BRUSSELS SPROUT

OTHER NAME(S):

Bao Zi Gan Lan, Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera, Brüsseler Kohl, Brysselkål, Cavola a Germoglio, Cavola di Bruxelles, Chou À Mille Pommes, Chou de Bruxelles, Col de Bruselas, Couve de Bruxelas, Kapusta Warzywna Brukselka, Kohlsprossen, Me Kanran, Me Kyabetsu, Repollo de Bruselas, Rooskapsas, Rosen-Wirsing, Rosenkål, Rosenkohl, Ruusukaali, Spruit, Ya Gan Lan.

Overview

Overview Information

Brussels sprout is a leafy green vegetable that is commonly eaten as a food source or as a medicine.

Brussels sprout is taken by mouth for constipation and to prevent cancer, heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and other conditions. But there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

How does it work?

Brussels sprout contains chemicals that are thought to help prevent cancer. For breast cancer, eating Brussels sprout might change the way estrogen is used in the body, which might reduce the risk of breast cancer. Brussels sprout also has antioxidant activity.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH). Some population research has found that eating large amounts of Brussels sprout is not linked with a reduced risk for BPH.
  • Bladder cancer. Some population research has found that people who eat large amounts of Brussels sprout and related vegetables have a lower risk of developing bladder cancer.
  • Breast cancer. Some population research has found that eating Brussels sprout and related vegetables is linked with a slight increase in the risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women. But other studies have found that eating Brussels sprout and related vegetables is not linked with a higher or lower risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women or women in general.
  • Diabetes. Some population research has found that women who eat Brussels sprout and related vegetables do not have a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
  • Lung cancer. Some population research has found that eating larger amounts of Brussels sprout and broccoli is linked with a lower risk of developing lung cancer.
  • Cancer that starts in white blood cells (non-Hodgkin lymphoma). Some population research has found that women, but not men, who eat larger amounts of Brussels sprout and related vegetables have a lower risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Pancreatic cancer. Some population research has found that people who eat larger amounts of Brussels sprout do not have a lower risk of developing pancreatic cancer.
  • Prostate cancer. Some population research has found that people who eat larger amounts of Brussels sprout and related vegetables have a lower risk of developing prostate cancer.
  • Stroke. Some population research has found that eating larger amounts of Brussels sprout and related vegetables is linked with a lower risk of ischemic stroke.
  • A disease caused by vitamin C deficiency (scurvy).
  • Constipation.
  • Birth defects of the brain and spine (neural tube birth defects).
  • Heart disease.
  • Weak and brittle bones (osteoporosis).
  • Wound healing.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of Brussels sprout for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Brussels sprout is LIKELY SAFE when consumed in food amounts. But eating Brussels sprout might cause gas.

