Akar Pasak Bumi, Ali's Umbrella, Ali's Walking Stick, Batang Pasak Bumi, Bedara Pahit, Canne d'Ali, Cay ba binh, Eurycoma, Eurycoma Longifolia Jack, Ginseng de Malaisie, Ian-don, Jelaih, Kayu Dali, Local Ginseng, Long Jack, Longjack, Malaysian Ginseng, Natural Viagra, Pasak Bumi, Payung Ali, Penawar Pahit, Pokok Jelas, Pokok Syurga, Sengkayap, Setunjang Bumi, Tho Nan, Tongkat Ali, Tongkat Baginda, Tung Saw, Umpudumaidu, Wonod Mondou.
Overview InformationEurycoma longifolia is a tall, slender evergreen shrub-tree commonly found in Southeast Asia where it is a protected species.
The root and bark of Eurycoma longifolia is used for erectile dysfunction (ED), increasing sexual desire in healthy people, treating conditions in a man that prevent him from getting a woman pregnant within a year of trying to conceive (male infertility), and boosting athletic performance, but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of these uses.
How does it work?The root of Eurycoma longifolia contains several chemicals that have different effects in the body. Some of the chemicals seem to affect how the body produces the hormone testosterone. Research in animals and humans suggests it might increase testosterone in the body.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Effective for
- Increasing sexual desire in healthy people. Some clinical research shows that taking Eurycoma longifolia supplements improves sexual desire and quality of life in healthy married men.
Possibly Ineffective for
- Athletic performance. Some research shows that taking Eurycoma longifolia does not help male athletes run farther or improve overall physical fitness.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Erectile dysfunction (ED). Eurycoma longifolia extract might be helpful in men with erectile dysfunction. But it's not clear if it helps erectile function in healthy men.
- Low testosterone. Early research shows that taking an extract of Eurycoma longifolia by mouth might increase testosterone levels and improve related symptoms in men with low testosterone levels.
- Conditions in a man that prevent him from getting a woman pregnant within a year of trying to conceive (male Infertility). Some clinical research shows that taking Eurycoma longifolia supplements by mouth can improve the quality and levels of sperm in infertile men.
- Muscle strength. Early research suggests that taking Eurycoma longifolia by mouth helps increase muscle mass and strength in men who lift weights and in older adults who exercise.
- Back pain.
- Indigestion (dyspepsia).
- High blood pressure.
- Infection of the intestine by parasites.
- Liver disease.
- Muscle breakdown.
- Weak and brittle bones (osteoporosis).
- Rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
- Sexual problems that prevent satisfaction during sexual activity.
- Stomach ulcers.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyWhen taken by mouth: Eurycoma longifolia is POSSIBLY SAFE when used in medicinal amounts for up to 9 months. Eurycoma longifolia is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when used in larger amounts.
Some Eurycoma longifolia supplements from Malaysia have been found to contain mercury or lead. A drug used to treat erectile dysfunction known as sildenafil (Viagra) has also been found in some Eurycoma longifolia supplements. Taking too much Eurycoma longifolia might cause mercury or lead poisoning or other side effects.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if Eurycoma longifolia is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
We currently have no information for EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA Interactions.
- For increasing sexual desire in healthy people: 300 mg of Eurycoma longifolia extract daily for 3 months.
- Ang HH and Cheang HS. Promotion of sexual activity in rats with Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Journal of Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants 1999;6:23-28.
- Ang HH and HS Cheang. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on copulatory behavior in middle-aged male rats. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants 2002;9(1):109-114.
- Ang HH and KL Lee. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on masculine copulatory behaviour in middle aged male rats - a comparison study. Natural Product Sciences 2002;8(2):44-47.
- Ang HH and Sim MK. Aphrodisiac effects of Eurycoma longifolia root in non-copulator male rats. Fitoterapia 1998;69(5)
- Ang HH and Sim MK. Aphrodisiac evaluation in sexually naive male mice after chronic administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Natural Product Sciences 1998;4(2)
- Ang HH, Chan KL, Gan EK, and et al. Enhancement of sexual motivation in sexually naive male mice by Eurycoma longifolia. International Journal of Pharmacognosy 1997;35:144-146.
- Ang, H. H. and Sim, M. K. Eurycoma longifolia increases sexual motivation in sexually naive male rats. Arch Pharm.Res 1998;21(6):779-781. View abstract.
- Ang, H. H., Lee, E. L., and Matsumoto, K. Analysis of lead content in herbal preparations in Malaysia. Hum.Exp.Toxicol. 2003;22(8):445-451. View abstract.
- Ang, H. H., Lee, K. L., and Kiyoshi, M. Eurycoma longifolia Jack enhances sexual motivation in middle-aged male mice. J Basic Clin.Physiol.Pharmacol. 2003;14(3):301-308. View abstract.
- Ang, H. H., Ngai, T. H., and Tan, T. H. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on sexual qualities in middle aged male rats. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6-7):590-593. View abstract.
