Casein, Casein Hydrolysate, Casein Protein Hydrolysate, eHC, eHCP, Extensively Hydrolyzed Casein Protein, Intact Casein Protein, Sodium Caseinate.
Overview InformationCasein protein is a protein found in milk that gives milk its white color. Cow's milk consists of around 80% casein protein. In addition to milk, casein protein is found in yogurt, cheese, and infant formulas, as well as in a variety of dietary supplements.
Casein protein is taken by mouth to prevent itchy and inflamed skin (eczema), cow's milk allergy, high levels of a chemical called bilirubin in the blood of newborns (neonatal jaundice), muscle soreness after exercise, and allergies (atopic disease). It is also used to improve athletic performance, colic in infants, diabetes, exercise performance, liver disease due to alcohol consumption, cirrhosis, diarrhea, hepatitis C, acid reflux, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, infant development, weight loss, asthma, and the lung disease called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
How does it work?Feeding infants casein protein formula instead of cow's milk formula seems to reduce allergies, diarrhea, and colic. This may be explained by the lack of lactose, allergens, and other milk-based proteins in casein protein.
Casein protein seems to increase the amount of insulin in the body. Casein protein also provides the body with all of the amino acids necessary to help build muscle. Additionally, casein protein is digested more slowly than other proteins, so it might be better at reducing appetite and increasing feelings of fullness.
Uses & Effectiveness
Likely Effective for
- Itchy and inflamed skin (eczema). Feeding infants a specific formula containing hydrolyzed casein protein (Nutramigen or Progestimil) with or without breastmilk for 4-6 months reduces the chances of getting eczema. This effect appears to last until at least 6 years of age.
- Allergies (atopic disease). Some research shows that feeding infants a specific formula containing casein protein (Nutramigen) instead of cow's milk reduces the risk for allergies in infants whose parents have allergic conditions. This benefit appears to last until at least 6 years of age.
- Cow's milk allergy. Specific formulas containing casein protein are safe and do not cause allergic reactions in children who have an allergic reaction to cow's milk. These formulas include Alimentum, Damira 2000, Frisolac Allergycare, and Nutramigen.
Possibly Effective for
- Diabetes. Some research in adults with type 2 diabetes shows that eating hydrolyzed casein protein improves insulin and glucose levels after a meal. However, it's not clear if taking casein protein for a long time can improve blood sugar control. Some research in infants shows that using a specific formula containing casein protein (Nutramigen) decreases certain risk markers for type 1 diabetes. But it isn't clear if this will reduce the number of children that develop type 1 diabetes.
- Colic in infants. Some evidence shows that feeding a specific formula containing casein protein (Alimentum or Nutramigen) to infants with colic for 7 days reduces how often and how much the infant cries. In infants taking cow's milk formula who have colic, switching to a casein protein formula (Nutramigen) reduces crying and colic for the first few days.
- High levels of a chemical called bilirubin in the blood of newborns (neonatal jaundice). Some evidence shows that feeding infants a formula containing casein protein (Nutramigen) instead of a formula containing whey protein (Enfamil) or breastmilk reduces the chance of getting jaundice.
Possibly Ineffective for
- Asthma. Most research shows that feeding infants a formula containing casein protein, with or without breastmilk, for 4 months does not reduce the chance of developing asthma. However, early research shows that this formula might decrease the amount of wheezing in some infants.
- Infant development. Most research shows that feeding premature, low-birth weight, and healthy infants a formula containing casein protein does not increase or decrease growth compared to breast milk, whey protein-based formula, rice hydrolysate formula, cow's milk formula, or amino acid-based formula. However, some early research in infants with cow's milk allergy shows that casein protein increases growth from 6-12 months of age better than soy.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Liver disease due to alcohol consumption. Early research shows that administering a casein protein supplement through a feeding tube for 28 days improves mental status in patients who have liver disease from alcohol consumption. Other early research shows that taking a casein-based formula daily for one year lowers the risk for hospitalization and infection in these patients. However, casein protein does not seem to reduce the risk of death.
- Athletic performance. Some early research shows that casein protein improves strength and athletic performance, while other research shows that it does not. Some research also shows that casein protein works just as well as whey protein or creatine for improving athletic performance. However, other research shows that whey protein is better than casein protein. It does not seem to matter whether casein protein is taken before or after exercise. But more research is needed to understand if casein protein works better in certain patients or with certain exercise regimens.
- Cirrhosis. Early research shows that drinking a casein protein supplement for 4-6 days improves mental status in people with cirrhosis when compared to branched-chain amino acids (BCAA).
- A lung disease called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often lose muscle function over time. Some studies show that taking casein protein along with exercise builds muscle. However, early research shows that taking casein protein daily for 8 weeks does not improve lung or muscle function in people with COPD.
