BROCCOLI SPROUT

OTHER NAME(S):

Brassica oleracea, Brassica oleracea var. italic, Sprouting Broccoli.

Overview

Overview Information

Broccoli sprout is a young broccoli plant. Compared to mature broccoli, broccoli sprout contains more glucoraphanin, a compound that is converted to sulforaphane during digestion. Sulforaphane is a chemical that is thought to have health benefits. Whole broccoli sprouts or broccoli sprout extracts are used as medicine.

Broccoli sprout is taken by mouth for prostate cancer, schizophrenia, high cholesterol, allergy, asthma, cancer, and stomach ulcers caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori.

Broccoli sprout extract is applied to the skin to prevent sunburn.

How does it work?

Broccoli sprout contains a chemical called glucoraphanin. When taken by mouth, the glucoraphanin in broccoli sprout is changed to another compound called sulforaphane. This chemical has antioxidant effects which might help and treat prevent cancer and liver problems.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Early research shows that eating broccoli sprout helps prevent swelling in the stomach and reduce levels of the bacteria in people with H. pylori infection. However, levels of H. pylori appear to increase after treatment is stopped. This suggests that broccoli sprout reduces but does not eliminate H. pylori infection.
  • Prostate cancer. Early research shows that taking a combination of turmeric extract, hu zhang extract, green tea extract, and broccoli sprout concentrate, does not prevent levels of the prostate cancer marker prostate specific antigen (PSA) from increasing in men with prostate cancer.
  • Schizophrenia. Early research shows that taking broccoli sprout extract does not improve symptoms in patients with schizophrenia already on stable treatment.
  • Allergy.
  • Asthma.
  • Cancer.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of broccoli sprout for these uses.


Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Broccoli sprout is LIKELY SAFE for most adults to eat in amounts commonly found in food, as long as the broccoli sprouts are grown according to FDA guidelines. Side effects of eating properly grown broccoli sprouts have not been reported. But broccoli sprouts that have not been grown properly should be avoided. These sprouts have a higher chance of being contaminated with bacteria that can cause food poisoning.

Broccoli sprout extract is POSSIBLY SAFE to take by mouth for up to 12 weeks. There isn't enough information to know if it is safe to use broccoli sprout extract for longer periods of time.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It's LIKELY SAFE to eat COOKED broccoli sprout while pregnant or breast-feeding. But eating RAW broccoli sprout is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Raw broccoli sprouts might be contaminated with bacteria that can cause food poisoning. Food poisoning during pregnancy might cause miscarriage, premature birth, or stillbirth. Stay on the safe side and eat only cooked broccoli sprout while pregnant.

