Aceite de Krill, Acide Docosahexaénoïque, Acides Gras Oméga 3, Acides Gras N-3, Acides Gras Polyinsaturés, Acides Gras W3, Antarctic Krill Oil, Concentré de Protéines Marines, DHA, Docosahexanoic Acid, EPA, Euphausia Superba Oil, Euphausiacé, Euphausiids Oil, Huile d' Euphausia Superba, Huile de Krill, Huile de Krill Antarctique, Huile d'Oméga 3, Marine Protein Concentrate, n-3 Fatty Acids, Omega 3, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Omega-3, Oméga 3, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Omega-3 Oil, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, W-3 Fatty Acids.
Overview InformationKrill oil is oil from a tiny, shrimp-like animal. Baleen whales, mantas, and whale sharks eat primarily krill. In Norwegian, the word "krill" means "whale food." People extract the oil from krill, place it in capsules, and use it for medicine. Some brand name krill oil products indicate that they use Antarctic krill. This usually refers to the species of krill called Euphausia superba.
Krill oil is most commonly taken by mouth for heart disease, high levels of certain blood fats (triglycerides), and high cholesterol, but there is limited scientific research to support these uses. It is also used for dry eyes.
How does it work?Krill oil contains fatty acids similar to fish oil. These fats are thought to be beneficial fats that decrease swelling, lower cholesterol, and make blood platelets less sticky. When blood platelets are less sticky they are less likely to form clots.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Effective for
- Dry eyes. Research shows that taking krill oil by mouth for about 3 months improves symptoms of dry eyes such as redness and unstable tear film.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Aging skin. Early research suggests that taking capsules containing krill oil, zinc, vitamin D, sea buckthorn berry oil, cacao bean extract, hyaluronic acid, and red clover isoflavones 780 mg three times daily along with applying tazarotene cream 0.1% nightly for about 12 weeks improves wrinkles, moisture, and elasticity in aging skin compared to treatment with tazarotene cream alone. It is not clear if these benefits were due to krill oil or other ingredients in the supplement.
- High cholesterol. Some research shows that taking a specific krill oil product reduces total cholesterol and "bad" low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and increases "good" high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in people with high cholesterol. Triglycerides, another type of blood fat, are also reduced. However, other research suggests that krill oil does not reduce cholesterol. Krill oil might only be beneficial in people with very high cholesterol levels. More research is needed to confirm.
- High triglycerides, a type of blood fat. Taking a specific krill oil product twice daily for 12 weeks appears to lower triglycerides in people with high triglyceride levels. But the change in triglyceride levels varies among people. The supplement does not appear to improve total cholesterol, "bad" low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, or "good" high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
- Osteoarthritis. Early research shows that taking 300 mg per day of a specific krill oil product reduces pain and stiffness in people with osteoarthritis.
- Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Early research shows that taking 2 grams per day of a specific krill oil product might reduce PMS symptoms. Also, taking a specific combination product containing krill oil, B vitamins, soy isoflavones, and rosemary extract daily for 3 months reduces self-reported PMS symptoms. The improvements appear to be greatest for women with more severe symptoms. However, it is unclear if these improvements were due to krill oil or other ingredients in the supplement.
- Rheumatoid arthritis. Early research shows that taking 300 mg per day of a specific krill oil product reduces pain and stiffness in people with rheumatoid arthritis.
- High blood pressure.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyKrill oil is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when used appropriately for a short amount of time (up to three months). The most common side effects of krill oil are stomach-related and similar to those of fish oil. These effects include stomach discomfort, decreased appetite, taste change, heartburn, fishy burps, bloating, gas, diarrhea, and nausea. Taking krill oil by mouth might also cause facial skin to become oilier or to break out. In very rare cases, krill oil might increase blood pressure.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of krill oil during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Bleeding disorders: Because krill oil can slow blood clotting, there is concern that it might increase the risk of bleeding in people with bleeding disorders. Until more is known, people with such conditions should use krill oil cautiously.
Diabetes: Krill oil might lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use krill oil.
Obesity: Krill oil might lower how well insulin works in people who are overweight or obese. This might increase the risk of developing diabetes or heart disease.
Seafood allergy: Some people who are allergic to seafood might also be allergic to krill oil supplements. There is no reliable information showing how likely people with seafood allergy are to have an allergic reaction to krill oil; however, until more is known, avoid using krill oil or use it cautiously if you have a seafood allergy.