There isn't enough reliable information to know if Brussels sprout is safe or what the side effects might be when taken by mouth as a medicine.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if Brussels sprout is safe to use in medicinal amounts when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and stick to food amounts.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): Eating Brussels sprout might cause gas. This could make symptoms of IBS worse.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for BRUSSELS SPROUT Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of Brussels sprout depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for Brussels sprout. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Benson AB III. Oltipraz: a laboratory and clinical review. J Cell Biochem Suppl 1993;17F:278-291. View abstract.
  • Bradfield CA, Bjeldanes LF. Modification of carcinogen metabolism by indolylic autolysis products of Brassica oleraceae. Adv Exp Med Biol 1991;289:153-163. View abstract.
  • Brennan P, Hsu CC, Moullan N, et al. Effect of cruciferous vegetables on lung cancer in patients stratified by genetic status: a mendelian randomisation approach. Lancet 2005;366(9496):1558-60. View abstract.
  • Cao G, Booth SL, Sadowski JA, Prior RL. Increases in human plasma antioxidant capacity after consumption of controlled diets high in fruit and vegetables. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68(5):1081-1087. View abstract.
  • Cashman JR, Xiong Y, Lin J, et al. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of human flavin-containing monooxygenase form 3 (FMO3) in the presence of dietary indoles. Biochem Pharmacol 1999;58(6):1047-1055. View abstract.
  • Chang ET, Smedby KE, Zhang SM, et al. Dietary factors and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in men and women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005;14(2):512-20. View abstract.
  • Cohen, J. H., Kristal, A. R., and Stanford, J. L. Fruit and vegetable intakes and prostate cancer risk. J Natl.Cancer Inst. 1-5-2000;92(1):61-68. View abstract.
  • Craig WJ. Phytochemicals: guardians of our health. J Am Diet Assoc 1997;97(10 Suppl 2):S199-S204. View abstract.
  • Ferguson LR. Micronutrients, dietary questionnaires and cancer. Biomed Pharmacother 1997;51(8):337-344. View abstract.
  • Fowke JH, Morrow JD, Motley S, Bostick RM, Ness RM. Brassica vegetable consumption reduces urinary F2-isoprostane levels independent of micronutrient intake. Carcinogenesis 2006;27(10):2096-2102. View abstract.
  • Gamet-Payrastre L. Signaling pathways and intracellular targets of sulforaphane mediating cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2006;6(2):135-145. View abstract.
  • Gaudet MM, Britton JA, Kabat GC, et al. Fruits, vegetables, and micronutrients in relation to breast cancer modified by menopause and hormone receptor status. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004;13(9):1485-94. View abstract.
  • Hughes R, Pollock JR, Bingham S. Effect of vegetables, tea, and soy on endogenous N-nitrosation, fecal ammonia, and fecal water genotoxicity during a high red meat diet in humans. Nutr Cancer 2002;42(1):70-77. View abstract.
  • Jongen WM. Glucosinolates in Brassica: occurrence and significance as cancer-modulating agents. Proc Nutr Soc 1996;55(1B):433-46. View abstract.
  • Kolonel, L. N., Hankin, J. H., Whittemore, A. S., Wu, A. H., Gallagher, R. P., Wilkens, L. R., John, E. M., Howe, G. R., Dreon, D. M., West, D. W., and Paffenbarger, R. S., Jr. Vegetables, fruits, legumes and prostate cancer: a multiethnic case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2000;9(8):795-804. View abstract.
  • Liu S, Serdula M, Janket SJ, et al. A prospective study of fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care 2004;27(12):2993-6. View abstract.
  • Michaud DS, Spiegelman D, Clinton SK, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of bladder cancer in a male prospective cohort. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91(7):605-13. View abstract.
  • Morel F, Langouet S, Maheo K, Guillouzo A. The use of primary hepatocyte cultures for the evaluation of chemoprotective agents. Cell Biol Toxicol 1997;13(4-5):323-329. View abstract.
  • Nijhoff WA, Grubben MJ, Nagengast FM, et al. Effects of consumption of Brussels sprouts on intestinal and lymphocytic glutathione S-transferases in humans. Carcinogenesis 1995;16(9):2125-2128. View abstract.