It is not known if it is safe to use broccoli sprout extract while pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Low immune system function: Raw broccoli sprouts can be contaminated with bacteria. People who have low immune system function might be more likely than other people to develop food poisoning after eating contaminated raw broccoli sprouts. Advise people with low immune system function to avoid eating raw broccoli sprouts.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for BROCCOLI SPROUT Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of broccoli sprout depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time, there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for broccoli sprout. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Abdulah R, Faried A, Kobayashi K, et al. Selenium enrichment of broccoli sprout extract increases chemosensitivity and apoptosis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells. BMC Cancer 2009;9:414. View abstract.
  • Bhamre S, Sahoo D, Tibshirani R, Dill DL, Brooks JD. Temporal changes in gene expression induced by sulforaphane in human prostate cancer cells. Prostate 2009;69(2):181-190. View abstract.
  • Brooks JD, Paton VG, Vidanes G. Potent induction of phase 2 enzymes in human prostate cells by sulforaphane. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001;10(9):949-954. View abstract.
  • Clarke JD, Dashwood RH, Ho E. Multi-targeted prevention of cancer by sulforaphane. Cancer Lett 2008;269(2):291-304. View abstract.
  • Dashwood RH, Ho E. Dietary histone deacetylase inhibitors: from cells to mice to man. Semin Cancer Biol 2007;17(5):363-369. View abstract.
  • Dinkova-Kostova AT, Fahey JW, Benedict AL, et al. Dietary glucoraphanin-rich broccoli sprout extracts protect against UV radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2010;9(4):597-600. View abstract.
  • Dinkova-Kostova AT, Jenkins SN, Fahey JW, et al. Protection against UV-light-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 high-risk mice by sulforaphane-containing broccoli sprout extracts. Cancer Lett 2006;240(2):243-252. View abstract.
  • Donaldson MS. Nutrition and cancer: a review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet. Nutr J 2004;3:19. View abstract.
  • Egner PA, Kensler TW, Chen JG, et al. Quantification of sulforaphane mercapturic acid pathway conjugates in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography and isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Chem Res Toxicol 2008;21(10):1991-1996. View abstract.
  • Fahey JW, Haristoy X, Dolan PM, et al. Sulforaphane inhibits extracellular, intracellular, and antibiotic-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori and prevents benzo[a]pyrene-induced stomach tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002;99(11):7610-7615. View abstract.
  • Fahey JW, Ourisson PJ, Degnan FH. Pathogen detection, testing, and control in fresh broccoli sprouts. Nutr J 2006;5:13. View abstract.
  • Fahey JW, Zhang Y, Talalay P. Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997;94(19):10367-10372. View abstract.
  • Finley JW, Ip C, Lisk DJ, et al. Cancer-protective properties of high-selenium broccoli. J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:2679-83. View abstract.
  • Gorski L, Flaherty D, Duhe JM. Comparison of the stress response of Listeria monocytogenes strains with sprout colonization. J Food Prot 2008;71(8):1556-1562. View abstract.
  • Haristoy X, Angioi-Duprez K, Duprez A, Lozniewski A. Efficacy of sulforaphane in eradicating Helicobacter pylori in human gastric xenografts implanted in nude mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003;47(12):3982-3984. View abstract.
  • Kensler TW, Chen JG, Egner PA, et al. Effects of glucosinolate-rich broccoli sprouts on urinary levels of aflatoxin-DNA adducts and phenanthrene tetraols in a randomized clinical trial in He Zuo township, Qidong, People's Republic of China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005;14(11 Pt 1):2605-2613. View abstract.
  • Kerns ML, DePianto D, Dinkova-Kostova AT, Talalay P, Coulombe PA. Reprogramming of keratin biosynthesis by sulforaphane restores skin integrity in epidermolysis bullosa simplex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007;104(36):14460-5. View abstract.
  • Keum YS, Khor TO, Lin W, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of broccoli sprouts on the suppression of prostate cancer in transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice: implication of induction of Nrf2, HO-1 and apoptosis and the suppression of Akt-dependent kinase pathway. Pharm Res 2009;26(10):2324-2331. View abstract.
  • Kim HJ, Barajas B, Wang M, Nel AE. Nrf2 activation by sulforaphane restores the age-related decrease of T(H)1 immunity: role of dendritic cells. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008;121(5):1255-1261. View abstract.
  • Lee, S. Y., Shin, Y. W., and Hahm, K. B. Phytoceuticals: mighty but ignored weapons against Helicobacter pylori infection. J Dig Dis 2008;9(3):129-139. View abstract.
  • Li Y, Zhang T, Korkaya H, et al. Sulforaphane, a dietary component of broccoli/broccoli sprouts, inhibits breast cancer stem cells. Clin Cancer Res 2010;16(9):2580-2590. View abstract.