Surgery: Because krill oil can slow blood clotting, there is concern that it might increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using krill oil at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Be cautious with this combination
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs interacts with KRILL OIL
Krill oil might slow blood clotting. Taking krill oil along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Be watchful with this combination
Orlistat (Xenical, Alli) interacts with KRILL OIL
Orlistat (Xenical, Alli) is used for weight loss. It prevents dietary fats from being absorbed from the gut. There is some concern that orlistat (Xenical, Alli) might also decrease absorption of krill oil when they are taken together. To avoid this potential interaction take orlistat (Xenical, Alli) and krill oil at least 2 hours apart.
- For dry eyes: Krill oil (Nutra-Life OceanClean red krill oil) providing 945 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and 510 mg of docosahexaenoic acid daily for 90 days has been used.
- Banni, S., Carta, G., Murru, E., Cordeddu, L., Giordano, E., Sirigu, A. R., Berge, K., Vik, H., Maki, K. C., Di, Marzo, V, and Griinari, M. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2011;8(1):7. View abstract.
- Bengtson Nash, S. M., Poulsen, A. H., Kawaguchi, S., Vetter, W., and Schlabach, M. Persistent organohalogen contaminant burdens in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) from the eastern Antarctic sector: a baseline study. Sci Total Environ 12-15-2008;407(1):304-314. View abstract.
- Gigliotti, J. C., Smith, A. L., Jaczynski, J., and Tou, J. C. Consumption of krill protein concentrate prevents early renal injury and nephrocalcinosis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Urol.Res 2011;39(1):59-67. View abstract.
- Hellgren, K. Assessment of Krillase chewing gum for the reduction of gingivitis and dental plaque. J Clin Dent 2009;20(3):99-102. View abstract.
- Ierna, M., Kerr, A., Scales, H., Berge, K., and Griinari, M. Supplementation of diet with krill oil protects against experimental rheumatoid arthritis. BMC Musculoskelet.Disord. 2010;11:136. View abstract.
- Kidd, P. M. Krill oil complex: potent nutraceutical synergy. Total Health 2003;25(4):15.
- Kidd, P. M. Omega-3 DHA and EPA for cognition, behavior, and mood: clinical findings and structural-functional synergies with cell membrane phospholipids. Altern Med Rev 2007;12(3):207-227. View abstract.
- Le, Grandois J., Marchioni, E., Zhao, M., Giuffrida, F., Ennahar, S., and Bindler, F. Investigation of natural phosphatidylcholine sources: separation and identification by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS2) of molecular species. J Agric.Food Chem 7-22-2009;57(14):6014-6020. View abstract.
- Maki, K. C., Reeves, M. S., Farmer, M., Griinari, M., Berge, K., Vik, H., Hubacher, R., and Rains, T. M. Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and women. Nutr.Res. 2009;29(9):609-615. View abstract.
- Winther, B., Hoem, N., Berge, K., and Reubsaet, L. Elucidation of phosphatidylcholine composition in krill oil extracted from Euphausia superba. Lipids 2011;46(1):25-36. View abstract.
- Yamada, H., Ueda, T., and Yano, A. Water-soluble extract of Pacific Krill prevents triglyceride accumulation in adipocytes by suppressing PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha expression. PLoS.One. 2011;6(7):e21952. View abstract.
- Zhu, J. J., Shi, J. H., Qian, W. B., Cai, Z. Z., and Li, D. Effects of krill oil on serum lipids of hyperlipidemic rats and human SW480 cells. Lipids Health Dis 2008;7:30. View abstract.
- Albert BB, Derraik JG, Brennan CM, et al. Supplementation with a blend of krill and salmon oil is associated with increased metabolic risk in overweight men. Am J Clin Nutr 2015;102(1):49-57. View abstract.
- Berge K, Musa-Veloso K, Harwood M, Hoem N, Burri L. Krill oil supplementation lowers serum triglycerides without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with borderline high or high triglyceride levels. Nutr Res 2014;34(2):126-33. View abstract.
- Bottino NR. Lipid composition of two species of Antarctic krill: Euphausia superba and E. crystallorophias. Comp Biochem Physiol B 1975;50:479-84. View abstract.