- Diarrhea. Early research in infants with the stomach flu shows that using a formula containing casein protein, instead of cow's milk, reduces diarrhea. However, other early research in infants and children with diarrhea shows that eating a diet containing casein protein is less effective than a yogurt-based diet for reducing diarrhea.
- Muscle soreness after exercise. Early research in cyclists shows that drinking a carbohydrate beverage containing casein protein during and after cycling reduces muscle soreness. However, early research in strength training athletes shows that taking a specific protein supplement containing casein protein and other ingredients before and after exercise does not reduce muscle soreness.
- Acid reflux. Early research shows that eating a formula containing casein protein is less effective than whey protein formula for reducing symptoms of acid reflux in children with brain damage. However, casein protein and whey protein seem to have similar effects in infants with acid reflux.
- Worsening of mental function caused by liver disease (encephalopathy). Early research shows that taking casein protein for 3 months does not improve mental function in people with chronic liver disease.
- Hepatitis C. Early research shows that taking casein protein daily for 12 weeks improves quality of life in people with hepatitis C infection.
- High cholesterol. Most research shows that casein protein does not improve "good" or "bad" cholesterol levels in people with normal cholesterol or in people with high cholesterol. However, some small studies show that it might improve these levels in some people. Also, eating casein protein seems to lower the levels of a certain type of cholesterol called lipoprotein(a).
- High blood pressure. The effect of casein protein on blood pressure is unclear. Early research shows that taking casein protein daily along with exercise for 4 weeks reduces systolic blood pressure (the top number), but not diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number), in people with hypertension. Other early research shows that taking casein protein daily for 12 weeks reduces diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number), but not systolic blood pressure (the top number), in people who are overweight.
- Weight loss. Most research shows that taking casein protein does not reduce body weight or appetite in people who are overweight or obese. However, some early research shows that having a liquid snack containing casein protein reduces hunger in overweight patients. Also, early research shows that taking casein protein for 12 weeks prevents weight gain in obese people who have already lost weight. In overweight children, early research shows that drinking a milk drink containing casein protein daily for 12 weeks in place of water increases body weight.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyCasein protein is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth. Most adults do not experience side effects when casein protein is taken for as long as 12 months.
Casein protein is LIKELY SAFE for children and infants when taken by mouth. Most infants receiving casein hydrolysate formulas do not experience side effects.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking casein protein if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
We currently have no information for CASEIN PROTEIN Interactions.
- For diabetes: 0.3-0.35 grams/kg hydrolyzed casein protein with or without leucine 0.1 gram/kg. 17.6 grams hydrolyzed casein protein with or without leucine 5 grams. 12 grams hydrolyzed casein protein or 21 grams intact casein protein.
- For itchy and inflamed skin (eczema): Specific casein hydrolysate formulas (Nutramigen or Progestimil, Mead Johnson) for 4-6 months.
- For allergies: A specific casein hydrolysate formula (Nutramigen, Mead Johnson) for 4-6 months.
- For cow's milk allergy: A variety of hydrolyzed casein formulas have been used, including Alimentum (Abbot Laboratories), Damira 2000 (Nutrition & Sante S.L.), Frisolac Allergycare (Friesland Nutrition), Nutramigen (Mead Johnson).
- For diabetes: A specific hydrolyzed casein protein-based formula (Nutramigen, Mead Johnson) has been used when breastmilk is not available, starting at birth and lasting up to 6-8 months of age.
- For colic in infants: Specific casein hydrolysate formulas have been used for up to 7 days. These include Alimentum (Abbot Laboratories) and Nutramigen (Mead Johnson).
- For high levels of a chemical called bilirubin in the blood of newborns (jaundice): Casein hydrolysate formulas, including Nutramigen (Mead Johnson), for 1-3 weeks.
- Abou-Samra, R., Keersmaekers, L., Brienza, D., Mukherjee, R., and Mace, K. Effect of different protein sources on satiation and short-term satiety when consumed as a starter. Nutr J 2011;10:139. View abstract.
- Acheson, K. J., Blondel-Lubrano, A., Oguey-Araymon, S., Beaumont, M., Emady-Azar, S., Ammon-Zufferey, C., Monnard, I., Pinaud, S., Nielsen-Moennoz, C., and Bovetto, L. Protein choices targeting thermogenesis and metabolism. Am J Clin.Nutr 2011;93(3):525-534. View abstract.
- Alfenas, Rde C., Bressan, J., and Paiva, A. C. Effects of protein quality on appetite and energy metabolism in normal weight subjects. Arq Bras.Endocrinol Metabol. 2010;54(1):45-51. View abstract.
