Aceite de Bergamota, Bergamot, Bergamot Orange, Bergamota, Bergamotier, Bergamoto, Bergamotte, Bergamotto Bigarade Orange, Citrus Bergamia, Citrus aurantium var. bergamia, Huile de Bergamote, Oleum Bergamotte.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationBergamot is a plant that produces a type of citrus fruit. Oil from the peel of the fruit, and extract from the fruit juice, are used to make medicine.
Bergamot oil is most commonly used in aromatherapy for anxiety, nausea and vomiting, pain, and other conditions. Bergamot extract is used for schizophrenia, reducing side effects of certain prescription drugs such as antipsychotics and aromatase inhibitors, and other conditions. There is no good scientific evidence to support any of the uses of bergamot oil or extract.
In foods, bergamot oil is widely used as a citrus flavoring agent, especially in gelatins and puddings.
In manufacturing, bergamot oil is used in perfumes, creams, lotions, soaps, and suntan oils.
How does it work?Bergamot oil has several active chemicals. These chemicals can make the skin sensitive to sunlight.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Ineffective for
- Anxiety. Using bergamot oil as aromatherapy doesn't seem to reduce anxiety in people undergoing radiation therapy or a bone marrow transplant.
- Mental alertness. Using bergamot oil as aromatherapy doesn't seem to improve mental alertness. In fact, it might decrease mental alertness in heathy adults due to its relaxing effects.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Metabolic side effects caused by antipsychotic drugs. Early research shows that taking bergamot extract by mouth for 60 days doesn't improve side effects of antipsychotic drugs such as increased blood sugar, body weight, and cholesterol levels.
- Joint pain caused by drugs called aromatase inhibitors (aromatase inhibitor-induced arthralgias). Early research shows that taking a product containing bergamot extract and other ingredients for 6 months slightly reduces joint pain in people with joint pain caused by drugs called aromatase inhibitors.
- Depression. Early research shows that inhaling the aroma of lavender, sweet orange, and bergamot oil improves symptoms of depression in most older adults.
- Abnormal levels of cholesterol or blood fats (dyslipidemia). Early research shows that taking bergamot extract for 30 days decreases cholesterol in people with high cholesterol. It might work about as well as taking a low dose of the cholesterol-lowering drug called rosuvastatin (Crestor). But other research shows that taking bergamot extract with other ingredients doesn't improve levels of most blood fats in people with abnormal levels of cholesterol or blood fats.
- Nausea and vomiting. Early research shows that using bergamot oil as aromatherapy doesn't decrease nausea in people undergoing bone marrow transplant.
- Scaly, itchy skin (psoriasis). Early research shows that applying bergamot oil to the skin along with UV light is not more effective than UV light alone for reducing plaque psoriasis.
- Schizophrenia. Early research shows that taking bergamot extract by mouth for 8 weeks may improve mental control and self-regulation in people with schizophrenia.
- Loss of the color pigment on the skin (vitiligo).
- Protecting the body against lice and other parasites.
- Treating a type of cancer that begins in white blood cells and affects the skin (mycosis fungoides), when used along with ultra-violet (UV) light.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyWhen taken by mouth: Bergamot OIL is LIKELY SAFE for most people in the small amounts found in food. Bergamot EXTRACT is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth as a medicine, short-term. Side effects of bergamot extract are generally mild and may include dizziness, muscle cramps, or heartburn.
When applied to the skin: Bergamot oil is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when applied to the skin. It might make the skin sensitive to the sun.
When inhaled: There isn't enough reliable information to know if bergamot is safe or what the side effects might be.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Do not use bergamot oil on your skin if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. It is POSSIBLY UNSAFE.
Children: Bergamot oil is POSSIBLY UNSAFE in children when taken by mouth in large amounts. There have been serious side effects, including convulsion and death, in children who have taken large amounts of bergamot oil.
Diabetes: Bergamot might lower blood sugar levels. This could affect blood sugar control in people with diabetes and cause blood sugar levels to go to low. Monitor your blood sugar closely.
Surgery: Bergamot might lower blood sugar. There is some concern that it might interfere with blood sugar control during surgery. Stop using bergamot at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Be cautious with this combination
Medications that increase sensitivity to sunlight (Photosensitizing drugs) interacts with BERGAMOT
Some medications can increase sensitivity to sunlight. Topical use of bergamot oil might also increase your sensitivity to sunlight. Using bergamot oil topically along with medication that increase sensitivity to sunlight could increase the chances of sunburn, blistering or rashes on areas of skin exposed to sunlight. Be sure to wear sunblock and protective clothing when spending time in the sun.<br /> Some drugs that cause photosensitivity include amitriptyline (Elavil), Ciprofloxacin (Cipro), norfloxacin (Noroxin), lomefloxacin (Maxaquin), ofloxacin (Floxin), levofloxacin (Levaquin), sparfloxacin (Zagam), gatifloxacin (Tequin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Septra), tetracycline, methoxsalen (8-methoxypsoralen, 8-MOP, Oxsoralen), and Trioxsalen (Trisoralen).
