Aronia arbutifolia, Aronia Berry, Aronia melanocarpa, Aronia nigra, Aronia prunifolia, Black Apple Berry, Black Chokeberry, Purple Chokeberry, Red Chokeberry, Wild Chokeberry.
Overview InformationChokeberry is a fruit that's commonly eaten as a food in Russia and parts of Eastern Europe.
People use chokeberry for heart disease, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and other conditions, but there's no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
How does it work?Chokeberry contains antioxidants and other chemicals. These chemicals might help to protect the heart and blood vessels, reduce swelling and blood sugar levels, and kill cancer cells.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Ineffective for
- Heart disease. Most research shows that taking chokeberry doesn't lower blood pressure, cholesterol levels, or blood sugar levels in people at risk for heart disease.
Insufficient Evidence for
- High cholesterol. Early research shows that drinking chokeberry juice daily might lower cholesterol levels by a small amount in people with high cholesterol.
- High blood pressure. Some early research shows that drinking chokeberry juice might lower blood pressure by a small amount in people with high blood pressure. But not all research agrees. All studies to date have been short-term. Higher-quality, long-term research is needed.
- A grouping of symptoms that increase the risk of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke (metabolic syndrome). Early research shows that taking a specific chokeberry extract or drinking a juice containing chokeberry extract might lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels in people with metabolic syndrome.
- Obesity. Early research shows that drinking chokeberry juice enriched with glucomannan fiber lowers body weight and blood pressure by a small amount in people who are obese. The people in this study were not dieting and exercising. So, it's unclear how chokeberry juice compared to dieting or exercise.
- Infections of the kidney, bladder, or urethra (urinary tract infections or UTIs). Early research in elderly adults living in nursing homes shows that drinking chokeberry juice daily does not decrease the risk of having a bladder infection.
- An eye disease that leads to vision loss in older adults (age-related macular degeneration or AMD).
- Breast cancer.
- Cadmium toxicity.
- Common cold.
- Conditions in a man that prevent him from getting a woman pregnant within a year of trying to conceive (male infertility).
- Infants with birth weight below the 10th percentile due to inadequate nutrition.
- Rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyWhen taken by mouth Drinking chokeberry juice or taking chokeberry extract as medicine is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults. Side effects from chokeberry juice are rare but may include constipation or diarrhea.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if chokeberry is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Diabetes: Chokeberry might lower blood sugar. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use chokeberry.
We currently have no information for CHOKEBERRY Interactions.
The appropriate dose of chokeberry depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for chokeberry. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
- 92366 Sonoda K, Aoi W, Iwata T, Li Y. Anthocyanin-rich Aronia melanocarpa extract improves body temperature maintenance in healthy women with a cold constitution. Springerplus. 2013 Nov 21;2:626. View abstract.
- Abdullah Thani NA, Sallis B, Nuttall R, Schubert FR, Ahsan M, Davies D, Purewal S, Cooper A, Rooprai HK. Induction of apoptosis and reduction of MMP gene expression in the U373 cell line by polyphenolics in Aronia melanocarpa and by curcumin. Oncol Rep. 2012 Oct;28(4):1435-42. View abstract.
- Bräunlich M, Christensen H, Johannesen S, Slimestad R, Wangensteen H, Malterud KE, Barsett H. In vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 by Aronia melanocarpa constituents. Planta Med. 2013 Jan;79(2):137-41. View abstract.
- Broncel M, Kozirog M, Duchnowicz P, Koter-Michalak M, Sikora J, Chojnowska-Jezierska J. Aronia melanocarpa extract reduces blood pressure, serum endothelin, lipid, and oxidative stress marker levels in patients with metabolic syndrome. Med Sci Monit. 2010 Jan;16(1):CR28-34. View abstract.
- Buckland G, Mayén AL, Agudo A, Travier N, Navarro C, Huerta JM, Chirlaque MD, Barricarte A, Ardanaz E, Moreno-Iribas C, Marin P, Quirós JR, Redondo ML, Amiano P, Dorronsoro M, Arriola L, Molina E, Sanchez MJ, Gonzalez CA. Olive oil intake and mortality within the Spanish population (EPIC-Spain). Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jul;96(1):142-9. View abstract.
- Chrubasik C, Li G, Chrubasik S. The clinical effectiveness of chokeberry: a systematic review. Phytother Res. 2010 Aug;24(8):1107-14. View abstract.
