SODIUM

OTHER NAME(S):

Acétate de Sodium, Atomic number 11, Benzoate de Sodium, Chlorure de Sodium, Citrate de Sodium, Elemental Sodium, Lactate de Sodium, Na, Natrium, Numéro Atomique 11, Saline, Sea Salt, Sel Marin, Sel de Mer, Sel de Table, Sodium Acetate, Sodium Benzoate, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Citrate, Sodium Élémentaire, Sodium Lactate, Table Salt.

Overview

Overview Information

Sodium is a type of metal that is very reactive. Since it's so reactive, sodium is never found in free form in nature. Instead, sodium is always found as a salt. The most common dietary form of sodium is sodium chloride. Sodium chloride is commonly referred to as table salt.

People take sodium by mouth in the form of sodium chloride for low sodium levels, to prevent kidney toxicity caused by the drug amphotericin B, and to prevent kidney toxicity caused by contrast agents used to image parts of the body.

People inject sodium intravenously (by IV) in the form of sodium chloride solution (called saline) to prevent kidney toxicity caused by the drug amphotericin B, to reduce brain swelling and pressure inside the skull, and for a complication of infection called sepsis.

People apply sodium in the form of sodium chloride solution (called saline) for pinkeye (conjunctivitis), dry eye syndrome, mouth sores, nasal congestion, sore throat, and sinusitis.

People inhale sodium in the form of sodium chloride solution for cystic fibrosis.

In foods, sodium chloride is used to add flavor and preserve food.

How does it work?

Inhaling sodium chloride helps produce sputum (phlegm, mucus). This makes it easier for patients with cystic fibrosis to breathe. Sodium also helps the body to balance levels of fluid and electrolytes in the body. This balance can affect blood pressure and the health of the kidneys and heart.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Effective for

  • Low levels of sodium in the blood (hyponatremia). Giving sodium chloride solutions (called hypertonic saline) intravenously (by IV) to patients with moderately or severely low blood levels of sodium helps reduce symptoms caused by low levels of sodium.

Likely Effective for

  • Cystic fibrosis. When used as an inhalant along with medicine to dilate airway passages, 3% to 7% solutions of sodium chloride (called hypertonic saline) reduce airway obstruction short-term and reduce the number of lung problems and improve quality of life long-term in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Possibly Effective for

  • Kidney injury caused by an antifungal drug (amphotericin B nephrotoxicity). Giving sodium chloride solution by mouth or intravenously (by IV) to patients receiving amphotericin B lessens the decline in kidney function caused by amphotericin B.
  • Swelling (inflammation) of the nasal cavity and sinuses (rhinosinusitis). Irrigating nasal passages with sodium chloride solution appears to improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with long-term swelling of the sinuses. However, sodium chloride solution does not seem to be as effective as steroid drugs.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Growth and development in premature infants. Early research shows that adding extra sodium to formula that is fed to premature infants improves weight gain.
  • Dry eye syndrome.
  • Kidney problems caused by dyes used during some X-ray exams.
  • Mouth sores.
  • Pinkeye.
  • Sepsis.
  • Sore throat.
  • To reduce brain swelling and pressure inside the skull.
  • Other conditions.
Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Sodium is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth appropriately. Doses less than 2.3 grams per day are safe for most adults. In some people, sodium might increase blood pressure. However, sodium is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken in doses greater than 2.3 grams daily. Larger doses might cause too much sodium to build up in the body. This might cause serious side effects including high blood pressure and heart disease.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Sodium is LIKELY SAFE for pregnant or breast-feeding women when taken by mouth in doses less than 1.5 grams per day. Sodium is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when take in higher amounts. Larger doses of sodium increase the risk of blood pressure becoming too high.

Children: Sodium is LIKELY SAFE for most children when taken by mouth appropriately. Sodium is safe when used in doses of less than 1.2 grams per day in children ages 1 to 3 years, 1.5 grams per day in children 4 to 8 years, 1.8 grams per day in children 9 to 13 years, and 2.3 grams per day in adolescents. Sodium is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken in higher amounts. Larger doses of sodium increase the risk of blood pressure becoming too high.

Heart disease: Patients with heart disease should consume sodium in moderation. Consuming sodium at levels above 2.3 grams daily can increase the risk of heart disease and death.

High levels of sodium in the body: Taking sodium increases levels of sodium in the body and might make this condition worse.

High blood pressure: Taking large amounts of sodium can increase blood pressure and might make this condition worse.

Kidney disease: Patients with kidney disease should limit sodium intake. Consuming large amounts of sodium can worsen kidney disease.

Obesity: Obese people or those at risk for obesity should consume sodium in moderation. Some research shows that consuming large amounts of sodium might cause people to gain more weight.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for SODIUM Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

ADULTS

BY MOUTH:

  • General: The adequate intake (AI) of sodium is 1.5 grams per day for most adults, including pregnant or breastfeeding women. The recommended maximum intake of sodium is 2.3 grams per day for most adults.
  • For preventing kidney toxicity caused by amphotericin B: 150 mEq sodium chloride is given daily during treatment with amphotericin B.
INTRAVENOUS:
  • For treating low levels of sodium: The common starting dose of sodium is 100-150 mL of a solution containing 3% sodium chloride for 20 minutes and repeated until sodium levels increase by 4-6 mmol/L. After this increase occurs, a solution containing 0.9% sodium chloride is given until sodium levels increase by 10 mmol/L over the first 24 hours and by 8 mmol/L every 24 hours thereafter until sodium levels reach 130 mmol/L.
  • For preventing kidney toxicity caused by amphotericin B: 150 mEq sodium chloride is given daily during treatment with amphotericin B.
INHALATION:
  • For treating cystic fibrosis: 10 mL of sodium chloride solution (3% to 7%) is inhaled using a nebulizer twice per day.
INTRANASAL:
  • For treating swelling of the sinuses: Approximately 150-500 mL of nasal irrigation or nasal sprays containing 0.9% to 3% sodium chloride are used two to four times per day.
CHILDREN

BY MOUTH:

  • General: The adequate intake (AI) of sodium is 0.11 grams per day for infants up to 6 months old, 0.37 grams per day for infants 7-12 months old, 0.8 grams per day for children 1-3 years old, 1 gram per day for children 4-8 years old, 1.2 grams per day for children 9-13 years old, and 1.5 grams per day for children 14 years and older.

View References

REFERENCES:

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