- Ang, M., Muller, A. S., Wagenlehner, F., Pilatz, A., and Linn, T. Combining protein and carbohydrate increases postprandial insulin levels but does not improve glucose response in patients with type 2 diabetes. Metabolism 2012;61(12):1696-1702. View abstract.
- Arnberg, K., Molgaard, C., Michaelsen, K. F., Jensen, S. M., Trolle, E., and Larnkjaer, A. Skim milk, whey, and casein increase body weight and whey and casein increase the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents. J Nutr 2012;142(12):2083-2090. View abstract.
- Baum, J. A., Teng, H., Erdman, J. W., Jr., Weigel, R. M., Klein, B. P., Persky, V. W., Freels, S., Surya, P., Bakhit, R. M., Ramos, E., Shay, N. F., and Potter, S. M. Long-term intake of soy protein improves blood lipid profiles and increases mononuclear cell low-density-lipoprotein receptor messenger RNA in hypercholesterolemic, postmenopausal women. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1998;68(3):545-551. View abstract.
- Boirie, Y., Dangin, M., Gachon, P., Vasson, M. P., Maubois, J. L., and Beaufrere, B. Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretion. Proc Natl.Acad.Sci U.S.A 12-23-1997;94(26):14930-14935. View abstract.
- Brun, A. C., Stordal, K., Johannesdottir, G. B., Bentsen, B. S., and Medhus, A. W. The effect of protein composition in liquid meals on gastric emptying rate in children with cerebral palsy. Clin.Nutr 2012;31(1):108-112. View abstract.
- Cepero, M. Influence of ingesting casein protein and whey carbohydrate beverages on recovery and performance of an endurance cycling test. Journal of Human Sport & Exercise 2010;5(2):158.
- Claessens, M., van Baak, M. A., Monsheimer, S., and Saris, W. H. The effect of a low-fat, high-protein or high-carbohydrate ad libitum diet on weight loss maintenance and metabolic risk factors. Int J Obes.(Lond) 2009;33(3):296-304. View abstract.
- Cuevas, A. M., Irribarra, V. L., Castillo, O. A., Yanez, M. D., and Germain, A. M. Isolated soy protein improves endothelial function in postmenopausal hypercholesterolemic women. Eur.J Clin.Nutr. 2003;57(8):889-894. View abstract.
- Dalais, F. S., Ebeling, P. R., Kotsopoulos, D., McGrath, B. P., and Teede, H. J. The effects of soy protein containing isoflavones on lipids and indices of bone resorption in postmenopausal women. Clin Endocrinol.(Oxf) 2003;58(6):704-709. View abstract.
- Demling, R. H. and DeSanti, L. Effect of a hypocaloric diet, increased protein intake and resistance training on lean mass gains and fat mass loss in overweight police officers. Ann Nutr Metab 2000;44(1):21-29. View abstract.
- Dideriksen, K. J., Reitelseder, S., Petersen, S. G., Hjort, M., Helmark, I. C., Kjaer, M., and Holm, L. Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by whey and caseinate ingestion after resistance exercise in elderly individuals. Scand.J Med.Sci Sports 2011;21(6):e372-e383. View abstract.
- Gooderham, M. H., Adlercreutz, H., Ojala, S. T., Wahala, K., and Holub, B. J. A soy protein isolate rich in genistein and daidzein and its effects on plasma isoflavone concentrations, platelet aggregation, blood lipids and fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipid in normal men. J.Nutr. 1996;126(8):2000-2006. View abstract.
- Hall, W. L., Millward, D. J., Long, S. J., and Morgan, L. M. Casein and whey exert different effects on plasma amino acid profiles, gastrointestinal hormone secretion and appetite. Br J Nutr 2003;89(2):239-248. View abstract.
- Hermansen, K., Hansen, B., Jacobsen, R., Clausen, P., Dalgaard, M., Dinesen, B., Holst, J. J., Pedersen, E., and Astrup, A. Effects of soy supplementation on blood lipids and arterial function in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Eur.J Clin.Nutr. 2005;59(7):843-850. View abstract.
- Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Tranchina, C. P., Rashti, S. L., Kang, J., and Faigenbaum, A. D. Effect of a proprietary protein supplement on recovery indices following resistance exercise in strength/power athletes. Amino.Acids 2010;38(3):771-778. View abstract.
- Khoshoo, V., Zembo, M., King, A., Dhar, M., Reifen, R., and Pencharz, P. Incidence of gastroesophageal reflux with whey- and casein-based formulas in infants and in children with severe neurological impairment. J Pediatr Gastroenterol.Nutr 1996;22(1):48-55. View abstract.
