CHIA

OTHER NAME(S):

Chía, Chia Fresca, Chia Grain, Chia Oil, Chia Seed, Chia Sprout, Germe de Chia, Graine de Chia, Graine de Salba, Huile de Chia, Pinole, S. Hispanica, Salba, Salba Grain, Salvia hispanica, Salvia Hispanica L.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

When you hear “chia,” you may think of “Chia Pets.” These are clay figures sold in the US that support the growth of chia sprouts. But chia has a much longer history as a medicinal herb. It originated in Mexico and was cultivated by the Aztecs. Today, chia is grown commercially in Central America and South America. It is grown mainly for its seed, which is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids.

People use chia seed for diabetes, high blood pressure, and for generally reducing the risk of heart disease and stroke (cardiovascular disease).

How does it work?

Chia seeds contain a large amount of healthy omega-3 fatty acids and dietary fiber. Researchers think omega-3 fatty acids and fiber help reduce risk factors for heart disease.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Possibly Ineffective for

  • Weight loss. Consuming chia seeds mixed with water twice daily before meals for 12 weeks does not improve body composition or reduce blood pressure in people who are overweight or obese. Also, eating milled or whole chia seeds daily for 10 weeks does not improve body composition or blood pressure in overweight women.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Diabetes. People who have diabetes are more likely than other people to develop heart disease and stroke (cardiovascular disease). There is some evidence that people with diabetes can lower their high risk by eating bread that contains a particular type of chia called Salba (Salba Nutritional Solutions). The dose of Salba that is needed to lower heart disease and stroke risk is 37 grams per day for 12 weeks. This dose seems to reduce blood pressure and lower the levels of C-reactive protein and von Willebrand factor in the blood. C-reactive protein is a “marker” for inflammation, a process that some researchers think is responsible for some forms of heart disease. Less C-reactive protein means there is less inflammation. Von Willebrand factor is involved in blood clotting. Less von Willebrand factor may mean that fewer clots that could cause a heart attack or stroke are formed. However, eating Salba does not affect all heart disease and stroke risk factors. For example, eating Salba in bread doesn’t seem to lower cholesterol.
  • Exercise performance. Early research suggests that trained athletes who drink a beverage containing 50% of calories from chia seeds (Green Plus Omega 3 Chia seeds) and 50% from Gatorade for 2 days before completing an endurance exercise perform similarly to athletes who drink just Gatorade alone.
  • Metabolic syndrome. Early research suggests that consuming 500 fewer calories daily and drinking a beverage containing soy protein, nopal, chia seed, and oat daily for 2 months can reduce body weight, body mass index, and waist circumference in people with metabolic syndrome. However, people who just reduce calorie intake have similar results. Nonetheless, drinking the chia beverage seems to lower triglyceride levels and improve blood sugar compared to only reducing calorie intake.
  • Itching. Early research suggests that applying lotion containing chia seed oil to the skin daily for 8 weeks reduces itching.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Heart disease and stroke.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of chia for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Chia is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth for up to 12 weeks and when applied to the skin for up to 8 weeks. Not enough is known about the safety of using it for a longer period of time.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of chia during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

High triglycerides: Blood contains several types of fat, including cholesterol and triglycerides. Triglyceride levels are too high in some people. Eating some types of chia can make them even higher. If you have high triglycerides, stick with using a specific variety of chia called Salba. Salba does not significantly increase triglyceride levels.

