Phlorizin, Phloretin.


Overview Information

Apple polyphenols are chemicals found in apples.

Apple polyphenols are used for obesity, hay fever, high levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia), and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

How does it work?

Apple polyphenols seem to block fat and cholesterol from entering the body. This may allow them to lower cholesterol and help with weight loss.

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Male-pattern baldness (androgenic alopecia). Early research shows that applying an apple polyphenol product to the scalp can increase hair growth in some men with male-pattern baldness.
  • Hay fever. Early research shows that drinking a drink with apple polyphenols reduces runny nose in people with hay fever. Other early research shows that taking apple polyphenol once daily for 12 weeks, starting about 2 weeks before cedar pollen season, can reduce sneezing in patients with a specific form of hay fever called Japanese cedar pollinosis.
  • Athletic performance. Early research suggests that taking apple and grape polyphenols can allow athletes to exercise for a little bit longer before getting tired.
  • High levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia). Early research suggests that eating apples with more polyphenols does not affect cholesterol levels compared to eating apples with low polyphenols. But not all research agrees.
  • Obesity. Early research shows that drinking a beverage with apple polyphenols can reduce the amount of body fat in adults who are overweight or obese.
Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Apple polyphenols are POSSIBLY SAFE when taken short-term. Taking apple polyphenols might cause mild gastrointestinal side effects, such as diarrhea.

When applied to the skin: Apple polyphenols are POSSIBLY SAFE when used appropriately.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if apple polyphenols are safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.



We currently have no information for APPLE POLYPHENOLS Interactions.



The appropriate dose of apple polyphenols depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for apple polyphenols. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References


  • Akazome, Y. Characteristics and physiological functions of polyphenols from apples. Biofactors 2004;22(1-4):311-314. View abstract.
  • Enomoto, T., Nagasako-Akazome, Y., Kanda, T., Ikeda, M., and Dake, Y. Clinical effects of apple polyphenols on persistent allergic rhinitis: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled parallel arm study. J Investig.Allergol.Clin Immunol. 2006;16(5):283-289. View abstract.
  • Akazome Y, Kametani N, Kanda T, et al. Evaluation of safety of excessive intake and efficacy of long-term intake of beverages containing apple polyphenols. J Oleo Sci. 2010;59(6):321-38. View abstract.
  • Auclair S, Chironi G, Milenkovic D, et al. The regular consumption of a polyphenol-rich apple does not influence endothelial function: a randomised double-blind trial in hypercholesterolemic adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64(10):1158-65. View abstract.
  • Bondonno NP, Bondonno CP, Blekkenhorst LC, et al. Flavonoid-Rich Apple Improves Endothelial Function in Individuals at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018;62(3). View abstract.
  • Cicero AFG, Caliceti C, Fogacci F, et al. Effect of apple polyphenols on vascular oxidative stress and endothelium function: a translational study. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017. View abstract.
  • Deley G, Guillemet D, Allaert FA, Babault N. An Acute Dose of Specific Grape and Apple Polyphenols Improves Endurance Performance: A Randomized, Crossover, Double-Blind versus Placebo Controlled Study. Nutrients. 2017;9(8). pii: E917. View abstract.
  • Kamimura A, Takahashi T, Watanabe Y. Investigation of topical application of procyanidin B-2 from apple to identify its potential use as a hair growing agent. Phytomedicine. 2000;7(6):529-36. View abstract.
  • Kishi K, Saito M, Saito T, et al. Clinical efficacy of apple polyphenol for treating cedar pollinosis. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005;69(4):829-32. View abstract.
  • Makarova E, Górnas P, Konrade I, et al. Acute anti-hyperglycaemic effects of an unripe apple preparation containing phlorizin in healthy volunteers: a preliminary study. J Sci Food Agric. 2015;95(3):560-8. View abstract.
  • Nagasako-Akazome Y, Kanda T, Ohtake Y, Shimasaki H, Kobayashi T. Apple polyphenols influence cholesterol metabolism in healthy subjects with relatively high body mass index. J Oleo Sci. 2007;56(8):417-28. View abstract.
  • Schulze C, Bangert A, Kottra G, et al. Inhibition of the intestinal sodium-coupled glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) by extracts and polyphenols from apple reduces postprandial blood glucose levels in mice and humans. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014;58(9):1795-808. View abstract.
  • Shoji T, Yamada M, Miura T, et al. Chronic administration of apple polyphenols ameliorates hyperglycaemia in high-normal and borderline subjects: A randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2017;129:43-51. View abstract.
  • Soriano-Maldonado A, Hidalgo M, Arteaga P, de Pascual-Teresa S, Nova E. Effects of regular consumption of vitamin C-rich or polyphenol-rich apple juice on cardiometabolic markers in healthy adults: a randomized crossover trial. Eur J Nutr. 2014 Dec;53(8):1645-57. View abstract.
  • Takahashi T, Kamimura A, Kagoura M, et al. Investigation of the topical application of procyanidin oligomers from apples to identify their potential use as a hair-growing agent. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2005;4(4):245-9. View abstract.
  • Tenore GC, Campiglia P, Ritieni A, Novellino E. In vitro bioaccessibility, bioavailability and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from Annurca apple (M. pumila Miller cv Annurca). Food Chem. 2013;141(4):3519-24. View abstract.
  • Tenore GC, Caruso D, Buonomo G, et al. A Healthy Balance of Plasma Cholesterol by a Novel Annurca Apple-Based Nutraceutical Formulation: Results of a Randomized Trial. J Med Food. 2017;20(3):288-300. View abstract.
  • Wruss J, Lanzerstorfer P, Huemer S, et al. Differences in pharmacokinetics of apple polyphenols after standardized oral consumption of unprocessed apple juice. Nutr J. 2015;14:32. View abstract.

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