- Laviolette, L., Lands, L. C., Dauletbaev, N., Saey, D., Milot, J., Provencher, S., LeBlanc, P., and Maltais, F. Combined effect of dietary supplementation with pressurized whey and exercise training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study. J Med Food 2010;13(3):589-598. View abstract.
- Lorenzen, J., Frederiksen, R., Hoppe, C., Hvid, R., and Astrup, A. The effect of milk proteins on appetite regulation and diet-induced thermogenesis. Eur.J Clin.Nutr 2012;66(5):622-627. View abstract.
- Meinertz, H., Nilausen, K., and Faergeman, O. Soy protein and casein in cholesterol-enriched diets: effects on plasma lipoproteins in normolipidemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;50(4):786-793. View abstract.
- Meinertz, H., Nilausen, K., and Hilden, J. Alcohol-extracted, but not intact, dietary soy protein lowers lipoprotein(a) markedly. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 2-1-2002;22(2):312-316. View abstract.
- Nilausen, K. and Meinertz, H. Lipoprotein(a) and dietary proteins: casein lowers lipoprotein(a) concentrations as compared with soy protein. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1999;69(3):419-425. View abstract.
- Pal, S. and Ellis, V. The chronic effects of whey proteins on blood pressure, vascular function, and inflammatory markers in overweight individuals. Obesity.(Silver.Spring) 2010;18(7):1354-1359. View abstract.
- Pal, S., Ellis, V., and Dhaliwal, S. Effects of whey protein isolate on body composition, lipids, insulin and glucose in overweight and obese individuals. Br J Nutr 2010;104(5):716-723. View abstract.
- Rzehak, P., Sausenthaler, S., Koletzko, S., Reinhardt, D., von, Berg A., Kramer, U., Berdel, D., Bollrath, C., Grubl, A., Bauer, C. P., Wichmann, H. E., and Heinrich, J. Long-term effects of hydrolyzed protein infant formulas on growth--extended follow-up to 10 y of age: results from the German Infant Nutritional Intervention (GINI) study. Am J Clin.Nutr 2011;94(6 Suppl):1803S-1807S. View abstract.
- Savage, K., Kritas, S., Schwarzer, A., Davidson, G., and Omari, T. Whey- vs casein-based enteral formula and gastrointestinal function in children with cerebral palsy. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 2012;36(1 Suppl):118S-123S. View abstract.
- van Raaij, J. M., Katan, M. B., Hautvast, J. G., and Hermus, R. J. Effects of casein versus soy protein diets on serum cholesterol and lipoproteins in young healthy volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34(7):1261-1271. View abstract.
- van Raaij, J. M., Katan, M. B., West, C. E., and Hautvast, J. G. Influence of diets containing casein, soy isolate, and soy concentrate on serum cholesterol and lipoproteins in middle-aged volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;35(5):925-934. View abstract.
- Veldhorst, M. A., Nieuwenhuizen, A. G., Hochstenbach-Waelen, A., van Vught, A. J., Westerterp, K. R., Engelen, M. P., Brummer, R. J., Deutz, N. E., and Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. Dose-dependent satiating effect of whey relative to casein or soy. Physiol Behav 3-23-2009;96(4-5):675-682. View abstract.
- Willoughby, D. S., Stout, J. R., and Wilborn, C. D. Effects of resistance training and protein plus amino acid supplementation on muscle anabolism, mass, and strength. Amino.Acids 2007;32(4):467-477. View abstract.
- . Jonker R, Deutz NE, Erbland ML, et al. Hydrolyzed casein and whey protein meals comparably stimulate net whole-body protein synthesis in COPD patients with nutritional depletion without an additional effect of leucine co-ingestion. Clin Nutr 2014;33(2):211-20. View abstract.
- Agostoni C, Fiocchi A, Riva E, et al. Growth of infants with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy fed different formulas in the complementary feeding period. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2007;18(7):599-606. View abstract.
- Anderson JW, Fuller J, Patterson K, et al. Soy compared to casein meal replacement shakes with energy-restricted diets for obese women: randomized controlled trial. Metabolism 2007;56(2):280-8. View abstract.
- Bendtsen LQ, Lorenzen JK, Gomes S, et al. Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation: a randomised, controlled, cross-over stuy. Br J Nutr 2014;112(8):1412-22. View abstract.
- Bernbaum JC, Sasanow SR, Churella HR, Daft A. Growth and metabolic response of premature infants fed whey- or casein-dominant formulas after hospital discharge. J Pediatr 1989;115(4):652-6. View abstract.
- Borschel MW, Baggs GE, Barrett-Reis B. Growth of healthy term infants fed ready-to-feed and powdered forms of an extensively hydrolyzed casein-based infant formula: a randomized, blinded, controlled trial. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2014;53(6):585-92. View abstract.