- Denev P, Kratchanova M, Ciz M, Lojek A, Vasicek O, Nedelcheva P, Blazheva D, Toshkova R, Gardeva E, Yossifova L, Hyrsl P, Vojtek L. Biological activities of selected polyphenol-rich fruits related to immunity and gastrointestinal health. Food Chem. 2014 Aug 15;157:37-44. View abstract.
- Duchnowicz P, Nowicka A, Koter-Michalak M, Broncel M. In vivo influence of extract from Aronia melanocarpa on the erythrocyte membranes in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Med Sci Monit. 2012 Sep;18(9):CR569-74. View abstract.
- García-Flores LA, Medina S, Cejuela-Anta R, Martínez-Sanz JM, Abellán Á, Genieser HG, Ferreres F, Gil-Izquierdo Á. DNA catabolites in triathletes: effects of supplementation with an aronia-citrus juice (polyphenols-rich juice). Food Funct. 2016 Apr;7(4):2084-93. View abstract.
- Goh AR, Youn GS, Yoo KY, Won MH, Han SZ, Lim SS, Lee KW, Choi SY, Park J. Aronia melanocarpa Concentrate Ameliorates Pro-Inflammatory Responses in HaCaT Keratinocytes and 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate-Induced Ear Edema in Mice. J Med Food. 2016 Jul;19(7):654-62. View abstract.
- Handeland M, Grude N, Torp T, Slimestad R. Black chokeberry juice (Aronia melanocarpa) reduces incidences of urinary tract infection among nursing home residents in the long term--a pilot study. Nutr Res. 2014 Jun;34(6):518-25. View abstract.
- Jurgonski A, Juskiewicz J, Zdunczyk Z. Ingestion of black chokeberry fruit extract leads to intestinal and systemic changes in a rat model of prediabetes and hyperlipidemia. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2008 Dec;63(4):176-82. View abstract.
- Kardum N, Milovanovic B, Savikin K, Zdunic G, Mutavdzin S, Gligorijevic T, Spasic S. Beneficial Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Chokeberry Juice Consumption on Blood Pressure Level and Lipid Status in Hypertensive Subjects. J Med Food. 2015 Nov;18(11):1231-8. View abstract.
- Kardum N, Petrovic-Oggiano G, Takic M, Glibetic N, Zec M, Debeljak-Martacic J, Konic-Ristic A. Effects of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on cellular antioxidant enzymes and membrane lipid status in subjects with abdominal obesity. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014;2014:869250. View abstract.
- Kay CD, Mazza G, Holub BJ, Wang J. Anthocyanin metabolites in human urine and serum. Br J Nutr. 2004 Jun;91(6):933-42. View abstract.
- Kay CD, Mazza GJ, Holub BJ. Anthocyanins exist in the circulation primarily as metabolites in adult men. J Nutr. 2005 Nov;135(11):2582-8. View abstract.
- Kedzierska M, Olas B, Wachowicz B, Glowacki R, Bald E, Czernek U, Szydlowska-Pazera K, Potemski P, Piekarski J, Jeziorski A. Effects of the commercial extract of aronia on oxidative stress in blood platelets isolated from breast cancer patients after the surgery and various phases of the chemotherapy. Fitoterapia. 2012 Mar;83(2):310-7. View abstract.
- Kim B, Ku CS, Pham TX, Park Y, Martin DA, Xie L, Taheri R, Lee J, Bolling BW. Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) polyphenol-rich extract improves antioxidant function and reduces total plasma cholesterol in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Nutr Res. 2013 May;33(5):406-13. View abstract.
- Kim JH, Auger C, Kurita I, Anselm E, Rivoarilala LO, Lee HJ, Lee KW, Schini-Kerth VB. Aronia melanocarpa juice, a rich source of polyphenols, induces endothelium-dependent relaxations in porcine coronary arteries via the redox-sensitive activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Nitric Oxide. 2013 Nov 30;35:54-64. View abstract.
- Kim NY, Lee HY. Enhancement of Cognitive Functions by Aronia melanocarpa Elliot Through an Intermittent Ultrasonication Extraction Process. J Med Food. 2016 Mar;19(3):245-52. View abstract.
- Kokotkiewicz A, Jaremicz Z, Luczkiewicz M. Aronia plants: a review of traditional use, biological activities, and perspectives for modern medicine. J Med Food. 2010 Apr;13(2):255-69. View abstract.
- Kowalczyk E, Fijalkowski P, Kura M, Krzesinski P, Blaszczyk J, Kowalski J, Smigielski J, Rutkowski M, Kopff M. [The influence of anthocyanins from Aronia melanocarpa on selected parameters of oxidative stress and microelements contents in men with hypercholesterolemia]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2005 Nov;19(113):651-3. View abstract.
