Acétate de Sodium, Atomic number 11, Benzoate de Sodium, Chlorure de Sodium, Citrate de Sodium, Elemental Sodium, Lactate de Sodium, Na, Natrium, Numéro Atomique 11, Saline, Sea Salt, Sel Marin, Sel de Mer, Sel de Table, Sodium Acetate, Sodium Benzoate, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Citrate, Sodium Élémentaire, Sodium Lactate, Table Salt.


Overview Information

Sodium is a type of metal that is very reactive. Since it's so reactive, sodium is never found in free form in nature. Instead, sodium is always found as a salt. The most common dietary form of sodium is sodium chloride. Sodium chloride is commonly referred to as table salt.

People take sodium by mouth in the form of sodium chloride for low sodium levels, to prevent kidney toxicity caused by the drug amphotericin B, and to prevent kidney toxicity caused by contrast agents used to image parts of the body.

People inject sodium intravenously (by IV) in the form of sodium chloride solution (called saline) to prevent kidney toxicity caused by the drug amphotericin B, to reduce brain swelling and pressure inside the skull, and for a complication of infection called sepsis.

People apply sodium in the form of sodium chloride solution (called saline) for pinkeye (conjunctivitis), dry eye syndrome, mouth sores, nasal congestion, sore throat, and sinusitis.

People inhale sodium in the form of sodium chloride solution for cystic fibrosis.

In foods, sodium chloride is used to add flavor and preserve food.

How does it work?

Inhaling sodium chloride helps produce sputum (phlegm, mucus). This makes it easier for patients with cystic fibrosis to breathe. Sodium also helps the body to balance levels of fluid and electrolytes in the body.


Uses & Effectiveness?

Effective for

  • Low levels of sodium in the blood (hyponatremia). Giving sodium chloride solutions (called hypertonic saline) intravenously (by IV) to patients with moderately or severely low blood levels of sodium helps reduce symptoms caused by low levels of sodium.

Likely Effective for

  • Cystic fibrosis. When used as an inhalant along with medicine to dilate airway passages, 3% to 7% solutions of sodium chloride (called hypertonic saline) reduce airway obstruction short-term and reduce the number of lung problems and improve quality of life long-term in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Possibly Effective for

  • Kidney problems caused by the drug amphotericin B. Giving sodium chloride solution by mouth or intravenously (by IV) to patients receiving amphotericin B lessens the decline in kidney function caused by amphotericin B.
  • Swelling of the sinus. Irrigating nasal passages with sodium chloride solution appears to improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with long-term swelling of the sinuses. However, sodium chloride solution does not seem to be as effective as steroid drugs.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Dry eye syndrome.
  • Kidney problems caused by dyes used during some X-ray exams..
  • Mouth sores.
  • Pinkeye.
  • Sepsis.
  • Sore throat.
  • To reduce brain swelling and pressure inside the skull.
  • Other conditions.
Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Sodium is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth appropriately or when administered as a medicine. In some people, sodium might increase blood pressure.

Doses less than 2.3 grams per day are safe for most adults. When taken in very large amounts, sodium is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Larger doses might cause too much sodium to build up in the body. This might cause serious side effects including high blood pressure, swelling of the lining of the stomach, and increased risk of stomach cancer. High amounts of sodium might also increase bone and muscle loss in people on bed rest.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Sodium is LIKELY SAFE for pregnant or breast-feeding women when taken by mouth in doses less than 2.3 grams per day. Sodium is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when take in higher amounts. Larger doses of sodium increase the risk of blood pressure becoming too high.

Children: Sodium is LIKELY SAFE for most children when taken by mouth appropriately. Sodium is safe when used in doses of less than 1.5 grams per day in children ages 1 to 3 years, 1.9 grams per day in children 4 to 8 years, 2.2 grams per day in children 9 to 13 years, and 2.3 grams per day in adolescents. Sodium is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken in higher amounts. Larger doses of sodium increase the risk of blood pressure becoming too high.

High levels of sodium in the body: Taking sodium increases levels of sodium in the body and might make this condition worse.

High blood pressure: Taking large amounts of sodium can increase blood pressure and might make this condition worse.



We currently have no information for SODIUM Interactions.



The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


Sodium supplementation must be tailored for each person and based on the person's serum sodium level, which should be maintained at 130 mmol/L.
The normal adult daily requirement and usual dietary intake of sodium is 2.3 grams daily.