  • Nijhoff WA, Mulder TP, Verhagen H, van Poppel G, Peters, W. H. Effects of consumption of brussels sprouts on plasma and urinary glutathione S-transferase class-alpha and -pi in humans. Carcinogenesis 1995;16(4):955-957. View abstract.
  • Osborne MP. Chemoprevention of breast cancer. Surg Clin North Am 1999;79(5):1207-1221. View abstract.
  • Ovesen L, Lyduch S, Idorn ML. The effect of a diet rich in Brussels sprouts on warfarin pharmacokinetics. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998;34(5):521-523. View abstract.
  • Pantuck EJ, Pantuck CB, Anderson KE, et al. Effect of brussels sprouts and cabbage on drug conjugation. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1984;35:161-9. View abstract.
  • Papapolychroniadis C. Environmental and other risk factors for colorectal carcinogenesis. Tech Coloproctol 2004;8 Suppl 1:s7-s9. View abstract.
  • Rohrmann S, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Platz EA. Fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of micronutrients, and benign prostatic hyperplasia in US men. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85(2):523-9. View abstract.
  • Shannon MC, Grieve CM. Tolerance of vegetable crops to salinity. Scientia Horticulturae 1999;78:5-38.
  • Smith AF. Food and Drink in American History: A "Full Course" Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2013.
  • Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, Yaun SS, et al. Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. JAMA 2001;285(6):769-76. View abstract.
  • Verhagen H, de Vries A, Nijhoff WA, et al. Effect of Brussels sprouts on oxidative DNA-damage in man. Cancer Lett 1997;114(1-2):127-130. View abstract.
  • Verhoeven DT, Verhagen H, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA, van Poppel G. A review of mechanisms underlying anticarcinogenicity by brassica vegetables. Chem Biol Interact 1997;103(2):79-129. View abstract.
  • Wagner AE, Huebbe P, Konishi T, et al. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of ascorbigen versus ascorbic acid: studies in vitro and in cultured human keratinocytes. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56(24):11694-11699. View abstract.
  • Wortelboer HM, de Kruif CA, van Iersel AAJ, et al. Effects of cooked Brussels sprouts on cytochrome P-450 profile and phase II enzymes in liver and small intestinal mucosa of the rat. Food Chem Toxicol 1992;30(1):17-27. View abstract.
  • Zhao H, Lin J, Grossman HB, et al. Dietary isothiocyanates, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2 polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. Int J Cancer 2007;120:2208-13. View abstract.
  • Lemos JR, Alencastro MG, Konrath AV, Cargnin M, Manfro RC. Flaxseed oil supplementation decreases C-reactive protein levels in chronic hemodialysis patients. Nutr Res. 2012 Dec;32(12):921-7. View abstract.
  • Liu S, Serdula M, Janket SJ, et al. A prospective study of fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care 2004;27(12):2993-6. View abstract.
  • Michaud DS, Spiegelman D, Clinton SK, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of bladder cancer in a male prospective cohort. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91(7):605-13. View abstract.
  • Morel F, Langouet S, Maheo K, Guillouzo A. The use of primary hepatocyte cultures for the evaluation of chemoprotective agents. Cell Biol Toxicol 1997;13(4-5):323-329. View abstract.
  • Nijhoff WA, Grubben MJ, Nagengast FM, et al. Effects of consumption of Brussels sprouts on intestinal and lymphocytic glutathione S-transferases in humans. Carcinogenesis 1995;16(9):2125-2128. View abstract.
  • Nijhoff WA, Mulder TP, Verhagen H, van Poppel G, Peters, W. H. Effects of consumption of brussels sprouts on plasma and urinary glutathione S-transferase class-alpha and -pi in humans. Carcinogenesis 1995;16(4):955-957. View abstract.
  • Ovesen L, Lyduch S, Idorn ML. The effect of a diet rich in Brussels sprouts on warfarin pharmacokinetics. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998;34(5):521-523. View abstract.
  • Pantuck EJ, Pantuck CB, Anderson KE, et al. Effect of brussels sprouts and cabbage on drug conjugation. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1984;35:161-9. View abstract.
  • Papapolychroniadis C. Environmental and other risk factors for colorectal carcinogenesis. Tech Coloproctol 2004;8 Suppl 1:s7-s9. View abstract.
  • Rodriguez-Leyva D, Weighell W, Edel AL, LaVallee R, Dibrov E, Pinneker R, Maddaford TG, Ramjiawan B, Aliani M, Guzman R, Pierce GN. Potent antihypertensive action of dietary flaxseed in hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 2013 Dec;62(6):1081-9. View abstract.
