. 2008;39(4):321-325. View abstract.
  • Krachler, M., Domej, W., and Irgolic, K. J. Concentrations of trace elements in osteoarthritic knee-joint effusions. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 2000;75(1-3):253-263. View abstract.
  • Liberman, U. A., Weiss, S. R., Broll, J., Minne, H. W., Quan, H., Bell, N. H., Rodriguez-Portales, J., Downs, R. W., Jr., Dequeker, J., and Favus, M. Effect of oral alendronate on bone mineral density and the incidence of fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The Alendronate Phase III Osteoporosis Treatment Study Group. N.Engl.J.Med. 11-30-1995;333(22):1437-1443. View abstract.
  • Liu, J. M., Wai-Chee, Kung A., Pheng, C. S., Zhu, H. M., Zhang, Z. L., Wu, Y. Y., Xu, L., Meng, X. W., Huang, M. L., Chung, L. P., Hussain, N. H., Sufian, S. S., and Chen, J. L. Efficacy and safety of 2 g/day of strontium ranelate in Asian women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Bone 2009;45(3):460-465. View abstract.
  • Lo, G. H., LaValley, M., McAlindon, T., and Felson, D. T. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid in treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis. JAMA 12-17-2003;290(23):3115-3121. View abstract.
  • Loutit, J. F. Diurnal variation in urinary excretion of calcium and strontium. Proc.R.Soc.Lond B Biol.Sci. 7-27-1965;162(989):458-472. View abstract.
  • Lyles, K. W., Colon-Emeric, C. S., Magaziner, J. S., Adachi, J. D., Pieper, C. F., Mautalen, C., Hyldstrup, L., Recknor, C., Nordsletten, L., Moore, K. A., Lavecchia, C., Zhang, J., Mesenbrink, P., Hodgson, P. K., Abrams, K., Orloff, J. J., Horowitz, Z., Eriksen, E. F., and Boonen, S. Zoledronic Acid in Reducing Clinical Fracture and Mortality after Hip Fracture. N.Engl.J.Med. 2007;357:nihpa40967. View abstract.
  • Malaise, O., Bruyere, O., and Reginster, J. Y. Strontium ranelate normalizes bone mineral density in osteopenic patients. Aging Clin.Exp.Res. 2007;19(4):330-333. View abstract.
  • Manicourt, D. H., Azria, M., Mindeholm, L., Thonar, E. J., and Devogelaer, J. P. Oral salmon calcitonin reduces Lequesne's algofunctional index scores and decreases urinary and serum levels of biomarkers of joint metabolism in knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54(10):3205-3211. View abstract.
  • Marquis, P., Roux, C., de la Loge, C., Diaz-Curiel, M., Cormier, C., Isaia, G., Badurski, J., Wark, J., and Meunier, P. J. Strontium ranelate prevents quality of life impairment in post-menopausal women with established vertebral osteoporosis. Osteoporos.Int. 2008;19(4):503-510. View abstract.
  • Mason, S., Hughes, N., Sufi, F., Bannon, L., Maggio, B., North, M., and Holt, J. A comparative clinical study investigating the efficacy of a dentifrice containing 8% strontium acetate and 1040 ppm fluoride in a silica base and a control dentifrice containing 1450 ppm fluoride in a silica base to provide immediate relief of dentin hypersensitivity. J.Clin.Dent. 2010;21(2):42-48. View abstract.
  • Mazor, Z., Brayer, L., Friedman, M., and Steinberg, D. Topical varnish containing strontium in a sustained-release device as treatment for dentin hypersensitivity. Clin.Prev.Dent. 1991;13(3):21-25. View abstract.
  • McClung, M. R., Geusens, P., Miller, P. D., Zippel, H., Bensen, W. G., Roux, C., Adami, S., Fogelman, I., Diamond, T., Eastell, R., Meunier, P. J., and Reginster, J. Y. Effect of risedronate on the risk of hip fracture in elderly women. Hip Intervention Program Study Group. N.Engl.J.Med. 2-1-2001;344(5):333-340. View abstract.
  • Medina, J. M., Thomas, A., and Denegar, C. R. Knee osteoarthritis: should your patient opt for hyaluronic acid injection? J.Fam.Pract. 2006;55(8):669-675. View abstract.