  • For preventing kidney toxicity caused by amphotericin B: 150 mEq sodium chloride is given daily during treatment with amphotericin B.
  • For treating low levels of sodium: the common starting dose of sodium is 100-150 mL of a solution containing 3% sodium chloride for 20 minutes and repeated until sodium levels increase by 4-6 mmol/L. After this increase occurs, a solution containing 0.9% sodium chloride is given until sodium levels increase by 10 mmol/L over the first 24 hours and by 8 mmol/L every 24 hours thereafter until sodium levels reach 130 mmol/L.
  • For preventing kidney toxicity caused by amphotericin B: 150 mEq sodium chloride is given daily during treatment with amphotericin B.
  • For treating cystic fibrosis: 10 mL of sodium chloride solution (3% to 7%) is inhaled using a nebulizer twice per day.
  • For treating swelling of the sinuses: approximately 150-500 mL of nasal irrigation or nasal sprays containing 0.9% to 3% sodium chloride are used two to four times per day (26228).

View References


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  • Anderson CM. Sodium chloride treatment of amphotericin B nephrotoxicity. Standard of care? West J Med 1995 Apr;162(4):313-7. View abstract.
  • Bennett WM. Drug interactions and consequences of sodium restriction. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65(2 Suppl):678S-681S. View abstract.
  • Boudville N, Ward S, Benaroia M, House AA. Increased sodium intake correlates with greater use of antihypertensive agents by subjects with chronic kidney disease. Am J Hypertens 2005;18(10):1300-5. View abstract.
  • Brown IJ, Tzoulaki I, Candeias V, Elliott P. Salt intakes around the world: implications for public health. Int J Epidemiol 2009;38(3):791-813. View abstract.
  • Coton T, Mallaret C, Coilliot C, Carre D, Guisset M. Severe acute ulcerated gastritis induced by salt. Presse Med 2009;38(3):499-500. View abstract.
  • D'Elia L, Rossi G, Ippolito R, Cappuccio FP, Strazzullo P. Habitual salt intake and risk of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Clin Nutr 2012;31(4):489-98. View abstract.
  • Diaconu CC, Balaceanu A, Bartos D. Diuretics, first-line antihypertensive agents: are they always safe in the elderly? Rom J Intern Med 2014;52(2):87-90. View abstract.
  • Elkins MR, Robinson M, Rose BR, et al; National Hypertonic Saline in Cystic Fibrosis (NHSCF) Study Group. A controlled trial of long-term inhaled hypertonic saline in patients with cystic fibrosis. N Engl J Med 2006 Jan 19;354(3):229-40. View abstract.
  • Food and Drug Administration Science Background: Safety of Sodium Phosphates Oral Solution. September 17, 2001. Available at:
  • Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2005. Available at:
  • Frings-Meuthen P, Baecker N, Heer M. Low-grade metabolic acidosis may be the cause of sodium chloride-induced exaggerated bone resorption. J Bone Miner Res 2008;23(4):517-524. View abstract.
  • Frings-Meuthen P, Buehlmeier J, Baecker N, et al. High sodium chloride intake exacerbates immobilization-induced bone resorption and protein losses. J Appl Physiol 2011;111(2):537-542. View abstract.
  • Garabedian-Ruffalo SM, Ruffalo RL. Drug and nutrient interactions. Am Fam Physician 1986;33:165-74. View abstract.
  • Giorlando F, Teister J, Dodd S, Udina M, Berk M. Hyponatraemia: an audit of aged psychiatry patients taking SSRIs and SNRIs. Curr Drug Saf 2013;8(3):175-80. View abstract.
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  • Harvey R, Hannan SA, Badia L, Scadding G. Nasal saline irrigations for the symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;(3):CD006394. View abstract.
  • Lin CH, Lu CH, Wang FJ, et al. Risk factors of oxcarbazepine-induced hyponatremia in patients with epilepsy. Clin Neuropharmacol 2010;33(6):293-296. View abstract.
  • Mannesse CK, Jansen PA, Van Marum RJ, Sival RC, Kok RM, Haffmans PM, Egberts TC. Characteristics, prevalence, risk factors, and underlying mechanism of hyponatremia in elderly patients treated with antidepressants: a cross-sectional study. Maturitas 2013;76(4):357-63. View abstract.
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  • Sterns RH. Disorders of plasma sodium--causes, consequences, and correction. N Engl J Med 2015;372(1):55-65. View abstract.
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CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

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