The appropriate dose of bergamot depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for bergamot. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
- Graham PH, Browne L, Cox H, Graham J. Inhalation aromatherapy during radiotherapy: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:2372-6. View abstract.
- Izzo A, D'Arienzo M, Sergiacomi P, Marrese C, Bonucci M, Riccioni C. Prospective Observational Study: The Role of a Bergamot Based Nutraceutical in Dyslipidaemia and Arthralgia for Subjects Undergoing Aromatase Inhibitors Based Therapy. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2017;7:4-9.
- Mannucci C, Navarra M, Calapai F, Squeri R, Gangemi S, Calapai G. Clinical Pharmacology of Citrus bergamia: A Systematic Review. Phytother Res 2017;31(1):27-39. View abstract.
- Naganuma M, Hirose S, Nakayama Y, et al. A study of the phototoxicity of lemon oil. Arch Dermatol Res 1985;278:31-6. . View abstract.
- Navarra M, Mannucci C, Delbò M, Calapai G. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application. Front Pharmacol 2015;6:36. View abstract.
- Ndao DH, Ladas EJ, Cheng B, Sands SA, Snyder KT, Garvin JH Jr, Kelly KM. Inhalation aromatherapy in children and adolescents undergoing stem cell infusion: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Psychooncology. 2012 Mar;21(3):247-54. doi: 10.1002/pon.1898. Epub 2010 Dec 27. View abstract.
- Wiebe E. A randomized trial of aromatherapy to reduce anxiety before abortion. Eff Clin Pract 2000;3(4):166-9. View abstract.
- Xiong M, Li Y, Tang P, Zhang Y, Cao M, Ni J, Xing M. Effectiveness of aromatherapy massage and inhalation on symptoms of depression in Chinese community-dwelling older adults. J Altern Complement Med. 2018;24(7):717-724. View abstract.
- Zacher, K. D. and Ippen, H. [Contact dermatitis caused by bergamot oil]. Derm.Beruf.Umwelt. 1984;32(3):95-97. View abstract.
- Zaynoun, S. T., Johnson, B. E., and Frain-Bell, W. A study of oil of bergamot and its importance as a phototoxic agent. I. Characterization and quantification of the photoactive component. Br.J.Dermatol. 1977;96(5):475-482. View abstract.
- Zaynoun, S. T., Johnson, B. E., and Frain-Bell, W. A study of oil of bergamot and its importance as a phototoxic agent. II. Factors which affect the phototoxic reaction induced by bergamot oil and psoralen derivatives. Contact Dermatitis 1977;3(5):225-239. View abstract.
- Bruno A, Pandolfo G, Crucitti M, Cedro C, Zoccali RA, Muscatello MRA. Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction Supplementation Improves Cognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia: Data From an 8-Week, Open-Label Pilot Study. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2017;37(4):468-71. View abstract.
- Bruno A, Pandolfo G, Crucitti M, et al. Low-Dose of Bergamot-Derived Polyphenolic Fraction (BPF) Did Not Improve Metabolic Parameters in Second Generation Antipsychotics-Treated Patients: Results from a 60-days Open-Label Study. Front Pharmacol 2017;8:197 View abstract.
- Cai Y, Xing G, Shen T, Zhang S, Rao J, Shi R. Effects of 12-week supplementation of Citrus bergamia extracts-based formulation CitriCholess on cholesterol and body weight in older adults with dyslipidemia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lipids Health Dis 2017;16(1):251. View abstract.
- Da Pozzo E, De Leo M, Faraone I, et al. Antioxidant and antisenescence effects of bergamot juice. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018;2018:9395804. View abstract.
- Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
- Ferlazzo N, Cirmi S, Calapai G, Ventura-Spagnolo E, Gangemi S, Navarra M. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus bergamia Derivatives: Where Do We Stand? Molecules 2016;21(10). View abstract.
- Gliozzi M, Walker R, Muscoli S, et al. Bergamot polyphenolic fraction enhances rosuvastatin-induced effect on LDL-cholesterol, LOX-1 expression and protein kinase B phosphorylation in patients with hyperlipidemia. Int J Cardiol 2013;170(2):140-5. View abstract.
- Bode, C. W., Zager, A., and Hansel, W. Photodynamic and photo-cross-linking potential of bergamottin. Pharmazie 2005;60(1):78-79. View abstract.
- Chang, S. Y. [Effects of aroma hand massage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer]. Taehan Kanho.Hakhoe.Chi 2008;38(4):493-502. View abstract.