  • Meunier, P. J., Roux, C., Ortolani, S., Diaz-Curiel, M., Compston, J., Marquis, P., Cormier, C., Isaia, G., Badurski, J., Wark, J. D., Collette, J., and Reginster, J. Y. Effects of long-term strontium ranelate treatment on vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Osteoporos.Int. 2009;20(10):1663-1673. View abstract.
  • Modawal, A., Ferrer, M., Choi, H. K., and Castle, J. A. Hyaluronic acid injections relieve knee pain. J.Fam.Pract. 2005;54(9):758-767. View abstract.
  • Naess, I. A., Christiansen, S. C., Romundstad, P., Cannegieter, S. C., Rosendaal, F. R., and Hammerstrom, J. Incidence and mortality of venous thrombosis: a population-based study. J.Thromb.Haemost. 2007;5(4):692-699. View abstract.
  • Neer, R. M., Arnaud, C. D., Zanchetta, J. R., Prince, R., Gaich, G. A., Reginster, J. Y., Hodsman, A. B., Eriksen, E. F., Ish-Shalom, S., Genant, H. K., Wang, O., and Mitlak, B. H. Effect of parathyroid hormone (1-34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N.Engl.J.Med. 5-10-2001;344(19):1434-1441. View abstract.
  • Ngo, H. C., Mount, G., Mc, Intyre J., Tuisuva, J., and Von Doussa, R. J. Chemical exchange between glass-ionomer restorations and residual carious dentine in permanent molars: an in vivo study. J.Dent. 2006;34(8):608-613. View abstract.
  • O'Donnell, S., Cranney, A., Wells, G. A., Adachi, J. D., and Reginster, J. Y. Strontium ranelate for preventing and treating postmenopausal osteoporosis. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;3:CD005326. View abstract.
  • Oger, E. Incidence of venous thromboembolism: a community-based study in Western France. EPI-GETBP Study Group. Groupe d'Etude de la Thrombose de Bretagne Occidentale. Thromb.Haemost. 2000;83(5):657-660. View abstract.
  • Olson, B. L., McDonald, J. L., Jr., and Stookey, G. K. The effect of strontium and fluoride upon in vitro plaque and rat caries. J.Dent.Res. 1978;57(9-10):903. View abstract.
  • Pearce, E. I. and Sissons, C. H. The concomitant deposition of strontium and fluoride in dental plaque. J.Dent.Res. 1987;66(10):1518-1522. View abstract.
  • Pearce, N. X., Addy, M., and Newcombe, R. G. Dentine hypersensitivity: a clinical trial to compare 2 strontium densensitizing toothpastes with a conventional fluoride toothpaste. J.Periodontol. 1994;65(2):113-119. View abstract.
  • Rabenda, V. and Reginster, J. Y. Positive impact of compliance to strontium ranelate on the risk of nonvertebral osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporos.Int. 2010;21(12):1993-2002. View abstract.
  • Recker R, Stakkestad J Weber T et al. Nonvertebral fracture benefit from oral ibandronate administered daily or with a unique drug-free interval: Results from a pivotal phase III study in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO). J BoneMiner Res 2002;17 [Suppl 1](S35)
  • Reginster, J. Y. and Meunier, P. J. Strontium ranelate phase 2 dose-ranging studies: PREVOS and STRATOS studies. Osteoporos.Int. 2003;14 Suppl 3:S56-S65. View abstract.
  • Reginster, J. Y., Bruyere, O., Sawicki, A., Roces-Varela, A., Fardellone, P., Roberts, A., and Devogelaer, J. P. Long-term treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with strontium ranelate: results at 8 years. Bone 2009;45(6):1059-1064. View abstract.
  • Reginster, J. Y., Deroisy, R., Dougados, M., Jupsin, I., Colette, J., and Roux, C. Prevention of early postmenopausal bone loss by strontium ranelate: the randomized, two-year, double-masked, dose-ranging, placebo-controlled PREVOS trial. Osteoporos.Int. 2002;13(12):925-931. View abstract.
  • Reginster, J. Y., Felsenberg, D., Boonen, S., Diez-Perez, A., Rizzoli, R., Brandi, M. L., Spector, T. D., Brixen, K., Goemaere, S., Cormier, C., Balogh, A., Delmas, P. D., and Meunier, P. J. Effects of long-term strontium ranelate treatment on the risk of nonvertebral and vertebral fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis: Results of a five-year, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58(6):1687-1695. View abstract.