- Borschel MW, Ziegler EE, Wedig RT, Oliver JS. Growth of healthy term infants fed an extensively hydrolyzed casein-based or free amino acid-based infant formula: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2013;52(10):910-7. View abstract.
- Boulhosa RS, Oliveira LP, Jesus RP, et al. The impact of nutritional supplementation on quality of life in patients infected with hepatitis C virus. J Hum Nutr Diet 2013;26 Suppl 1:7-15. View abstract.
- Burk A, Timpmann S, Medijainen L, et al. Time-divided ingestion pattern of casein-based protein supplement stimulates an increase in fat-free body mass during resistance training in young untrained men. Nutr Res 2009;29(6):405-13. View abstract.
- Chandra RK, Puri S, Hamed A. Influence of maternal diet during lactation and use of formula feeds on development of atopic eczema in high risk infants. BMJ 1989;299(693):228-30. View abstract.
- Christie ML, Sack DM, Pomposelli J, Horst D. Enriched branched-chain amino acid formula versus a casein-based supplement in the treatment of cirrhosis. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1985;9(6):671-8. View abstract.
- Cooper PA, Rothberg AD, Davies VA, Argent AC. Comparative growth and biochemical response of very low birthweight infants fed own mother's milk, a premature infant formula, or one of two standard formulas. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1985;4(5):786-94. View abstract.
- Cribb PJ, Wiliams AD, Carey MF, Hayes A. The effect of whey isolate and resistance training on strength, body composition, and plasma glutamine. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2006;16:494-509. View abstract.
- Davidsson L, Almgren A, Sandstrom B, Hurrell RF. Zinc absorption in adult humans: The effect of iron fortification. Br J Nutr 1995;74(3):417-25. View abstract.
- de Mattos AP, Ribeiro TC, Mendes PS, et al. Comparison of yogurt, soybean, casein, and amino acid-based diets in children with persistent diarrhea. Nutr Res 2009;29(7):462-9. View abstract.
- Devries MC, Phillips SM. Supplemental protein in support of muscle mass and health: advantage whey. J Food Sci 2015;80 Suppl 1:A8-A15. View abstract.
- Dideriksen K, Reitelseder S, Holm L. Influence of amino acids, dietary protein, and physical activity on muscle mass development in humans. Nutrients 2013;5(3):852-76. View abstract.
- Docena GH, Fernandez R, Chirdo FG, Fossati CA. Identification of casein as the major allergenic and antigenic protein of cow's milk. Allergy 1996;51(6):412-6. View abstract.
- Egert S, Tereszczuk J, Wein S, et al. Simultaneous ingestion of dietary proteins reduces the bioavailability of galloylated catechins from green tea in humans. Eur J Nutr 2013;52(1):281-8. View abstract.
- Engelen MP, Rutten EP, De Castro CL, et al. Casein protein results in higher prandial and exercise induced whole body protein anabolism than whey protein in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Metabolism 2012;61(9):1289-300. View abstract.
- Field KL, Kimball BA, Mennella JA, et al. Avoidance of hydrolyzed casein by mice. Physiol Behav 2008;93(1-2):189-99. View abstract.
- Figueroa A, Wong A, Kinsey A, et al. Effects of milk proteins and combined exercise training on aortic hemodynamics and arterial stiffness in young obese women with high blood pressure. Am J Hypertens 2014;27(3):338-44. View abstract.
- Fok TF, So LY, Lee NN, et al. Late metabolic acidosis and poor weight gain in moderately pre-term babies fed with a casein-predominant formula: a continuing need for caution. Ann Trop Paediatr 1989;9(4):243-7. View abstract.
- Forsyth BW. Colic and the effect of changing formulas: a double-blind, multiple-crossover study. J Pediatr 1989;115(4):521-6. View abstract.
- Geerts BF, van Dongen MG, Flameling B, et al. Hydrolyzed casein decreases posprandial glucose concentrations in T2DM patients irrespective of leucine content. J Diet Suppl 2011;8(3):280-92. View abstract.
- Gill HS, Doull F, Rutherfurd KJ, Cross ML. Immunoregulatory peptides in bovine milk. Br J Nutr 2000;84:S111-7. View abstract.
- Gourley GR, Arenda RA. beta-Glucuronidase and hyperbilirubinaemia in breast-fed and formula-fed babies. Lancet 1986;1:644-6. View abstract.
- Gourley GR, Kreamer B, Arend R. The effect of diet on feces and jaundice during the first 3 weeks of life. Gastroenterology 1992;103(2):660-7. View abstract.
- Gourley GR, Kreamer B, Cohnen M, Kosorok MR. Neonatal jaundice and diet. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999;153(2):184-8. View abstract.