- Kulling SE, Rawel HM. Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) - A review on the characteristic components and potential health effects. Planta Med. 2008 Oct;74(13):1625-34. View abstract.
- Lee HY, Weon JB, Jung YS, Kim NY, Kim MK, Ma CJ. Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of Aronia melanocarpa Extract against Memory Impairment Induced by Scopolamine in Mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:6145926. View abstract.
- Loo BM, Erlund I, Koli R, et al. Consumption of chokeberry (Aronia mitschurinii) products modestly lowered blood pressure and reduced low-grade inflammation in patients with mildly elevated blood pressure. Nutr Res. 2016;36(11):1222-1230. View abstract.
- Mulero J, Bernabé J, Cerdá B, García-Viguera C, Moreno DA, Albaladejo MD, Avilés F, Parra S, Abellán J, Zafrilla P. Variations on cardiovascular risk factors in metabolic syndrome after consume of a citrus-based juice. Clin Nutr. 2012 Jun;31(3):372-7. View abstract.
- Naruszewicz M, Laniewska I, Millo B, Dluzniewski M. Combination therapy of statin with flavonoids rich extract from chokeberry fruits enhanced reduction in cardiovascular risk markers in patients after myocardial infraction (MI). Atherosclerosis. 2007 Oct;194(2):e179-84. View abstract.
- Nowak D, Goslinski M, Wesolowska A, Berenda K, Poplawski C. Effects of acute consumption of noni and chokeberry juices vs. energy drinks on blood pressure, heart rate, and blood glucose in young adults. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019;2019:6076751. View abstract.
- Ohgami K, Ilieva I, Shiratori K, Koyama Y, Jin XH, Yoshida K, Kase S, Kitaichi N, Suzuki Y, Tanaka T, Ohno S. Anti-inflammatory effects of aronia extract on rat endotoxin-induced uveitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Jan;46(1):275-81. View abstract.
- Park S, Kim JI, Lee I, Lee S, Hwang MW, Bae JY, Heo J, Kim D, Han SZ, Park MS. Aronia melanocarpa and its components demonstrate antiviral activity against influenza viruses. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Oct 11;440(1):14-9. View abstract.
- Pawlowicz P, Stachowiak G, Bielak A, Wilczynski J. [Administration of natural anthocyanins derived from chokeberry (aronia melanocarpa) extract in the treatment of oligospermia in males with enhanced autoantibodies to oxidized low density lipoproteins (oLAB). The impact on fructose levels]. Ginekol Pol. 2001 Dec;72(12):983-8. View abstract.
- Pilaczynska-Szczesniak L, Skarpanska-Steinborn A, Deskur E, Basta P, Horoszkiewicz-Hassan M. The influence of chokeberry juice supplementation on the reduction of oxidative stress resulting from an incremental rowing ergometer exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005 Feb;15(1):48-58. View abstract.
- Pokimica B, García-Conesa MT, Zec M, et al. Chokeberry juice containing polyphenols does not affect cholesterol or blood pressure but modifies the composition of plasma phospholipids fatty acids in individuals at cardiovascular risk. Nutrients. 2019;11(4):850. View abstract.
- Poreba R, Skoczynska A, Gac P, Poreba M, Jedrychowska I, Affelska-Jercha A, Turczyn B, Wojakowska A, Oszmianski J, Andrzejak R. Drinking of chokeberry juice from the ecological farm Dzieciolowo and distensibility of brachial artery in men with mild hypercholesterolemia. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2009;16(2):305-8. View abstract.
- Qin B, Anderson RA. An extract of chokeberry attenuates weight gain and modulates insulin, adipogenic and inflammatory signalling pathways in epididymal adipose tissue of rats fed a fructose-rich diet. Br J Nutr. 2012 Aug;108(4):581-7. View abstract.
- Rahmani J, Clark C, Kord Varkaneh H, et al. The effect of Aronia consumption on lipid profile, blood pressure, and biomarkers of inflammation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phytother Res. 2019;33(8):1981-90. View abstract.
- Ryszawa N, Kawczynska-Drózdz A, Pryjma J, Czesnikiewicz-Guzik M, Adamek-Guzik T, Naruszewicz M, Korbut R, Guzik TJ. Effects of novel plant antioxidants on platelet superoxide production and aggregation in atherosclerosis. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;57(4):611-26. View abstract.