  • Reginster, J. Y., Lecart, M. P., Deroisy, R., and Lousberg, C. Strontium ranelate: a new paradigm in the treatment of osteoporosis. Expert.Opin.Investig.Drugs 2004;13(7):857-864. View abstract.
  • Reginster, J. Y., Seeman, E., De Vernejoul, M. C., Adami, S., Compston, J., Phenekos, C., Devogelaer, J. P., Curiel, M. D., Sawicki, A., Goemaere, S., Sorensen, O. H., Felsenberg, D., and Meunier, P. J. Strontium ranelate reduces the risk of nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: Treatment of Peripheral Osteoporosis (TROPOS) study. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 2005;90(5):2816-2822. View abstract.
  • Reginster, J., Minne, H. W., Sorensen, O. H., Hooper, M., Roux, C., Brandi, M. L., Lund, B., Ethgen, D., Pack, S., Roumagnac, I., and Eastell, R. Randomized trial of the effects of risedronate on vertebral fractures in women with established postmenopausal osteoporosis. Vertebral Efficacy with Risedronate Therapy (VERT) Study Group. Osteoporos.Int. 2000;11(1):83-91. View abstract.
  • Reichenbach, S., Blank, S., Rutjes, A. W., Shang, A., King, E. A., Dieppe, P. A., Juni, P., and Trelle, S. Hylan versus hyaluronic acid for osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arthritis Rheum. 12-15-2007;57(8):1410-1418. View abstract.
  • Ringe, J. D. and Doherty, J. G. Absolute risk reduction in osteoporosis: assessing treatment efficacy by number needed to treat. Rheumatol.Int. 2010;30(7):863-869. View abstract.
  • Rintelen, B., Neumann, K., and Leeb, B. F. A meta-analysis of controlled clinical studies with diacerein in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Arch.Intern.Med. 9-25-2006;166(17):1899-1906. View abstract.
  • Rizzoli, R., Laroche, M., Krieg, M. A., Frieling, I., Thomas, T., Delmas, P., and Felsenberg, D. Strontium ranelate and alendronate have differing effects on distal tibia bone microstructure in women with osteoporosis. Rheumatol.Int. 2010;30(10):1341-1348. View abstract.
  • Robinson, R. G., Spicer, J. A., Preston, D. F., Wegst, A. V., and Martin, N. L. Treatment of metastatic bone pain with strontium-89. Int.J.Rad.Appl.Instrum.B 1987;14(3):219-222. View abstract.
  • Roque, I. Figuls, Martinez-Zapata, M. J., Scott-Brown, M., and Alonso-Coello, P. Radioisotopes for metastatic bone pain. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2011;(7):CD003347. View abstract.
  • Roux, C., Fechtenbaum, J., Kolta, S., Briot, K., and Girard, M. Mild prevalent and incident vertebral fractures are risk factors for new fractures. Osteoporos.Int. 2007;18(12):1617-1624. View abstract.
  • Roux, C., Fechtenbaum, J., Kolta, S., Isaia, G., Andia, J. B., and Devogelaer, J. P. Strontium ranelate reduces the risk of vertebral fracture in young postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis. Ann.Rheum.Dis. 2008;67(12):1736-1738. View abstract.
  • Roux, C., Reginster, J. Y., Fechtenbaum, J., Kolta, S., Sawicki, A., Tulassay, Z., Luisetto, G., Padrino, J. M., Doyle, D., Prince, R., Fardellone, P., Sorensen, O. H., and Meunier, P. J. Vertebral fracture risk reduction with strontium ranelate in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis is independent of baseline risk factors. J.Bone Miner.Res. 2006;21(4):536-542. View abstract.
  • Rozhinskaia, L. I., Arapova, S. D., Dzeranova, L. K., Molitvoslovova, N. N., Marova, E. I., Il'in, A. V., Benevolenskaia, L. I., Nikitinskaia, O. A., Korotkova, T. A., Toroptsova, N. V., Smirnov, A. V., Demin, N. V., Rodionova, S. S., Buklemeshev, IuV, and Shumskii, A. A. [Efficacy and safety of bivalos therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Results of Russian multicenter trial]. Ter.Arkh. 2008;80(5):47-52. View abstract.