- Gourley GR, Kreamer BL, Cohnen M. Inhibition of beta-glucuronidase by casein hydrolysate formula. J Pediatr Gastroenterol 1997;25:267-72. View abstract.
- Gourley GR, Li Z, Kreamer BL, Kosorok MR. A controlled, randomized, double-blind trial of prophylaxis against jaundice among breastfed newborns. Pediatrics 2005;116(2):385-91. View abstract.
- Gunn TR, Stunzer D. A comparative trial of casein or whey-predominant formulae in healthy infants. N Z Med J 1986;99(813):843-6. View abstract.
- Halken S, Hansen KS, Jacobsen HP, et al. Comparison of a partially hydrolyzed infant formula with two extensively hydrolyzed formulas for allergy prevention: a prospective, randomized study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2000;11(3):149-61. View abstract.
- Harrison GG, Graver EJ, Vargas M, et al. Growth and adiposity of term infants fed whey-predominant or casein-predominant formulas or human milk. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1987;6(5):739-47. View abstract.
- Hirsch S, Bunout D, de la Maza P, et al. Controlled trial on nutrition supplementation in outpatients with symptomatic alcoholic cirrhosis. JPEN Parenter Enteral Nutr 1993;17(2):119-24. View abstract.
- Hochstenbach-Waelen A, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Veldhorst MA, Westerterp KR. Single-protein casein and gelatin diets affect energy expenditure similarly but substrate balance and appetite differently in adults. J Nutr 2009;139(12):2285-92. View abstract.
- Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Tranchina CP, et al. Effect of protein-supplement timing on strength, power, and body-composition changes in resistance-trained men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2009;19(2):172-85. View abstract.
- Holmer-Jensen J, Mortensen LS, Astrup A, et al. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects. Nutr Res 2013;33(1):34-40. View abstract.
- Holt C, Carver JA, Ecroyd H, Thorn DC. Invited review: caseins and the casein micelle: their biological functions, structures, and behavior in foods. J Dairy Sci 2013;96(10):6127-46. View abstract.
- Hurrell RF, Lynch SR, Trinidad TP, et al. Iron absorption in humans as influenced by bovine milk proteins. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;49(3):546-52. View abstract.
- Ibero M, Bone J, Martin B, Martinez J. Evaluation of an extensively hydrolysed casein formula (Damira 2000) in children with allergy to cow's milk proteins. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2010;38(2):60-8. View abstract.
- Iskedjian M, Szajewska H, Spieldenner J, et al. Meta-analysis of a partially hydrolysed 100%-whey infant formula vs. extensively hydrolysed infant formulas in the prevention of atopic dermatitis. Curr Med Res Opin 2010;26(11):2599-606. View abstract.
- Jakobsson I, Lothe L, Ley D, Borschel MW. Effectiveness of casein hydrolysate feedings in infants with colic. Acta Paediatr 2000;89(1):18-21. View abstract.
- Jenkins DJ, Srichaikul K, Wong JM, et al. Supplemental barley protein and casein similarly affect serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic women and men. J Nutr 2010;140(9):1633-7. View abstract.
- Jonker JT, Wijngaarden MA, Kloek J, et al. Effects of low doses of casein hydrolysate on post-challenge glucose and insulin levels. Eur J Intern Med 2011;22(3):245-8. View abstract.
- Kashyap S, Okamoto E, Kanaya S, et al. Protein quality in feeding low birth weight infants: a comparison of whey-predominant versus casein-predominant formulas. Pediatrics 1987;79(5):748-55. View abstract.
- Kearns PJ, Young H, Garcia G, et al. Accelerated improvement of alcoholic liver disease with enteral nutrition. Gastroenterology 1992;102(1):200-5. View abstract.
- Knip M, Virtanen SM, Becker D, et al. Early feeding and risk of type 1 diabetes: Experiences from the Trial to Reduce Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR). Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94(6 Suppl):1814S-1820S. View abstract.
- Knip M, Virtanen SM, Seppa K, et al. Dietary intervention in infancy and later signs of beta-cell autoimmunity. N Engl J Med 2010;363(20):1900-8. View abstract.
- Koopman R, Crombach N, Gijsen AP, et al. Ingestion of a protein hydrolysate is accompanied by an accelerated in vivo digestion and absorption rate when compared with its intact protein. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90(1):106-15. View abstract.
- Lam HY, van Hoffen E, Michelsen A, et al. Cow's milk allergy in adults is rare but severe: Both casein and whey proteins are involved. Clin Exp Allergy 2008;38(6):995-1002. View abstract.
- Lang V, Bellisle F, Oppert JM, et al. Satiating effect of proteins in healthy subjects: a comparison of egg albumin, casein, gelatin, soy protein, pea protein, and wheat gluten. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67(6):1197-204. View abstract.