- Savikin K, Menkovic N, Zdunic G, Pljevljakusic D, Spasic S, Kardum N, Konic-Ristic A. Dietary supplementation with polyphenol-rich chokeberry juice improves skin morphology in cellulite. J Med Food. 2014 May;17(5):582-7. View abstract.
- Sikora J, Broncel M, Markowicz M, Chalubinski M, Wojdan K, Mikiciuk-Olasik E. Short-term supplementation with Aronia melanocarpa extract improves platelet aggregation, clotting, and fibrinolysis in patients with metabolic syndrome. Eur J Nutr. 2012 Aug;51(5):549-56. View abstract.
- Sikora J, Broncel M, Mikiciuk-Olasik E. Aronia melanocarpa Elliot reduces the activity of angiotensin i-converting enzyme-in vitro and ex vivo studies. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2014;2014:739721. View abstract.
- Simeonov SB, Botushanov NP, Karahanian EB, Pavlova MB, Husianitis HK, Troev DM. Effects of Aronia melanocarpa juice as part of the dietary regimen in patients with diabetes mellitus. Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2002;44(3):20-3. View abstract.
- Skarpanska-Stejnborn A, Basta P, Sadowska J, Pilaczynska-Szczesniak L. Effect of supplementation with chokeberry juice on the inflammatory status and markers of iron metabolism in rowers. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014 Oct 1;11(1):48. View abstract.
- Strippoli S, Lorusso V, Albano A, Guida M. Herbal-drug interaction induced rhabdomyolysis in a liposarcoma patient receiving trabectedin. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013 Jul 30;13:199. View abstract.
- Taira T, Yamaguchi S, Takahashi A, Okazaki Y, Yamaguchi A, Sakaguchi H, Chiji H. Dietary polyphenols increase fecal mucin and immunoglobulin A and ameliorate the disturbance in gut microbiota caused by a high fat diet. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2015 Nov;57(3):212-6. View abstract.
- Takahashi A, Shimizu H, Okazaki Y, Sakaguchi H, Taira T, Suzuki T, Chiji H. Anthocyanin-rich Phytochemicals from Aronia Fruits Inhibit Visceral Fat Accumulation and Hyperglycemia in High-fat Diet-induced Dietary Obese Rats. J Oleo Sci. 2015;64(12):1243-50. View abstract.
- Tjelle TE, Holtung L, Bøhn SK, Aaby K, Thoresen M, Wiik SÅ, Paur I, Karlsen AS, Retterstøl K, Iversen PO, Blomhoff R. Polyphenol-rich juices reduce blood pressure measures in a randomised controlled trial in high normal and hypertensive volunteers. Br J Nutr. 2015 Oct 14;114(7):1054-63. View abstract.
- Valcheva-Kuzmanova SV, Belcheva A. Current knowledge of Aronia melanocarpa as a medicinal plant. Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2006;48(2):11-7. View abstract.
- Valcheva-Kuzmanova SV, Eftimov MT, Tashev RE, Belcheva IP, Belcheva SP. Memory effects of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice in a passive avoidance test in rats. Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2014 Jul-Sep;56(3):199-203. View abstract.
- Varela CE, Fromentin E, Roller M, Villarreal F, Ramirez-Sanchez I. Effects of a natural extract of Aronia Melanocarpa berry on endothelial cell nitric oxide production. J Food Biochem. 2016 Aug;40(4):404-410. View abstract.
- Wiczkowski W, Romaszko E, Piskula MK. Bioavailability of cyanidin glycosides from natural chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) juice with dietary-relevant dose of anthocyanins in humans. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Dec 8;58(23):12130-6. View abstract.
- Xie L, Lee SG, Vance TM, Wang Y, Kim B, Lee JY, Chun OK, Bolling BW. Bioavailability of anthocyanins and colonic polyphenol metabolites following consumption of aronia berry extract. Food Chem. 2016 Nov 15;211:860-8. View abstract.
- Yaneva MP, Botushanova AD, Grigorov LA, Kokov JL, Todorova EP, Krachanova MG. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory activity of Aronia in combination with apple pectin in patients with breast cancer undergoing postoperative radiation therapy. Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2002;44(1-2):22-5. View abstract.
- Zapolska-Downar D, Bryk D, Malecki M, Hajdukiewicz K, Sitkiewicz D. Aronia melanocarpa fruit extract exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in human aortic endothelial cells. Eur J Nutr. 2012 Aug;51(5):563-72. View abstract.
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