  • Seeman, E., Devogelaer, J. P., Lorenc, R., Spector, T., Brixen, K., Balogh, A., Stucki, G., and Reginster, J. Y. Strontium ranelate reduces the risk of vertebral fractures in patients with osteopenia. J.Bone Miner.Res. 2008;23(3):433-438. View abstract.
  • Seeman, E., Vellas, B., Benhamou, C., Aquino, J. P., Semler, J., Kaufman, J. M., Hoszowski, K., Varela, A. R., Fiore, C., Brixen, K., Reginster, J. Y., and Boonen, S. Strontium ranelate reduces the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in women eighty years of age and older. J.Bone Miner.Res. 2006;21(7):1113-1120. View abstract.
  • Shapiro, W. B., Kaslick, R. S., and Chasens, A. I. The effect of a strontiumhloridetoothpaste on root hypersensitivity in a controlled clinical study. J.Periodontol. 1970;41(12):702-703. View abstract.
  • Silverstein, M. D., Heit, J. A., Mohr, D. N., Petterson, T. M., O'Fallon, W. M., and Melton, L. J., III. Trends in the incidence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a 25-year population-based study. Arch.Intern.Med. 3-23-1998;158(6):585-593. View abstract.
  • Sips, A. J., van Der Vijgh, W. J., Barto, R., and Netelenbos, J. C. Intestinal absorption of strontium chloride in healthy volunteers: pharmacokinetics and reproducibility. Br.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 1996;41(6):543-549. View abstract.
  • Spector, T. D., Conaghan, P. G., Buckland-Wright, J. C., Garnero, P., Cline, G. A., Beary, J. F., Valent, D. J., and Meyer, J. M. Effect of risedronate on joint structure and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis: results of the BRISK randomized, controlled trial [ISRCTN01928173]. Arthritis Res.Ther. 2005;7(3):R625-R633. View abstract.
  • Spets-Happonen, S., Seppa, L., Korhonen, A., and Alakuijala, P. Accumulation of strontium and fluoride in approximal dental plaque and changes in plaque microflora after rinsing with chlorhexidine-fluoride-strontium solution. Oral Dis. 1998;4(2):114-119. View abstract.
  • Uchida, A., Wakano, Y., Fukuyama, O., Miki, T., Iwayama, Y., and Okada, H. Controlled clinical evaluation of a 10% strontium chloride dentifrice in treatment of dentin hypersensitivity following periodontal surgery. J.Periodontol. 1980;51(10):578-581. View abstract.
  • Wang, C. T., Lin, J., Chang, C. J., Lin, Y. T., and Hou, S. M. Therapeutic effects of hyaluronic acid on osteoarthritis of the knee. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J.Bone Joint Surg.Am. 2004;86-A(3):538-545. View abstract.
  • Zhai, H., Hannon, W., Hahn, G. S., Harper, R. A., Pelosi, A., and Maibach, H. I. Strontium nitrate decreased histamine-induced itch magnitude and duration in man. Dermatology 2000;200(3):244-246. View abstract.
  • Zhai, H., Hannon, W., Hahn, G. S., Pelosi, A., Harper, R. A., and Maibach, H. I. Strontium nitrate suppresses chemically-induced sensory irritation in humans. Contact Dermatitis 2000;42(2):98-100. View abstract.
  • Zinner, D. D., Duany, L. F., and Lutz, H. J. A new desensitizing dentifrice: preliminary report. J.Am.Dent.Assoc. 1977;95(5):982-985. View abstract.
  • [No authors listed]. Strontium ranelate discontinued. Drug Ther Bull. 2017 Aug;55(8):93-94. View abstract.
  • Apostolidis N, Paradellis T, Karydas A, et al. Calcium and strontium metabolic studies in patients on CAPD. Perit Dial Int 1998;18:410-4. View abstract.
  • Ardissino G, Schmitt CP, Bianchi ML, et al. No difference in intestinal strontium absorption after oral or IV calcitriol in children with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Kidney Int 2000;58:981-8. View abstract.
  • Ashayeri E, Omogbehin A, Sridhar R, Shankar RA. Strontium 89 in the treatment of pain due to diffuse osseous metastases: a university hospital experience. J Natl Med Assoc 2002;94:706-11. View abstract.
  • Baziotis N, Yakoumakis E, Zissimopoulos A, et al. Strontium-89 chloride in the treatment of bone metastases from breast cancer. Oncology 1998;55:377-81. View abstract.