- Finsterer, J. Earl Grey tea intoxication. Lancet 4-27-2002;359(9316):1484. View abstract.
- Girard, J., Unkovic, J., Delahayes, J., and Lafille, C. [Phototoxicity of Bergamot oil. Comparison between humans and guinea pigs]. Dermatologica 1979;158(4):229-243. View abstract.
- Gould, A. and Martin, G. N. A good odour to breathe? The effect of pleasant ambient odour on human visual vigilance. Applied Cognitive Psychology 2001;15(2):225-232.
- Gruson, L. M. and Chang, M. W. Berloque dermatitis mimicking child abuse. Arch.Pediatr.Adolesc.Med. 2002;156(11):1091-1093. View abstract.
- Hansen, T. M. and Hansen, B. The effect of aromatherapy on health complaints. A randomised, controlled trial. International Journal of Essential Oil Therapeutics 2007;1(2):67-71.
- Hongratanaworakit, T. Aroma-therapeutic effects of massage blended essential oils on humans. Nat.Prod.Commun. 2011;6(8):1199-1204. View abstract.
- Hwang, J. H. [The effects of the inhalation method using essential oils on blood pressure and stress responses of clients with essential hypertension]. Taehan Kanho.Hakhoe.Chi 2006;36(7):1123-1134. View abstract.
- Kaddu, S., Kerl, H., and Wolf, P. Accidental bullous phototoxic reactions to bergamot aromatherapy oil. J.Am.Acad.Dermatol. 2001;45(3):458-461. View abstract.
- Kimura, M., Mori, T., Suzuki, H., Endo, S., and Kawano, K. EEG Changes in Odor Effects after the Stress of Long Monotonous Work. Journal of International Society of Life Information Science 2001;19(2):271-274.
- Mandalari, G., Bennett, R. N., Bisignano, G., Saija, A., Dugo, G., Lo Curto, R. B., Faulds, C. B., and Waldron, K. W. Characterization of flavonoids and pectins from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a major byproduct of essential oil extraction. J.Agric.Food Chem. 1-11-2006;54(1):197-203. View abstract.
- Mollace, V., Sacco, I., Janda, E., Malara, C., Ventrice, D., Colica, C., Visalli, V., Muscoli, S., Ragusa, S., Muscoli, C., Rotiroti, D., and Romeo, F. Hypolipemic and hypoglycaemic activity of bergamot polyphenols: from animal models to human studies. Fitoterapia 2011;82(3):309-316. View abstract.
- Morliere, P., Huppe, G., Averbeck, D., Young, A. R., Santus, R., and Dubertret, L. In vitro photostability and photosensitizing properties of bergamot oil. Effects of a cinnamate sunscreen. J.Photochem.Photobiol.B 1990;7(2-4):199-208. View abstract.
- Placzek, M., Fromel, W., Eberlein, B., Gilbertz, K. P., and Przybilla, B. Evaluation of phototoxic properties of fragrances. Acta Derm.Venereol. 2007;87(4):312-316. View abstract.
- Seo, J. Y. [The effects of aromatherapy on stress and stress responses in adolescents]. J Korean Acad.Nurs. 2009;39(3):357-365. View abstract.
- Statti, G. A., Conforti, F., Sacchetti, G., Muzzoli, M., Agrimonti, C., and Menichini, F. Chemical and biological diversity of Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) in relation to environmental factors. Fitoterapia 2004;75(2):212-216. View abstract.
- Valkova, S. UVB phototherapeutic modalities. Comparison of two treatments for chronic plaque psoriasis. Acta Dermatovenerol.Alp Panonica.Adriat. 2007;16(1):26-30. View abstract.
- Walsh, D. Using aromatherapy in the management of psoriasis. Nurs.Stand. 12-18-1996;11(13-15):53-56. View abstract.
- Weisenseel, P. and Woitalla, S. [Toxic mustard plaster dematitis and phototoxic dematitis after application of bergamot oil]. MMW.Fortschr.Med. 12-15-2005;147(51-52):53, 55. View abstract.
- Yasui, Y. and Hirone, T. Action spectrum for bergamot-oil phototoxicity measured by sunburn cell counting. J.Dermatol. 1994;21(5):319-322. View abstract.
- Young, A. R., Walker, S. L., Kinley, J. S., Plastow, S. R., Averbeck, D., Morliere, P., and Dubertret, L. Phototumorigenesis studies of 5-methoxypsoralen in bergamot oil: evaluation and modification of risk of human use in an albino mouse skin model. J.Photochem.Photobiol.B 1990;7(2-4):231-250. View abstract.
Have you ever purchased BERGAMOT?
Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Do you buy vitamins online or instore?
What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)