- Bunea R, El Farrah K, Deutsch L. Evaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the clinical course of hyperlipidemia. Altern Med Rev 2004;9:420-8. View abstract.
- Calder PC. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation and immunity: pouring oil on troubled waters or another fishy tale? Nutr Res 2001;21:309-41.
- Connor WE. n-3 Fatty acids from fish and fish oil: panacea or nostrum? Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74;415-6. View abstract.
- Deinema LA, Vingrys AJ, Wong CY, Jackson DC, Chinnery HR, Downie LE. A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial of two forms of omega-3 supplements for treating dry eye disease. Ophthalmology. 2017;124(1):43-52. View abstract.
- Deutsch L. Evaluation of the effect of Neptune Krill Oil on chronic inflammation and arthritic symptoms. J Am Coll Nutr 2007;26:39-48. View abstract.
- Dunlap WC, Fujisawa A, Yamamoto Y, et al. Notothenioid fish, krill and phytoplankton from Antarctica contain a vitamin E constituent (alpha-tocomonoenol) functionally associated with cold-water adaptation. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2002;133:299-305. View abstract.
- Foran SE, Flood JG, Lewandrowski KB. Measurement of mercury levels in concentrated over-the-counter fish oil preparations: is fish oil healthier than fish? Arch Pathol Lab Med 2003;127:1603-5. View abstract.
- Goldberg LD, Crysler C. A single center, pilot, double-blinded, randomized, comparative, prospective clinical study to evaluate improvements in the structure and function of facial skin with tazarotene 0.1% cream alone and in combination with GliSODin Skin Nutrients Advanced Anti-Aging Formula. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2014;7:139-44. View abstract.
- Harris WS, Miller M, Tighe AP, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and coronary heart disease risk: clinical and mechanistic perspectives. Atherosclerosis 2008;197:12-24. View abstract.
- Köhler A, Sarkkinen E, Tapola N, Niskanen T, Bruheim I. Bioavailability of fatty acids from krill oil, krill meal and fish oil in healthy subjects--a randomized, single-dose, cross-over trial. Lipids Health Dis 2015;14:19. View abstract.
- Konagai C, Yanagimoto K, Hayamizu K, et al. Effects of krill oil containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipid form on human brain function: a randomized controlled trial in healthy elderly volunteers. Clin Interv Aging 2013;8:1247-57. View abstract.
- Kwantes JM, Grundmann O. A brief review of krill oil history, research, and the commercial market. J Diet Suppl 2015;12(1):23-35. View abstract.
- Leaf A. On the reanalysis of the GISSI-Prevenzione. Circulation 2002;105:1874-5. View abstract.
- Melanson SF, Lewandrowski EL, Flood JG, Lewandrowski KB. Measurement of organochlorines in commercial over-the-counter fish oil preparations: implications for dietary and therapeutic recommendations for omega-3 fatty acids and a review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2005;129:74-7. View abstract.
- Multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, monotherapy study of Neptune Krill oil (NKO) in early stage Alzheimer's disease. 2009.
- Sampalis F, Bunea R, Pelland MF, et al. Evaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the management of premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea. Altern Med Rev 2003;8:171-9. View abstract.
- Tandy S, Chung RW, Wat E, et al. Dietary krill oil supplementation reduces hepatic steatosis, glycemia, and hypercholesterolemia in high-fat-fed mice. J Agric Food Chem 10-14-2009;57:9339-45. View abstract.
- Ulven SM, Kirkhus B, Lamglait A, et al. Metabolic effects of krill oil are essentially similar to those of fish oil but at lower dose of EPA and DHA, in healthy volunteers. Lipids 2011;46:37-46. View abstract.
- Ursoniu S, Sahebkar A, Serban MC, Lipid and Blood Pressure Meta-analysis Collaboration Group. Lipid-modifying effects of krill oil in humans: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Rev. 2017;75(5):361-373. View abstract.
- Venkatraman JT, Chandrasekar B, Kim JD, Fernandes G. Effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the activities and expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes in autoimmune-prone NZBxNZW F1 mice. Lipids 1994;29:561-8. View abstract.
- Wakeman MP. An open-label pilot study to assess the effectiveness of krill oil with added vitamins and phytonutrients in the relief of symptoms of PMS. Nutrition Dietary Suppl 2013:5;17-25.
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