SYRIAN RUE

OTHER NAME(S):

African Rue, Alharma, Gamarza, Harmalkraute, Harmel, Harmelbuske, Peganum harmala, Rue Savage, Steppenraute, Wild Rue.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Syrian rue is a plant that grows in parts of the United States, Asia, Africa, and Europe. The seeds of the plant can cause hallucinations and have stimulant effects when taken by mouth.

People take Syrian rue by mouth to terminate pregnancy and for the absence of a monthly menstrual period, cancer, depression, diabetes, painful menstruation, hypothermia, insomnia, pain, parasites, Parkinson's disease, and a joint disorder called rheumatoid arthritis.

People apply Syrian rue to the skin for hair loss, dandruff, eczema, hemorrhoids, and scaly, itchy skin (psoriasis).

In manufacturing, the Syrian rue seeds are used to produce a red dye to color rugs.

How does it work?

The Syrian rue seed contains chemicals called beta-carbonlines. These chemicals cause many different effects in the body, including stimulant effects and hallucinations. However, these constituents also seem to have effects that are similar to certain medicines used to treat Alzheimer's disease.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

More evidence is needed to rate Syrian rue for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Syrian rue is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in low doses. Taking 3-4 grams of Syrian rue seeds can cause hallucinations and stimulant effects.

Syrian rue is LIKELY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in high doses. Serious side effects affecting the nervous system, heart, liver, and kidneys, as well as death, have been reported in people who consumed high amounts of Syrian rue seeds.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Syrian rue is LIKELY UNSAFE when taken by mouth during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Syrian rue can make a pregnant woman go into labor. Avoid use.

Slow heart rate and heart disease: Syrian rue contains the chemicals harmaline and harmine. These chemicals might cause complications in people who have a slow heart rate or heart disease. People with these conditions should avoid taking Syrian rue.

Blockage in the stomach: Syrian rue contains the chemicals harmaline and harmine. These chemicals might cause complications in people who have a blockage in the stomach. People with this condition should avoid taking Syrian rue.

Liver disease: Liver damage has occurred in people who have taken Syrian rue. People with liver diseases, including hepatitis, should avoid taking Syrian rue.

Stomach ulcers: Syrian rue contains the chemicals harmaline and harmine. These chemicals might cause complications in people who have stomach ulcers. People with stomach ulcers should avoid taking Syrian rue.

Lung conditions: Syrian rue contains the chemicals harmaline and harmine. These chemicals might cause complications in people who have lung conditions, including asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). People with lung conditions should avoid taking Syrian rue.

Seizures: Syrian rue contains the chemicals harmaline and harmine. These chemicals might cause complications in people who have seizures. People with seizures should avoid taking Syrian rue.

Surgery: Syrian rue can affect levels of serotonin in the brain. In theory, Syrian rue might interfere with surgical procedures. Discontinue Syrian rue use at least 2 weeks before a planned surgery.

Blockage in the urinary tract: Syrian rue contains the chemicals harmaline and harmine. These chemicals might cause complications in people who have a blockage in the urinary track. People with this condition should avoid taking Syrian rue.
Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for SYRIAN RUE Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of Syrian rue depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for Syrian rue (in children/in adults). Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

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  • Khan, A. M., Abbas, G., Qureshi, R. A., Khan, U., Ghufran, M. A., and Stoeckli-Evans, H. 3-Hydr-oxy-1,2,3,9-tetra-hydro-pyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazolin-4-ium chloride dihydrate: (+)-vasicinol hydro-chloride dihydrate from Peganum harmala L. Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online 2009;65(Pt 3):o474-o475. View abstract.
  • Kim, D. H., Jang, Y. Y., Han, E. S., and Lee, C. S. Protective effect of harmaline and harmalol against dopamine- and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative damage of brain mitochondria and synaptosomes, and viability loss of PC12 cells. Eur J Neurosci 2001;13(10):1861-1872. View abstract.
  • Kolasiewicz, W., Kuter, K., Nowak, P., Pastuszka, A., and Ossowska, K. Lesion of the cerebellar noradrenergic innervation enhances the harmaline-induced tremor in rats. Cerebellum 2011;10(2):267-280. View abstract.
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  • Lamchouri, F., Settaf, A., Cherrah, Y., El Hamidi M., Tligui, N., Lyoussi, B., and Hassar, M. Experimental toxicity of Peganum harmala seeds. Ann Pharm Fr 2002;60(2):123-129. View abstract.
  • Lamchouri, F., Settaf, A., Cherrah, Y., Hassar, M., Zemzami, M., Atif, N., Nadori, E. B., Zaid, A., and Lyoussi, B. In vitro cell-toxicity of Peganum harmala alkaloids on cancerous cell-lines. Fitoterapia 2000;71(1):50-54. View abstract.
  • Lamchouri, F., Settaf, A., Cherrah, Y., Zemzami, M., Lyoussi, B., Zaid, A., Atif, N., and Hassar, M. Antitumour principles from Peganum harmala seeds. Therapie 1999;54(6):753-758. View abstract.
  • Larochelle, L., Bedard, P., and Poirier, L. H. [Postural trembling induced by harmaline in monkeys bearing lesions of the brain stem]. J Physiol (Paris) 1968;60 Suppl 2:369. View abstract.
  • Lee, C. S., Han, E. S., Jang, Y. Y., Han, J. H., Ha, H. W., and Kim, D. E. Protective effect of harmalol and harmaline on MPTP neurotoxicity in the mouse and dopamine-induced damage of brain mitochondria and PC12 cells. J Neurochem 2000;75(2):521-531. View abstract.
  • Li, G. W., Liang, P. G., and Pan, G. Y. [Radioprotective effect of gamma-harmine and its carboline analogues]. Yao Xue Xue Bao 1995;30(9):715-717. View abstract.
  • Li, Y., Sattler, R., Yang, E. J., Nunes, A., Ayukawa, Y., Akhtar, S., Ji, G., Zhang, P. W., and Rothstein, J. D. Harmine, a natural beta-carboline alkaloid, upregulates astroglial glutamate transporter expression. Neuropharmacology 2011;60(7-8):1168-1175. View abstract.
  • Lutes, J., Lorden, J. F., Beales, M., and Oltmans, G. A. Tolerance to the tremorogenic effects of harmaline: evidence for altered olivo-cerebellar function. Neuropharmacology 1988;27(8):849-855. View abstract.
  • Ma, Y. and Wink, M. The beta-carboline alkaloid harmine inhibits BCRP and can reverse resistance to the anticancer drugs mitoxantrone and camptothecin in breast cancer cells. Phytother Res 2010;24(1):146-149. View abstract.
  • Maestre, A., Balon, M., Munoz, M. A., Tejeda, P. O., and Sanchez, M. Determination of the dissociation constants of alkaloids from the family of Peganum harmala. Anales de la Real Academia de Farmacia (Spain) 1984;50:105-114.
  • Marchetti, E., Gauthier, G. M., and Pellet, J. Cerebellar control of eye movements studied with injection of harmaline in the trained baboon. Arch Ital Biol 1983;121(1):1-17. View abstract.
  • Mehta, H., Saravanan, K. S., and Mohanakumar, K. P. Serotonin synthesis inhibition in olivo-cerebellar system attenuates harmaline-induced tremor in Swiss albino mice. Behav Brain Res 2003;145(1-2):31-36. View abstract.
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