- Farouk, A. E. and Benafri, A. Antibacterial activity of Eurycoma longifolia Jack. A Malaysian medicinal plant. Saudi.Med J 2007;28(9):1422-1424. View abstract.
- Hamzah S and A Yusof. The ergogenic effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack: a pilot study. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2003;37(5):465-466.
- Husen, R., Pihie, A. H., and Nallappan, M. Screening for antihyperglycaemic activity in several local herbs of Malaysia. J.Ethnopharmacol. 2004;95(2-3):205-208. View abstract.
- Low, B. S., Teh, C. H., Yuen, K. H., and Chan, K. L. Physico-chemical effects of the major quassinoids in a standardized Eurycoma longifolia extract (Fr 2) on the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties, and their implications for oral antimalarial activity. Nat.Prod.Commun. 2011;6(3):337-341. View abstract.
- Muhamad AS, Chen CK, Ooi FK, and et al. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Supplementation on Recreational Athletes' Endurance Running Capacity and Physiological Responses in the Heat. International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences 2010;22(1):119.
- Sareena HH and Ashril Y. 2002; 12th Commonwealth International Sport Conference.
- Shuid, A. N., Abu Bakar, M. F., Abdul Shukor, T. A., Muhammad, N., Mohamed, N., and Soelaiman, I. N. The anti-osteoporotic effect of Eurycoma Longifolia in aged orchidectomised rat model. Aging.Male. 2011;14(3):150-154. View abstract.
- Tee, T. T. and Azimahtol, H. L. Induction of apoptosis by Eurycoma longifolia jack extracts. Anticancer.Res 2005;25(3B):2205-2213. View abstract.
- Tee, T. T., Cheah, Y. H., and Hawariah, L. P. F16, a fraction from Eurycoma longifolia jack extract, induces apoptosis via a caspase-9-independent manner in MCF-7 cells. Anticancer.Res 2007;27(5A):3425-3430. View abstract.
- Teh, C. H., Abdulghani, M., Morita, H., Shiro, M., Hussin, A. H., and Chan, K. L. Comparative X-ray and conformational analysis of a new crystal of 13alpha,21-dihydroeurycomanone with eurycomanone from Eurycoma longifolia and their anti-estrogenic activity using the uterotrophic assay. Planta.Med 2011;77(2):128-132. View abstract.
- Ang HH, Cheang HS, Yusof AP. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) on the initiation of sexual performance of inexperienced castrated male rats. Exp Anim 2000;49:35-8. View abstract.
- Ang HH, Cheang HS. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia jack on laevator ani muscle in both uncastrated and testosterone-stimulated castrated intact male rats. Arch Pharm Res 2001;24:437-40. View abstract.
- Ang HH, Cheang HS. Studies on the anxiolytic activity of Eurycoma longifolia Jack roots in mice. Jpn J Pharmacol 1999;79:497-500. View abstract.
- Ang HH, Ikeda S, Gan EK. Evaluation of the potency activity of aphrodisiac in Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Phytother Res 2001;15:435-6. View abstract.
- Ang HH, Lee EL, Cheang HS. Determination of mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer in Tongkat Ali preparations obtained in Malaysia. Int J Toxicol 2004;23:65-71. View abstract.
- Ang HH, Lee KL. Analysis of lead in Tongkat Ali hitam herbal preparations in Malaysia. Toxicol Environ Chem 2005;87:521-8.
- Ang HH, Lee KL. Contamination of mercury in Tongkat Ali hitam herbal preparations. Food Chem Toxicol 2006;44:1245-50. View abstract.
- Ang HH, Lee KL. Effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on orientation activities in middle-aged male rats. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2002;16:479-83. View abstract.
- Ang HH, Ngai TH. Aphrodisiac evaluation in non-copulator male rats after chronic administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2001;15:265-8. View abstract.
- Ang HH, Sim MK. Eurycoma longifolia Jack enhances libido in sexually experienced male rats. Exp Anim 1997;46:287-90. View abstract.
- Bedir E, Abou-Gazar H, Ngwendson JN, Khan IA. Eurycomaoside: a new quassinoid-type glycoside from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2003;51:1301-3. View abstract.
- Bhat R, Karmin AA. Tongkat ali (Eurycoma longifolia jack): a review on its ethnobotany and pharmacological importance. Fitoterapia 2010;81:669-79. View abstract.
- Chan KL, Choo CY, Abdullah NR, Ismail Z. Antiplasmodial studies of Eurycoma longifolia Jack using the lactate dehydrogenase assay of Plasmodium falciparum. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;92:223-7. View abstract.
- Chan KL, Choo CY. The toxicity of some quassinoids from Eurycoma longifolia. Planta Med 2002;68:662-4. View abstract.
- Chen CK, Mohamad WM, Ooi FK, Ismail SB, Abdullah MR, George A. Supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack extract for 6 weeks does not affect urinary testosterone: epitestosterone ratio, liver and renal functions in male recreational athletes. Int J Prev Med 2014;5(6):728-33. View abstract.