- Lollo PC, Amaya-Farfan J, de Carvalho-Silva LB. Physiological and physical effects of different milk protein supplements in elite soccer players. J Hum Kinet 2011;30:49-57. View abstract.
- Lonnerdal B, Forsum E. Casein content of human milk. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;41(1):113-20. View abstract.
- Lonnerdal B. Dietary factors influencing zinc absorption. J Nutr 2000;130(5S Suppl):1378S-83S. View abstract.
- Madzima TA, Panton LB, Fretti SK, et al. Night-time consumption of protein or carbohydrate results in increased morning resting energy expenditure in active college-aged men. Br J Nutr 2014;111(1):71-7. View abstract.
- Mallet E, Henocq A. Long-term prevention of allergic diseases by using protein hydrolysate formula in at-risk infants. J Pediatr 1992;121(5 Pt 2):S95-100. View abstract.
- Manders RJ, Hansen D, Zorenc AH, et al. Protein co-ingestion strongly increases postprandial insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes patients. J Med Food 2014;17(7):758-63. View abstract.
- Manders RJ, Koopman R, Sluijsmans WE, et al. Co-ingestion of a protein hydrolysate with or without additional leucine effectively reduces postprandial blood glucose excursions in type 2 diabetic men. J Nutr 2006;136(5):1294-9. View abstract.
- Manders RJ, Praet SF, Meex RC, et al. Protein hydrolysate/leucine co-ingestion reduces the prevalence of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 2006;29(12):2721-2. View abstract.
- Manders RJ, Praet SF, Vikstrom MH, et al. Protein hydrolysate co-ingestion does not modulate 24 h glycemic control in long-standing type 2 diabetes patients. Eur J Clin Nutr 2009;63(1):121-6. View abstract.
- Manders RJ, Wagenmakers AJ, Koopman R, et al. Co-ingestion of a protein hydrolysate and amino acid mixture with carbohydrate improves plasma glucose disposal in patients with type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;82(1):76-83. View abstract.
- Marchesini G, Dioguardi FS, Bianchi GP, et al. Long-term oral branched-chain amino acid treatment in chronic hepatic encephalopathy. A randomized double-blind casein-controlled trial. The Italian Multicenter Study Group. J Hepatol 1990;11:92-101. View abstract.
- Marsset-Baglieri A, Fromentin G, Airinei G, et al. Milk protein fractions moderately extend the duration of satiety compared with carbohydrates independently of their digestive kinetics in overweight subjects. Br J Nutr 2014;112(4):557-64. View abstract.
- McGregor RA, Poppit SD. Milk protein for improved metabolic health: A review of the evidence. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2013;10(1):46. View abstract.
- Nilausen K, Meinertz H. Variable lipemic response to dietary soy protein in healthy, normolipemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:1380S-4S. View abstract.
- Oldaeus G, Anjou K, Bjorksten B, et al. Extensively and partially hydrolysed infant formulas for allergy prophylaxis. Arch Dis Child 1997;77(1):4-10. View abstract.
- Ormsbee MJ, Mandler WK, Thomas DD, et al. The effects of six weeks of supplementation with multi-ingredient performance supplements and resistance training on anabolic hormones, body composition, strength, and power in resistance-trained men. J Int Soc Sports Nut 2012;9(1):49. View abstract.
- Pal S, Radavelli-Bagatini S, Hagger M, Ellis V. Comparative effects of whey and casein proteins on satiety in overweight and obese individuals: a randomized controlled trail. Eur J Clin Nutr 2014;68(9):980-6. View abstract.
- Pasin G, Comerford KB. Dairy food and dairy proteins in the management of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of the clinical evidence. Adv Nutr 2015;6(3):245-59. View abstract.
- Pedrosa M, Pascual CY, Larco JI, Esteban MM. Palatability and hydrolysates and other substitution formulas for cow's milk-allergic children: a comparative study of taste, smell, and texture evaluated by healthy volunteers. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2006;16(6):351-6. View abstract.
- Potter SM, Baum JA, Teng H, et al. Soy protein and isoflavones: their effects on blood lipids and bone density in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:1375S-9S. View abstract.
- Rajah R, Pettifor JM, Noormohamed M, et al. The effect of feeding four different formulae on stool weights in prolonged dehydrating infantile gastroenteritis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1988;7(2):203-7. View abstract.
- Res PT, Groen B, Pennings B, et al. Protein ingestion before sleep improves postexercise overnight recovery. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2012;44(8):1560-9. View abstract.
- Roy CC, Darling P. Pitfalls in the design and manufacture of infant formulas. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1983;2 Suppl 1:S282-92. View abstract.