Prostate cancer: Chia contains a lot of alpha-linolenic acid. Some research suggests that large amounts of alpha-linolenic acid in the diet might increase the chance of getting prostate cancer. If you have prostate cancer or have a high risk of getting it, avoid eating large amounts of chia.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for CHIA Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of chia depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for chia. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Adams, J. D., Wall, M., and Garcia, C. Salvia columbariae contains tanshinones. Evid.Based.Complement Alternat.Med 2005;2(1):107-110. View abstract.
  • Adams, J. D., Wang, R., Yang, J., and Lien, E. J. Preclinical and clinical examinations of Salvia miltiorrhiza and its tanshinones in ischemic conditions. Chin Med 2006;1:3. View abstract.
  • Ayerza, R. and Coates, W. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens. Poult.Sci 2000;79(5):724-739. View abstract.
  • Ayerza, R. Oil content and fatty acid composition of chia (
  • Ayerza, R., Jr. and Coates, W. Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic fatty acid derived from chia when fed as ground seed, whole seed and oil on lipid content and fatty acid composition of rat plasma. Ann Nutr Metab 2007;51(1):27-34. View abstract.
  • Bushway, A. A., Belyea, P. R., and Bushway, R. J. Chia seed as a source of oil, polysaccharide, and protein. Journal of Food Science 1981;46(5):1349-1350.
  • Espada, C. E., Berra, M. A., Martinez, M. J., Eynard, A. R., and Pasqualini, M. E. Effect of Chia oil (Salvia Hispanica) rich in omega-3 fatty acids on the eicosanoid release, apoptosis and T-lymphocyte tumor infiltration in a murine mammary gland adenocarcinoma. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2007;77(1):21-28. View abstract.
  • Justo, M. B., Alfaro, A. D., Aguilar, E. C., Wrobel, K., Wrobel, K., Guzman, G. A., Sierra, Z. G., and Zanella, Vda M. [Integral bread development with soybean, chia, linseed, and folic acid as a functional food for women]. Arch Latinoam.Nutr 2007;57(1):78-84. View abstract.
  • Reyes-Caudillo, E., Tecante, A., and Valdivia-López, M. A. Dietary fibre content and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in Mexican chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds. Food Chemistry 2008;107(2):656-663.
  • Wang, X., Morris-Natschke, S. L., and Lee, K. H. New developments in the chemistry and biology of the bioactive constituents of Tanshen. Med Res Rev 2007;27(1):133-148. View abstract.
  • Yang, X. F., Wang, N. P., and Zeng, F. D. [Effects of the active components of some Chinese herbs on drug metabolizing-enzymes]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2002;27(5):325-328. View abstract.
  • Zhou, L., Zuo, Z., and Chow, M. S. Danshen: an overview of its chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical use. J Clin Pharmacol 2005;45(12):1345-1359. View abstract.
  • Brouwer IA, Katan MB, Zock PL. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Nutr 2004;134:919-22. View abstract.
  • Chicco AG, D'Alessandro ME, Hein GJ, Oliva ME, Lombardo YB. Dietary chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) rich in alpha-linolenic acid improves adiposity and normalises hypertriacylglycerolaemia and insulin resistance in dyslipaemic rats. Br J Nutr. 2009;101(1):41-50. View abstract.
  • Finnegan YE, Minihane AM, Leigh-Firbank EC, et al. Plant- and marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have differential effects on fasting and postprandial blood lipid concentrations and on the susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification in moderately hyperlipidemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:783-95. View abstract.
  • Guevara-Cruz M, Tovar AR, Aguilar-Salinas CA, et al. A dietary pattern including nopal, chia seed, soy protein, and oat reduces serum triglycerides and glucose intolerance in patients with metabolic syndrome. J Nutr. 2012;142(1):64-9. View abstract.
  • Ho H, Lee AS, Jovanovski E, et al. Effect of whole and ground Salba seeds (Salvia Hispanica L.) on postprandial glycemia in healthy volunteers: a randomized controlled, dose-response trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013;67(7):786-8. View abstract.
  • Illian TG, Casey JC, Bishop PA. Omega 3 Chia seed loading as a means of carbohydrate loading. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(1):61-5. View abstract.
  • Jeong SK, Park HJ, Park BD, Kim IH. Effectiveness of Topical Chia Seed Oil on Pruritus of End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Patients and Healthy Volunteers. Ann Dermatol. 2010;22(2):143-8. View abstract.
