TYRAMINE

OTHER NAME(S):

4-(2-Aminoethyl)phenol, 4-Hydroxyphenethylamine, Tyramin, Tyramine hydrochloride.

Overview

Overview Information

Tyramine is a chemical that is found naturally in the human body. It is also made in the lab. Tyramine is found in foods that have gone bad or in foods or drinks that were made by fermenting bacteria, like beer, cheese, and tofu. Some dietary supplements contain tyramine.

Tyramine is used for weight loss and athletic performance, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

How does it work?

Tyramine is a chemical in the body that helps the brain and nervous system function normally. High levels of tyramine can cause blood vessels to tighten, which increases blood pressure. There isn't enough reliable information to know how tyramine supplements might work.
Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Athletic performance.
  • Weight loss.
  • As a stimulant.
  • For increased focus.
  • Other uses.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of tyramine for these uses.
Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Tyramine is POSSIBLY SAFE when eaten as part of a normal meal. Meals that contain no more than 600 mg of tyramine are considered safe for most people. However, eating a meal that contains more than 600 mg of tyramine is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. This amount of tyramine might increase the risk for adverse effects, including high blood pressure and headache.

There isn't enough reliable information to know if tyramine supplements are safe to take in any dose.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if tyramine is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Disease in the stomach and intestines: If people have damage in their intestines, they might absorb more tyramine into the body. This might increase the side effects of tyramine. Don't take tyramine if you have a disease like Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, or celiac disease.

High blood pressure: Tyramine might increase blood pressure. Taking tyramine might make high blood pressure worse.

Migraine headaches: Taking tyramine might cause migraine headaches, especially in people who suffer from migraines. Don't take tyramine if you get migraines.

Surgery: Tyramine might increase blood pressure. In theory, taking tyramine might interfere with surgery by increasing blood pressure. Stop taking tyramine at least 2 weeks before surgery.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for TYRAMINE Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of tyramine depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for tyramine. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Sun-Edelstein, C. and Mauskop, A. Foods and supplements in the management of migraine headaches. Clin J Pain 2009;25(5):446-452. View abstract.
  • Carpéné C, Galitzky J, Belles C, Zakaroff-Girard A. Mechanisms of the antilipolytic response of human adipocytes to tyramine, a trace amine present in food. J Physiol Biochem. 2018;74(4):623-633. View abstract.
  • Caston JC, Eaton CL, Gheorghiu BP, Ware LL. Tyramine induced hypertensive episodes and panic attacks in hereditary deficient monoamine oxidase patients: case reports. J S C Med Assoc. 2002;98(4):187-92. View abstract.
  • Colombo F, Porro T, del Rosso G, Bertalero P, Orlandi L, Libretti A. Cardiovascular responses to physical exercise and tyramine infusion in hypertensive and normotensive subjects. J Hum Hypertens. 1989;3(4):245-9. View abstract.
  • D'Andrea G, Granella F, Leone M, Perini F, Farruggio A, Bussone G. Abnormal platelet trace amine profiles in migraine with and without aura. Cephalalgia. 2006;26(8):968-72. View abstract.
  • D'Andrea G, Terrazzino S, Leon A, et al. Elevated levels of circulating trace amines in primary headaches. Neurology 2004;62:1701-5. View abstract.
  • Del Rio B, Redruello B, Linares DM, et al. The dietary biogenic amines tyramine and histamine show synergistic toxicity towards intestinal cells in culture. Food Chem. 2017;218:249-255. View abstract.
  • European Food Safety Authority. Scientific opinion on risk based control of biogenic amine formation in fermented foods. EFSA Journal. 2011;9(10):2393.
  • Forsythe WI, Redmond A. Two controlled trials of tyramine in children with migraine. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1974;16(6):794-99. View abstract.
  • Gardner DM, Shulman KI, Walker SE, Tailor SA. The making of a user friendly MAOI diet. J Clin Psychiatry 1996;57:99-104. View abstract.
  • Ghose K, Carroll JD. Mechanism of tyramine-induced migraine: similarity with dopamine and interactions with disulfiram and propranolol in migraine patients. Neuropsychobiology. 1984;12(2-3):122-6. View abstract.
  • Gilliam LK, Palmer JP, Taborsky GJ Jr. Tyramine-mediated activation of sympathetic nerves inhibits insulin secretion in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(10):4035-8. View abstract.
  • Gillman K. "Much ado about nothing": monoamine oxidase inhibitors, drug interactions, and dietary tyramine. CNS Spectr. 2017;22(5):385-387. View abstract.
  • Lawrence MJ, Davies G, Nyberg M, et al. The effect of tyramine infusion and exercise on blood flow, coagulation and clot microstructure in healthy individuals. Thromb Res. 2018;170:32-37. View abstract.
  • Linares DM, del Rio B, Redruello B, et al. Comparative analysis of the in vitro cytotoxicity of the dietary biogenic amines tyramine and histamine. Food Chem. 2016;197(Pt A):658-63. View abstract.
  • Meck JV, Martin DS, D'Aunno DS, Waters WW. Pressor response to intravenous tyramine is a marker of cardiac, but not vascular, adrenergic function. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2003;41(1):126-31. View abstract.
  • Merikangas KR, Stevens DE, Merikangas JR, et al. Tyramine conjugation deficit in migraine, tension-type headache, and depression. Biol Psychiatry. 1995;38(11):730-6. View abstract.
  • National Institutes of Health. Dietary Supplement Label Database. http://www.dsld.nlm.nih.gov/dsld/rptQSearch.jsp?item=tyramine&db=adsld. Accessed October 23, 2019.
  • Pace DG, Reele SB, Rozik LM, Rogers-Phillips CA, Dabice JA, Givens SV. Evaluation of methods of administering tyramine to raise systolic blood pressure. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1988;44(2):137-44. View abstract.
  • Pawar RS, Grundel E, Fardin-Kia AR, Rader JI. Determination of selected biogenic amines in Acacia rigidula plant materials and dietary supplements using LC-MS/MS methods. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2014 Jan;88:457-66. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2013.09.012. Epub 2013 Oct 5. View abstract.
  • Pawar RS, Grundel E. Overview of regulation of dietary supplements in the USA and issues of adulteration with phenethylamines (PEAs). Drug Test Anal 2017;9:500-517. View abstract.
  • Peet M, Yates RA, Carroll JA, Middlemiss DN. The interaction of tyramine with a single dose of tranylcypromine in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1981;11(2):212-4. View abstract.
  • Rapaport MH. Dietary restrictions and drug interactions with monoamine oxidase inhibitors: the state of the art. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68 Suppl 8:42-6. View abstract.
  • Salter M, Kenney A. Myocardial injury from tranylcypromine-induced hypertensive crisis secondary to excessive tyramine intake. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2018;18(6):583-586. View abstract.
  • Shulman KI, Walker SE. Refining the MAOI diet: tyramine content of pizzas and soy products. J Clin Psychiatry 1999;60:191-3. View abstract.
  • Smedema JP, Müller GJ. Coronary spasm and thrombosis in a bodybuilder using a nutritional supplement containing synephrine, octopamine, tyramine and caffeine. S Afr Med J. 2008;98(5):372-3. View abstract.
  • VanDenBerg CM, Blob LF, Kemper EM, Azzaro AJ. Tyramine pharmacokinetics and reduced bioavailability with food. J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;43(6):604-9. View abstract.
  • Walker SE, Shulman KI, Tailor SA, Gardner D. Tyramine content of previously restricted foods in monoamine oxidase inhibitor diets. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1996;16:383-8. View abstract.

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CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.