  • Matusheski NV, Juvik JA, Jeffery EH. Heating decreases epithiospecifier protein activity and increases sulforaphane formation in broccoli. Phytochemistry 2004;65(9):1273-1281. View abstract.
  • Moon JK, Kim JR, Ahn YJ, Shibamoto T. Analysis and anti-Helicobacter activity of sulforaphane and related compounds present in broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L.) sprouts. J Agric Food Chem 2010;58(11):6672-6677. View abstract.
  • Munday R, Mhawech-Fauceglia P, Munday CM, et al. Inhibition of urinary bladder carcinogenesis by broccoli sprouts. Cancer Res 2008;68(5):1593-1600. View abstract.
  • Murashima M, Watanabe S, Zhuo XG, Uehara M, Kurashige A. Phase 1 study of multiple biomarkers for metabolism and oxidative stress after one-week intake of broccoli sprouts. Biofactors 2004;22(1-4):271-275. View abstract.
  • Myzak MC, Dashwood RH. Chemoprotection by sulforaphane: keep one eye beyond Keap1. Cancer Lett 2006;233(2):208-218. View abstract.
  • Myzak MC, Karplus PA, Chung FL, Dashwood RH. A novel mechanism of chemoprotection by sulforaphane: inhibition of histone deacetylase. Cancer Res 2004;64(16):5767-5774. View abstract.
  • Nakagawa K, Umeda T, Higuchi O, et al. Evaporative light-scattering analysis of sulforaphane in broccoli samples: Quality of broccoli products regarding sulforaphane contents. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54(7):2479-2483. View abstract.
  • Nian H, Delage B, Ho E, Dashwood RH. Modulation of histone deacetylase activity by dietary isothiocyanates and allyl sulfides: studies with sulforaphane and garlic organosulfur compounds. Environ Mol Mutagen 2009;50(3):213-221. View abstract.
  • Noyan-Ashraf MH, Sadeghinejad Z, Juurlink BH. Dietary approach to decrease aging-related CNS inflammation. Nutr Neurosci 2005;8(2):101-110. View abstract.
  • Pezdirc KB, Hure AJ, Blumfield ML, Collins CE. Listeria monocytogenes and diet during pregnancy; balancing nutrient intake adequacy v. adverse pregnancy outcomes. Public Health Nutr 2012;15(12):2202-9. View abstract.
  • Rajkowski KT, Boyd G, Thayer DW. Irradiation D-values for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella sp. on inoculated broccoli seeds and effects of irradiation on broccoli sprout keeping quality and seed viability. J Food Prot 2003;66(5):760-766. View abstract.
  • Riedl MA, Saxon A, Diaz-Sanchez D. Oral sulforaphane increases Phase II antioxidant enzymes in the human upper airway. Clin Immunol. 2009;130(3):244-251. View abstract.
  • Shapiro TA, Fahey JW, Dinkova-Kostova AT, et al. Safety, tolerance, and metabolism of broccoli sprout glucosinolates and isothiocyanates: a clinical phase I study. Nutr Cancer 2006;55(1):53-62. View abstract.
  • Shapiro TA, Fahey JW, Wade KL, Stephenson KK, Talalay P. Chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of broccoli sprouts: metabolism and excretion in humans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001;10(5):501-508. View abstract.
  • Talalay P, Fahey JW, Healy ZR, et al. Sulforaphane mobilizes cellular defenses that protect skin against damage by UV radiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007;104(44):17500-17505. View abstract.
  • Tang L, Zhang Y, Jobson HE, et al. Potent activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and arrest in S and M phases of cancer cells by a broccoli sprout extract. Mol Cancer Ther 2006;5(4):935-944. View abstract.
  • Tanito M, Masutani H, Kim YC, et al. Sulforaphane induces thioredoxin through the antioxidant-responsive element and attenuates retinal light damage in mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005;46(3):979-987. View abstract.
  • Tian Q, Rosselot RA, Schwartz SJ. Quantitative determination of intact glucosinolates in broccoli, broccoli sprouts, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem 2005;343(1):93-99. View abstract.
  • Traka MH, Spinks CA, Doleman JF, et al. The dietary isothiocyanate sulforaphane modulates gene expression and alternative gene splicing in a PTEN null preclinical murine model of prostate cancer. Mol Cancer 2010;9:189. View abstract.
  • West L, Tsui I, Haas G. Single column approach for the liquid chromatographic separation of polar and non-polar glucosinolates from broccoli sprouts and seeds. J Chromatogr A 2002;966(1-2):227-232. View abstract.
  • Wu L, Noyan Ashraf MH, Facci M, et al. Dietary approach to attenuate oxidative stress, hypertension, and inflammation in the cardiovascular system. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004;101(18):7094-7099. View abstract.
  • Yanaka A, Fahey JW, Fukumoto A, et al. Dietary sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprouts reduce colonization and attenuate gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected mice and humans. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2009;2(4):353-360. View abstract.
  • Yanaka A, Zhang S, Tauchi M, et al. Role of the nrf-2 gene in protection and repair of gastric mucosa against oxidative stress. Inflammopharmacology 2005;13(1-3):83-90. View abstract.
  • Zhang Y, Munday R, Jobson HE, et al. Induction of GST and NQO1 in cultured bladder cells and in the urinary bladders of rats by an extract of broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica) sprouts. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54(25):9370-9376. View abstract.
