MOLYBDENUM

OTHER NAME(S):

Ammonium Molybdate, Chélate de Molybdate, Chelated Molybdenum, Citrate de Molybdène, Etrathiomolybdate, Ionic Molybdenum, Mo, Molibdeno, Molybdate d’Ammonium, Molybdate de Sodium, Molybdene, Molybdène, Molybdenum Citrate, Molybdenum Picolinate, Sodium Molybdate.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Molybdenum is a trace mineral found in foods such as milk, cheese, cereal grains, legumes, nuts, leafy vegetables, and organ meats. The amount in plant-derived foods depends on the soil content in the growing area. Molybdenum is also present in water in varying amounts. Molybdenum is stored in the body, particularly in the liver, kidneys, glands, and bones. It is also found in the lungs, spleen, skin, and muscles. About 90% of the molybdenum eaten in foods is eliminated by the body through the urine.

How does it work?

Molybdenum works in the body to break down proteins and other substances. Molybdenum deficiency is very uncommon.

Molybdenum has an important role in normal body functions, but there is not enough information to know how it might work for any medical condition.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Likely Effective for

  • Molybdenum deficiency. Taking molybdenum can prevent deficiency. However, it is very uncommon to have molybdenum deficiency.

Insufficient Evidence for

More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of molybdenum for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Molybdenum is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately by adults. Molybdenum is safe in amounts that do not exceed 2 mg per day, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level.

However, molybdenum is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in high doses. Adults should avoid exceeding 2 mg daily.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Molybdenum is LIKELY SAFE in amounts that do not exceed the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of 1.7 mg per day for women 14 to 18 years, or 2 mg per day for women 19 and older. It is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when used in high doses. Avoid exceeding 1.7 mg per day for women 14 to 18 years, or 2 mg per day for women 19 and older.

Children: For children, molybdenum is LIKELY SAFE in amounts that do not exceed the UL of 0.3 mg per day for children 1 to 3 years, 0.6 mg per day for children 4 to 8 years, 1.1 mg per day for children 9 to 13 years, and 1.7 mg per day for adolescents. However, molybdenum is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in high doses. Children should avoid exceeding 0.3 mg per day for children 1 to 3 years, 0.6 mg per day for children 4 to 8 years, 1.1 mg per day for children 9 to 13 years, and 1.7 mg per day for adolescents.

Gout: Very high levels of molybdenum in the diet such as 10 to 15 mg/day, and industrial exposure to molybdenum, might cause gout. Molybdenum supplements might make gout worse. Avoid taking molybdenum in doses above 2 mg per day for adults.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for MOLYBDENUM Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:

  • The National Institute of Medicine has determined Adequate Intake (AI) of molybdenum for infants: 0 to 6 months, 2 mcg/day; 7 to 12 months, 3 mcg/day.
  • For children, a Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) has been set: 1 to 3 years, 17 mcg/day; 4 to 8 years, 22 mcg/day; 9 to 13 years, 34 mcg/day; 14 to 18 years, 43 mcg/day. For men and women age 19 years and older, the RDA is 45 mcg/day. For pregnancy and lactation, the RDA is 50 mcg/day for women of all ages. It is estimated that a typical US adult’s diet supplies 120 mcg/day to 210 mcg/day.

View References

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  • Kappler, U. and Dahl, C. Enzymology and molecular biology of prokaryotic sulfite oxidation. FEMS Microbiol.Lett 9-11-2001;203(1):1-9. View abstract.
  • Kegley, E. B. and Spears, J. W. Bioavailability of feed-grade copper sources (oxide, sulfate, or lysine) in growing cattle. J Anim Sci 1994;72(10):2728-2734. View abstract.
  • Kendall, N. R., Marsters, P., Scaramuzzi, R. J., and Campbell, B. K. Expression of lysyl oxidase and effect of copper chloride and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate on bovine ovarian follicle granulosa cells cultured in serum-free media. Reproduction. 2003;125(5):657-665. View abstract.
  • Khan, G. and Merajver, S. Copper chelation in cancer therapy using tetrathiomolybdate: an evolving paradigm. Expert.Opin Investig.Drugs 2009;18(4):541-548. View abstract.
  • Khandare, A. L., Suresh, P., Kumar, P. U., Lakshmaiah, N., Manjula, N., and Rao, G. S. Beneficial effect of copper supplementation on deposition of fluoride in bone in fluoride- and molybdenum-fed rabbits. Calcif.Tissue Int 2005;77(4):233-238. View abstract.
  • Kim, J. and Rees, D. C. Nitrogenase and biological nitrogen fixation. Biochemistry 1-18-1994;33(2):389-397. View abstract.
  • Kisker, C., Schindelin, H., and Rees, D. C. Molybdenum-cofactor-containing enzymes: structure and mechanism. Annu.Rev Biochem 1997;66:233-267. View abstract.
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  • Lamm, D. L., Riggs, D. R., Shriver, J. S., vanGilder, P. F., Rach, J. F., and DeHaven, J. I. Megadose vitamins in bladder cancer: a double-blind clinical trial. J Urol 1994;151(1):21-26. View abstract.
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