  • Nieman DC, Cayea EJ, Austin MD, et al. Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults. Nutr Res. 2009;29(6):414-8. View abstract.
  • Nieman DC, Gillitt N, Jin F, et al. Chia seed supplementation and disease risk factors in overweight women: a metabolomics investigation. J Altern Complement Med. 2012;18(7):700-8. View abstract.
  • Vuksan V, Whitham D, Sievenpiper JL, et al. Supplementation of conventional therapy with the novel grain Salba (Salvia hispanica L.) improves major and emerging cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2007;30:2804-10. View abstract.
  • Ayerza, R., Jr. and Coates, W. Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic fatty acid derived from chia when fed as ground seed, whole seed and oil on lipid content and fatty acid composition of rat plasma. Ann Nutr Metab 2007;51(1):27-34. View abstract.
  • Espada, C. E., Berra, M. A., Martinez, M. J., Eynard, A. R., and Pasqualini, M. E. Effect of Chia oil (Salvia Hispanica) rich in omega-3 fatty acids on the eicosanoid release, apoptosis and T-lymphocyte tumor infiltration in a murine mammary gland adenocarcinoma. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2007;77(1):21-28. View abstract.
  • &#352;vec I, Hru&#353;ková M. Hydrated chia seed effect on wheat flour and bread technological quality. Agric Eng Int 2015;23(4):259-263.
  • Brouwer IA, Katan MB, Zock PL. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Nutr 2004;134:919-22. View abstract.
  • Chicco AG, D'Alessandro ME, Hein GJ, Oliva ME, Lombardo YB. Dietary chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) rich in alpha-linolenic acid improves adiposity and normalises hypertriacylglycerolaemia and insulin resistance in dyslipaemic rats. Br J Nutr. 2009;101(1):41-50. View abstract.
  • Estilai A, Hashemi A. Chromosome number and meiotic behavior of cultivated chia, Salvia hispanica (Lamiaceae). Hort Sci 1990;25(12):1646-1647.
  • Finnegan YE, Minihane AM, Leigh-Firbank EC, et al. Plant- and marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have differential effects on fasting and postprandial blood lipid concentrations and on the susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification in moderately hyperlipidemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:783-95. View abstract.
  • García Jiménez S, Pastor Vargas C, de las Heras M, Sanz Maroto A, Vivanco F, Sastre J. Allergen characterization of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica), a new allergenic food. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2015;25(1):55-6.
  • Guevara-Cruz M, Tovar AR, Aguilar-Salinas CA, et al. A dietary pattern including nopal, chia seed, soy protein, and oat reduces serum triglycerides and glucose intolerance in patients with metabolic syndrome. J Nutr. 2012;142(1):64-9. View abstract.
  • Ho H, Lee AS, Jovanovski E, et al. Effect of whole and ground Salba seeds (Salvia Hispanica L.) on postprandial glycemia in healthy volunteers: a randomized controlled, dose-response trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013;67(7):786-8. View abstract.
  • Illian TG, Casey JC, Bishop PA. Omega 3 Chia seed loading as a means of carbohydrate loading. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(1):61-5. View abstract.
  • Ixtaina VY, Nolasco SM, Tomas MC. Physical properties of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds. Ind Crops Prod 2008;28(3):286-293.
  • Jeong SK, Park HJ, Park BD, Kim IH. Effectiveness of Topical Chia Seed Oil on Pruritus of End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Patients and Healthy Volunteers. Ann Dermatol. 2010;22(2):143-8. View abstract.
  • Nieman DC, Cayea EJ, Austin MD, et al. Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults. Nutr Res. 2009;29(6):414-8. View abstract.
  • Nieman DC, Gillitt N, Jin F, et al. Chia seed supplementation and disease risk factors in overweight women: a metabolomics investigation. J Altern Complement Med. 2012;18(7):700-8. View abstract.
  • Toscano LT, da Silva CS, Toscano LT, de Almeida AE, Santos AC, Silva AS. Chia flour supplementation reduces blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2014 Dec;69(4):392-8.
  • Vuksan V, Whitham D, Sievenpiper JL, et al. Supplementation of conventional therapy with the novel grain Salba (Salvia hispanica L.) improves major and emerging cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2007;30:2804-10. View abstract.

More Resources for CHIA

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version. © Therapeutic Research Faculty 2009.