  • Rohrmann S, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Platz EA. Fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of micronutrients, and benign prostatic hyperplasia in US men. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85(2):523-9. View abstract.
  • Ruetzler K, Fleck M, Nabecker S, Pinter K, Landskron G, Lassnigg A, You J, Sessler DI. A randomized, double-blind comparison of licorice versus sugar-water gargle for prevention of postoperative sore throat and postextubation coughing. Anesth Analg. 2013 Sep;117(3):614-21. View abstract.
  • Shannon MC, Grieve CM. Tolerance of vegetable crops to salinity. Scientia Horticulturae 1999;78:5-38.
  • Smith AF. Food and Drink in American History: A "Full Course" Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2013.
  • Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, Yaun SS, et al. Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. JAMA 2001;285(6):769-76. View abstract.
  • Verhagen H, de Vries A, Nijhoff WA, et al. Effect of Brussels sprouts on oxidative DNA-damage in man. Cancer Lett 1997;114(1-2):127-130. View abstract.
  • Verhoeven DT, Verhagen H, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA, van Poppel G. A review of mechanisms underlying anticarcinogenicity by brassica vegetables. Chem Biol Interact 1997;103(2):79-129. View abstract.
  • Wagner AE, Huebbe P, Konishi T, et al. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of ascorbigen versus ascorbic acid: studies in vitro and in cultured human keratinocytes. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56(24):11694-11699. View abstract.
  • Wong H, Chahal N, Manlhiot C, Niedra E, McCrindle BW. Flaxseed in pediatric hyperlipidemia: a placebo-controlled, blinded, randomized clinical trial of dietary flaxseed supplementation for children and adolescents with hypercholesterolemia. JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Aug 1;167(8):708-13. View abstract.
  • Wortelboer HM, de Kruif CA, van Iersel AAJ, et al. Effects of cooked Brussels sprouts on cytochrome P-450 profile and phase II enzymes in liver and small intestinal mucosa of the rat. Food Chem Toxicol 1992;30(1):17-27. View abstract.
  • Zhao H, Lin J, Grossman HB, et al. Dietary isothiocyanates, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2 polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. Int J Cancer 2007;120:2208-13. View abstract.
  • Allaby RG, Peterson GW, Merriwether DA, Fu YB. Evidence of the domestication history of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) from genetic diversity of the sad2 locus. Theor Appl Genet. 2005 Dec;112(1):58-65. View abstract.
  • Alvarez-Perea A, Alzate -Pérez D, Doleo Maldonado A, Baeza ML. Anaphylaxis caused by flaxseed. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2013;23(6):446-7. View abstract.
  • Azrad M, Vollmer RT, Madden J, Dewhirst M, Polascik TJ, Snyder DC, Ruffin MT, Moul JW, Brenner DE, Demark-Wahnefried W. Flaxseed-derived enterolactone is inversely associated with tumor cell proliferation in men with localized prostate cancer. J Med Food. 2013 Apr;16(4):357-60. View abstract.
  • Benson AB III. Oltipraz: a laboratory and clinical review. J Cell Biochem Suppl 1993;17F:278-291. View abstract.
  • Billinsky J, Glew RA, Cornish SM, Whiting SJ, Thorpe LU, Alcorn J, Paus-Jenssen L, Hadjistavropoulos T, Chilibeck PD. No evidence of hypoglycemia or hypotension in older adults during 6 months of flax lignan supplementation in a randomized controlled trial: a safety evaluation. Pharm Biol. 2013 Jun;51(6):778-82. View abstract.
  • Bradfield CA, Bjeldanes LF. Modification of carcinogen metabolism by indolylic autolysis products of Brassica oleraceae. Adv Exp Med Biol 1991;289:153-163. View abstract.
  • Brennan P, Hsu CC, Moullan N, et al. Effect of cruciferous vegetables on lung cancer in patients stratified by genetic status: a mendelian randomisation approach. Lancet 2005;366(9496):1558-60. View abstract.
  • Caligiuri SP, Aukema HM, Ravandi A, Guzman R, Dibrov E, Pierce GN. Flaxseed consumption reduces blood pressure in patients with hypertension by altering circulating oxylipins via an a-linolenic acid-induced inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase. Hypertension. 2014 Jul;64(1):53-9. View abstract.
  • Cao G, Booth SL, Sadowski JA, Prior RL. Increases in human plasma antioxidant capacity after consumption of controlled diets high in fruit and vegetables. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68(5):1081-1087. View abstract.
