People take sodium by mouth in the form of sodium chloride for low sodium levels, to prevent kidney toxicity caused by the drug amphotericin B, and to prevent kidney toxicity caused by contrast agents used to image parts of the body.
People inject sodium intravenously (by IV) in the form of sodium chloride solution (called saline) to prevent kidney toxicity caused by the drug amphotericin B, to reduce brain swelling and pressure inside the skull, and for a complication of infection called sepsis.
People apply sodium in the form of sodium chloride solution (called saline) for pinkeye (conjunctivitis), dry eye syndrome, mouth sores, and sore throat.
People inhale sodium in the form of sodium chloride solution for cystic fibrosis.
In foods, sodium chloride is used to add flavor and preserve food.
How does it work ?
Uses & Effectiveness ?
- Low levels of sodium in the blood (hyponatremia). Giving sodium chloride solutions (called hypertonic saline) intravenously (by IV) to patients with moderately or severely low blood levels of sodium helps reduce symptoms caused by low levels of sodium.
Likely Effective for
- Cystic fibrosis. When used as an inhalant along with medicine to dilate airway passages, 3% to 7% solutions of sodium chloride (called hypertonic saline) reduce airway obstruction short-term and reduce the number of lung problems and improve quality of life long-term in patients with cystic fibrosis.
Possibly Effective for
- Kidney injury caused by an antifungal drug (amphotericin B nephrotoxicity). Giving sodium chloride solution by mouth or intravenously (by IV) to patients receiving amphotericin B lessens the decline in kidney function caused by amphotericin B.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Growth and development in premature infants. Early research shows that adding extra sodium to formula that is fed to premature infants improves weight gain.
- Dry eye syndrome.
- Kidney problems caused by dyes used during some X-ray exams.
- Mouth sores.
- Sore throat.
- To reduce brain swelling and pressure inside the skull.
- Other conditions.
Special Precautions and Warnings
Children: Sodium is LIKELY SAFE for most children when taken by mouth appropriately. Sodium is safe when used in doses of less than 1.2 grams per day in children ages 1 to 3 years, 1.5 grams per day in children 4 to 8 years, 1.8 grams per day in children 9 to 13 years, and 2.3 grams per day in adolescents. Sodium is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken in higher amounts. Larger doses of sodium increase the risk of blood pressure becoming too high.
Heart disease: Patients with heart disease should consume sodium in moderation. Consuming sodium at levels above 2.3 grams daily can increase the risk of heart disease and death.
High levels of sodium in the body: Taking sodium increases levels of sodium in the body and might make this condition worse.
High blood pressure: Taking large amounts of sodium can increase blood pressure and might make this condition worse.
Kidney disease: People with kidney disease should limit sodium intake. Consuming large amounts of sodium can worsen kidney disease.
Multiple sclerosis (MS): There is some concern that eating too much salt in the diet can worsen MS. But there is no research to prove it. If you have MS, there is no reason to lower your salt intake. But everyone should still stay below the maximum recommended amount of 2.3 grams daily.
Obesity: Obese people or those at risk for obesity should consume sodium in moderation. Some research shows that consuming large amounts of sodium might cause people to gain more weight.
Weak and brittle bones (osteoporosis): There is some concern that eating too much salt in the diet can worsen osteoporosis. But research on this topic is unclear. If you have osteoporosis, there is no reason to lower your salt intake. But everyone should still stay below the maximum recommended amount of 2.3 grams daily.
We currently have no information for SODIUM overview.
- General: The adequate intake (AI) of sodium is 1.5 grams per day for most adults, including pregnant or breastfeeding women. The recommended maximum intake of sodium is 2.3 grams per day for most adults.
- For preventing kidney toxicity caused by amphotericin B: 150 mEq sodium chloride is given daily during treatment with amphotericin B.
- For treating low levels of sodium: The common starting dose of sodium is 100-150 mL of a solution containing 3% sodium chloride for 20 minutes and repeated until sodium levels increase by 4-6 mmol/L. After this increase occurs, a solution containing 0.9% sodium chloride is given until sodium levels increase by 10 mmol/L over the first 24 hours and by 8 mmol/L every 24 hours thereafter until sodium levels reach 130 mmol/L.
- For preventing kidney toxicity caused by amphotericin B: 150 mEq sodium chloride is given daily during treatment with amphotericin B.
- For treating cystic fibrosis: 10 mL of sodium chloride solution (3% to 7%) is inhaled using a nebulizer twice per day.
- For treating swelling of the sinuses: Approximately 150-500 mL of nasal irrigation or nasal sprays containing 0.9% to 3% sodium chloride are used two to four times per day.
- General: The adequate intake (AI) of sodium is 0.11 grams per day for infants up to 6 months old, 0.37 grams per day for infants 7-12 months old, 0.8 grams per day for children 1-3 years old, 1 gram per day for children 4-8 years old, 1.2 grams per day for children 9-13 years old, and 1.5 grams per day for children 14 years and older.
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