- Chen CK, Ooi FK, Abu Kasim NAA, Asari MA. Effects of Eurycoma Longifolia Jack Supplementation Combined with Resistance Training on Isokinetic Muscular Strength and Power, Anaerobic Power, and Urinary Testosterone: Epitestosterone Ratio in Young Males. Int J Prev Med. 2019 Jul 5;10:118. View abstract.
- George A, Henkel R. Phytoandrogenic properties of Eurycoma longifolia as natural alternative to testosterone replacement therapy. Andrologia 2014;46(7):708-21. View abstract.
- George A, Suzuki N, Abas AB, et al. Immunomodulation in middle-aged humans via the ingestion of Physta® standardized root water extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack--a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Phytother Res 2016;30(4):627-35. View abstract.
- Han YM, Kim IS, Rehman SU, Choe K, Yoo HH. In vitro evaluation of the effects of Eurycoma longifolia extract on CYP-mediated drug metabolism. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015;2015:631329. View abstract.
- Henkel RR, Wang R, Bassett SH, et al. Tongkat ali as a potential herbal supplement for physically active male and female seniors-a pilot study. Phytother Res 2014;28(4):544-50. View abstract.
- Ismail SB, Wan Mohammad WM, George A, Nik Hussain NH, Musthapa Kamal ZM, Liske E. Randomized clinical trial on the use of PHYSTA freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia for the improvement of quality of life and sexual well-being in men. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012;2012:429268. View abstract.
- Jiwajinda S, Santisopasri V, Murakami A, et al. In vitro anti-tumor promoting and anti-parasitic activities of the quassinoids from Eurycoma longifolia, a medicinal plant in Southeast Asia. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;82:55-8. View abstract.
- Kotirum S, Ismail SB, Chaiyakunapruk N. Efficacy of tongkat ali (Eurycoma longifolia) on erectile function improvement: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Complement Ther Med 2015;23(5):693-8. View abstract.
- Li CH, Liao JW, Liao PL, et al. Evaluation of acute 13-week subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity of the powdered root of tongkat ali (Eurycoma longifolia Jack). Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013;2013:102987. View abstract.
- Low BS, Ng BH, Choy WP, et al. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetic studies of eurycomanone from Eurycoma longifolia. Planta Med 2005;71:803-7. View abstract.
- Miyake K, tezuka Y, Awale S, et al. Quassinoids for Eurycoma longifolia. J Nat Prod 2009;72:2135-40. View abstract.
- Qinna N, Taha H, Matalka KZ, Badwan AA. A new herbal combination, Etana, for enhancing erectile function: an efficacy and safety study in animals. International Journal of Impotence Research 2009;21:315-20. View abstract.
- Rehman SU, Choe K, Yoo HH. Review on a traditional herbal medicine, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (tongkat ali): its traditional uses, chemistry, evidence-based pharmacology and toxicology. Molecules. 2016;21(3):331. View abstract.
- Said MM, Gibbons S, Moffat AC, Zloh M. Rapid detection of sildenafil analogue in Eurycoma longifolia products using a new two-tier procedure of the near infrared (NIR) spectra database. Food Chem 2014;158:296-301. View abstract.
- Salman SA, Amrah S, Wahab MS, et al. Modification of propranolol's bioavailability by Eurycoma longifolia water-based extract. J Clin Pharm Ther 2010;35:691-6. View abstract.
- Talbott SM, Talbott JA, George A, Pugh M. Effect of tongkat ali on stress hormones and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2013;10(1):28. View abstract.
- Tambi MI, Imran MK, Henkel RR. Standardised water-soluble extract of Eurycoma longifolia, Tongkat ali, as testosterone booster for managing men with late-onset hypogonadism? Andrologia 2011 Jun 15. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0272.2011.01168.x. [Epub ahead of print] . View abstract.
- Tambi MI, Imran MK. Eurycoma longifolia jack in managing idiopathic male infertility. J Androl 2010;12:376-80. View abstract.
- Thu HE, Mohamed IN, Hussain Z, Shuid AN. Eurycoma longifolia as a potential alternative to testosterone for the treatment of osteoporosis: exploring time-mannered proliferative, differentiative and morphogenic modulation in osteoblasts. J Ethnopharmacol 2017;195:143-158. View abstract.
- Udani JK, George AA, Musthapa M, Pakdaman MN, Abas A. Effects of a proprietary freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on sexual performance and well-being in men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014;2014:179529. View abstract.
- Wahab NA, Mokhtar NM, Halim WN, Das S. The effect of Eurycoma longifolia jack on spermatogenesis in estrogen-treated rats. Clinics 2010;65:93-8. View abstract.
- Zanoli P, Zavatti M, Montanari C, Baraldi M. Influcence of Eurycoma longifolia on the copulatory activity of sexually sluggish and impotenet male rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;126:308-13. View abstract.
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