- Rzehak P, Sausenthaler S, Koletzko S, et al. Short- and long-term effects of feeding hydrolyzed protein infant formulas on growth at = 6 y of age: Results from the German Infant Nutritional Intervention Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89(6):1846-56. View abstract.
- Sampson HA, Bernhisel-Broadbent J, Yang E, Scanlon SM. Safety of casein hydrolysate formula in children with cow milk allergy. J Pediatr 1991;118(4 Pt 1):520-5. View abstract.
- Saunders MJ, Moore RW, Kies AK, et al. Carbohydrate and protein hydrolysate coingestions improvement of late-exercise time-trial performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2009;19(2):136-49. View abstract.
- Shige H, Ishikawa T, Higashi K, et al. Effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) and casein on the postprandial lipemia in normolipidemic men. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1998;44(1):113-27. View abstract.
- Taitz LS, Scholey E. Are babies more satisfied by casein based formulas? Arch Dis Child 1989;64(4):619-21. View abstract.
- Tarnopolsky MA, Parise G, Yardley NJ, et al. Creatine-dextrose and protein-dextrose induce similar strength gains during training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33(12):2044-52. View abstract.
- Tauzin J, Miclo L, Gaillard JL. Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from tryptic hydrolysate of bovine alphaS2-casein. FEBS Lett 2002;531:369-74. View abstract.
- Teede HJ, Dalais FS, Kotsopoulos D, et al. Dietary soy has both beneficial and potentially adverse cardiovascular effects: a placebo-controlled study in men and postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:3053-60. View abstract.
- Teixeira SR, Potter SM, Weigel R, et al. Effects of feeding 4 levels of soy protein for 3 and 6 wk on blood lipids and apolipoproteins in moderately hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1077-84. View abstract.
- Terheggen-Lagro SW, Khouw IM, Schaafsma A, Wauters EA. Safety of a new extensively hydrolysed formula in children with cow's milk protein allergy: a double blind crossover study. BMC Pediatr 2002;2:10. View abstract.
- Tonstad S, Smerud K, Hoie L. A comparison of the effects of 2 doses of soy protein or casein on serum lipids, serum lipoproteins, and plasma total homocysteine in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:78-84. View abstract.
- Townsend RR, McFadden CB, Ford V, Cadee JA. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of casein protein hydrolysate (C12 peptide) in human essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens 2004;17(11 Pt 1):1056-8. View abstract.
- Verdijk LB, Jonkers RA, Gleeson BG, et al. Protein supplementation before and after exercise does not further augment skeletal muscle hypertrophy after resistance training in elderly men. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89(2):608-16. View abstract.
- Viall C, Porcelli K, Teran JC, et al. A double-blind clinical trial comparing the gastrointestinal side effects of two enteral feeding formulas. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1990;14(3):265-9. View abstract.
- von Berg A, Filipiak-Pittroff B, Kramer U, et al. Preventive effect of hydrolyzed infant formulas persists until age 6 years: long-term results from the German Infant Nutritional Intervention Study (GINI). J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008;121(6):1442-7. View abstract.
- von Berg A, Koletzko S, Filipiak-Pittroff B, et al. Certain hydrolyzed formulas reduce the incidence of atopic dermatitis but not that of asthma: three-year results of the German Infant Nutritional Intervention Study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007;119(3):718-25. View abstract.
- von Berg A, Koletzko S, Grubl A, et al. The effect of hydrolyzed cow's milk formula for allergy prevention in the first year of life: the German Infant Nutritional Intervention Study, a randomized double-blind trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111(3):533-40. View abstract.
- Wal JM. Bovine milk allergenicity. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2004;93(5 Suppl 3):S2-11. View abstract.
- Wang MF, Yamamoto S, Chung HM, et al. Antihypercholesterolemic effect of undigested fraction of soybean protein in young female volunteers. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1995;41(2):187-95. View abstract.
- Weisse K, Brandsch C, Zernsdorf B, et al. Lupin protein compared to casein lowers the LDL cholesterol:HDL cholesterol-ratio of hypercholesterolemic adults. Eur J Nutr 2010;49(2):65-71. View abstract.
- Westphal S, Kastner S, Taneva E, et al. Postprandial lipid and carbohydrate responses after the ingestion of a casein-enriched mixed meal. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(2):284-90. View abstract.
- Wilborn CD, Taylor LW, Outlaw J, et al. The effects of pre- and post-exercise whey vs. casein protein consumption on body composition and performance measures in collegiate female athletes. J Sports Sci Med 2013;12(1):74-9. View abstract.
Have you ever purchased CASEIN PROTEIN?
Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Do you buy vitamins online or instore?
What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)