  • Brown RH, Reynolds C, Brooker A, Talalay P, Fahey JW. Sulforaphane improves the bronchoprotective response in asthmatics through Nrf2-mediated gene pathways. Respir Res. 2015;16:106. View abstract.
  • Conaway CC, Getahun SM, Liebes LL, et al. Disposition of glucosinolates and sulforaphane in humans after ingestion of steamed and fresh broccoli. Nutr Cancer 2000;38:168-78.View abstract.
  • Donaldson MS. Nutrition and cancer: a review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet. Nutr J 2004;3:19. View abstract.
  • Egner PA, Kensler TW, Chen JG, et al. Quantification of sulforaphane mercapturic acid pathway conjugates in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography and isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Chem Res Toxicol 2008;21(10):1991-1996. View abstract.
  • Fahey JW, Ourisson PJ, Degnan FH. Pathogen detection, testing, and control in fresh broccoli sprouts. Nutr J 2006;5:13. View abstract.
  • Fahey JW, Zhang Y, Talalay P. Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997;94(19):10367-10372. View abstract.
  • Gorski L, Flaherty D, Duhe JM. Comparison of the stress response of Listeria monocytogenes strains with sprout colonization. J Food Prot 2008;71(8):1556-1562. View abstract.
  • Hakooz, N. and Hamdan, I. Effects of dietary broccoli on human in vivo caffeine metabolism: a pilot study on a group of Jordanian volunteers. Curr Drug Metab 2007;8(1):9-15. View abstract.
  • Kall MA, Vang O, Clausen J. Effects of dietary broccoli on human drug metabolising activity. Cancer Lett. 1997;114(1-2):169-70. View abstract.
  • Kensler TW, Chen JG, Egner PA, et al. Effects of glucosinolate-rich broccoli sprouts on urinary levels of aflatoxin-DNA adducts and phenanthrene tetraols in a randomized clinical trial in He Zuo township, Qidong, People's Republic of China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005;14(11 Pt 1):2605-2613. View abstract.
  • Keum YS, Khor TO, Lin W, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of broccoli sprouts on the suppression of prostate cancer in transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice: implication of induction of Nrf2, HO-1 and apoptosis and the suppression of Akt-dependent kinase pathway. Pharm Res 2009;26(10):2324-2331. View abstract.
  • Kikuchi M, Ushida Y, Shiozawa H, et al. Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract improves hepatic abnormalities in male subjects. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21(43):12457-67. View abstract.
  • Munday R, Mhawech-Fauceglia P, Munday CM, et al. Inhibition of urinary bladder carcinogenesis by broccoli sprouts. Cancer Res 2008;68(5):1593-1600. View abstract.
  • Nestle M. Broccoli sprouts in cancer prevention. Nutr Rev 1998;56:127-30. View abstract.
  • Pezdirc KB, Hure AJ, Blumfield ML, Collins CE. Listeria monocytogenes and diet during pregnancy; balancing nutrient intake adequacy v. adverse pregnancy outcomes. Public Health Nutr 2012;15(12):2202-9. View abstract.
  • Rajkowski KT, Boyd G, Thayer DW. Irradiation D-values for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella sp. on inoculated broccoli seeds and effects of irradiation on broccoli sprout keeping quality and seed viability. J Food Prot 2003;66(5):760-766. View abstract.
  • Shapiro TA, Fahey JW, Dinkova-Kostova AT, et al. Safety, tolerance, and metabolism of broccoli sprout glucosinolates and isothiocyanates: a clinical phase I study. Nutr Cancer 2006;55(1):53-62. View abstract.
  • Shapiro TA, Fahey JW, Wade KL, Stephenson KK, Talalay P. Chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of broccoli sprouts: metabolism and excretion in humans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001;10(5):501-508. View abstract.
  • Shiina A, Kanahara N, Sasaki T, et al. An open study of sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract in patients with schizophrenia. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci. 2015;13(1):62-7. View abstract.
  • van Die MD, Williams SG, Emery J, et al. A placebo-controlled double-blinded randomized pilot study of combination phytotherapy in biochemically recurrent prostate cancer. Prostate. 2017;77(7):765-775. View abstract.
  • West L, Tsui I, Haas G. Single column approach for the liquid chromatographic separation of polar and non-polar glucosinolates from broccoli sprouts and seeds. J Chromatogr A 2002;966(1-2):227-232. View abstract.
  • Yanaka A, Fahey JW, Fukumoto A, et al. Dietary sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprouts reduce colonization and attenuate gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected mice and humans. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2009;2(4):353-360. View abstract.
  • Yoshida K, Ushida Y, Ishijima T, et al. Broccoli sprout extract induces detoxification-related gene expression and attenuates acute liver injury. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21(35):10091-103. View abstract.

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CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

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