  • Bianchi ML, Ardissino GL, Schmitt CP, et al. No difference in intestinal strontium absorption after an oral or an intravenous 1,25(OH)2D3 bolus in normal subjects. J Bone Miner Res 1999;14:1789-95. View abstract.
  • Brandi ML. New treatment strategies: ipriflavone, strontium, vitamin D metabolites and analogs. Am J Med 1993;95:69S-74S. . View abstract.
  • Bruyère O, Reginster JY, Bellamy N, et al. Clinically meaningful effect of strontium ranelate on symptoms in knee osteoarthritis: a responder analysis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2014 Aug;53(8):1457-64. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keu018. View abstract.
  • Canadian Advisory Board on Dentin Hypersensitivity. Consensus-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of dentin hypersensitivity. J Can Dent Assoc 2003;69:221-6. View abstract.
  • D'Haese PC, Couttenye MM, Lamberts LV, et al. Aluminum, iron, lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, chromium, magnesium, strontium, and calcium content in bone of end-stage renal failure patients. Clin Chem 1999;45:1548-56. View abstract.
  • Dahl SG, Allain P, Marie PJ, et al. Incorporation and distribution of strontium in bone. Bone 2001;28:446-53. View abstract.
  • Dijkgraaf-Ten Bolscher M, Netelenbos JC, Barto R, van der Vijgh WJ. Strontium as a marker for intestinal calcium absorption: the stimulatory effect of calcitriol. Clin Chem 2000;46:248-51. View abstract.
  • Eisenberg E. Effects of androgens, estrogens and corticoids on strontium kinetics in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1966;26:566-72.
  • El-Hajj Fuleihan G. Strontium ranelate--a novel therapy for osteoporosis or a permutation of the same? N Engl J Med 2004;350:504-6.
  • FDA. Center for drug evaluation and research. Generic drug List. 2003. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/cder/ogd/approvals/1stgen0103.htm
  • Gunawardana DH, Lichtenstein M, Better N, Rosenthal M. Results of strontium-89 therapy in patients with prostate cancer resistant to chemotherapy. Clin Nucl Med 2004;29:81-5. View abstract.
  • Gutteridge DH, Robinson CJ, Joplin GF. Delayed strontium absorption in post-menopausal osteoporosis and osteomalacia. Clin Sci 1968;34:351-63.
  • Henrotin Y, Labasse A, Zheng SX, et al. Strontium ranelate increases cartilage matrix formation. J Bone Miner Res 2001;16:299-308. . View abstract.
  • Kaufman JM, Audran M, Bianchi G, et al. Efficacy and safety of strontium ranelate in the treatment of osteoporosis in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Feb;98(2):592-601. doi: 10.1210/jc.2012-3048. View abstract.
  • Kishore A, Mehrotra KK, Saimbi CS. Effectiveness of desensitizing agents. J Endod 2002;28:34-5. View abstract.
  • Leeb BF, Schweitzer H, Montag K, Smolen JS. A meta-analysis of chondroitin sulfate in the treatment of osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 2000;27:205-11. View abstract.
  • Maheu E, Mazieres B, Valat JP, et al. Symptomatic efficacy of avocado/soybean unsaponifiables in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee and hip: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial with a six-month treatment period and a two-month followup demonstrating a persistent effect. Arthritis Rheum 1998;41:81-91. View abstract.
  • Marie PJ, Ammann P, Boivin G, Rey C. Mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential of strontium in bone. Calcif Tissue Int 2001;69:121-9. . View abstract.
  • McAlindon TE, LaValley MP, Gulin JP, Felson DT. Glucosamine and chondroitin for treatment of osteoarthritis: a systematic quality assessment and meta-analysis. JAMA 2000;283:1469-75. View abstract.
  • Metastron prescribing information. Medi-Physics, Inc., Amersham Healthcare, Arlington Heights, IL, 1998. http://www.cancerpaintherapy.com/METATECHPAGE.htm. (Accessed 13 March 2004).
  • Meunier PJ, Roux C, Seeman E, et al. The effects of strontium ranelate on the risk of vertebral fracture in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 2004;350:459-68.. View abstract.
  • Meunier PJ, Slosman DO, Delmas PD, et al. Strontium ranelate: dose-dependent effects in established postmenopausal vertebral osteoporosis--a 2-year randomized placebo controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:2060-6.. View abstract.

More Resources for STRONTIUM

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.