  • Cashman JR, Xiong Y, Lin J, et al. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of human flavin-containing monooxygenase form 3 (FMO3) in the presence of dietary indoles. Biochem Pharmacol 1999;58(6):1047-1055. View abstract.
  • Chang ET, Smedby KE, Zhang SM, et al. Dietary factors and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in men and women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005;14(2):512-20. View abstract.
  • Chen Y, Abbate M, Tang L, Cai G, Gong Z, Wei R, Zhou J, Chen X. L-Carnitine supplementation for adults with end-stage kidney disease requiring maintenance hemodialysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Feb;99(2):408-22. View abstract.
  • Cohen, J. H., Kristal, A. R., and Stanford, J. L. Fruit and vegetable intakes and prostate cancer risk. J Natl.Cancer Inst. 1-5-2000;92(1):61-68. View abstract.
  • Craig WJ. Phytochemicals: guardians of our health. J Am Diet Assoc 1997;97(10 Suppl 2):S199-S204. View abstract.
  • Cruciani RA, Zhang JJ, Manola J, Cella D, Ansari B, Fisch MJ. L-carnitine supplementation for the management of fatigue in patients with cancer: an eastern cooperative oncology group phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Nov 1;30(31):3864-9. View abstract.
  • Ferguson LR. Micronutrients, dietary questionnaires and cancer. Biomed Pharmacother 1997;51(8):337-344. View abstract.
  • Fowke JH, Morrow JD, Motley S, Bostick RM, Ness RM. Brassica vegetable consumption reduces urinary F2-isoprostane levels independent of micronutrient intake. Carcinogenesis 2006;27(10):2096-2102. View abstract.
  • Gamet-Payrastre L. Signaling pathways and intracellular targets of sulforaphane mediating cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2006;6(2):135-145. View abstract.
  • Gaudet MM, Britton JA, Kabat GC, et al. Fruits, vegetables, and micronutrients in relation to breast cancer modified by menopause and hormone receptor status. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004;13(9):1485-94. View abstract.
  • Hatamkhani S, Khalili H, Karimzadeh I, Dashti-Khavidaki S, Abdollahi A, Jafari S. Carnitine for prevention of antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity: a randomized, clinical trial. J Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2014 May;29(5):997-1004. View abstract.
  • Hughes R, Pollock JR, Bingham S. Effect of vegetables, tea, and soy on endogenous N-nitrosation, fecal ammonia, and fecal water genotoxicity during a high red meat diet in humans. Nutr Cancer 2002;42(1):70-77. View abstract.
  • Hutchins AM, Brown BD, Cunnane SC, Domitrovich SG, Adams ER, Bobowiec CE. Daily flaxseed consumption improves glycemic control in obese men and women with pre-diabetes: a randomized study. Nutr Res. 2013 May;33(5):367-75. View abstract.
  • Jongen WM. Glucosinolates in Brassica: occurrence and significance as cancer-modulating agents. Proc Nutr Soc 1996;55(1B):433-46. View abstract.
  • Joshipura KJ, Ascherio A, Manson JE, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake in relation to risk of ischemic stroke. JAMA 1999;282:1233-39. View abstract.
  • Khalatbari Soltani S, Jamaluddin R, Tabibi H, Mohd Yusof BN, Atabak S, Loh SP, Rahmani L. Effects of flaxseed consumption on systemic inflammation and serum lipid profile in hemodialysis patients with lipid abnormalities. Hemodial Int. 2013 Apr;17(2):275-81. View abstract.
  • Khalesi S, Irwin C, Schubert M. Flaxseed consumption may reduce blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Nutr. 2015 Apr;145(4):758-65. View abstract.
  • Kissel JT, Scott CB, Reyna SP, Crawford TO, Simard LR, Krosschell KJ, Acsadi G, Elsheik B, Schroth MK, D'Anjou G, LaSalle B, Prior TW, Sorenson S, Maczulski JA, Bromberg MB, Chan GM, Swoboda KJ; Project Cure Spinal Muscular Atrophy Investigators' Network. SMA CARNIVAL TRIAL PART II: a prospective, single-armed trial of L-carnitine and valproic acid in ambulatory children with spinal muscular atrophy. PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e21296. View abstract.
  • Koizumi Y, Arai H, Nagase H, Kano S, Tachizawa N, Sagawa T, Yamaguchi M, Ohta K. [Case report: anaphylaxis caused by linseed included in baked bread]. Arerugi. 2014 Jul;63(7):945-50. View abstract.
  • Kolonel, L. N., Hankin, J. H., Whittemore, A. S., Wu, A. H., Gallagher, R. P., Wilkens, L. R., John, E. M., Howe, G. R., Dreon, D. M., West, D. W., and Paffenbarger, R. S., Jr. Vegetables, fruits, legumes and prostate cancer: a multiethnic case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2000;9(8):795-804. View abstract.

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