CLOVE

OTHER NAME(S):

Bourgeon Floral de Clou de Girofle, Bouton Floral de Clou de Girofle, Caryophylli Flos, Caryophyllum, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Clavo de Olor, Clous de Girolfe, Clove Flower, Clove Flowerbud, Clove Leaf, Clove Oil, Clove Stem, Cloves, Cloves Bud, Ding Xiang, Eugenia aromatica, Eugenia caryophyllata, Eugenia caryophyllus, Feuille de Clou de Girofle, Fleur de Clou de Girofle, Flores Caryophylli, Flores Caryophyllum, Gewurznelken Nagelein, Girofle, Giroflier, Huile de Clou de Girofle, Kreteks, Lavang, Lavanga, Oil of Clove, Syzygium aromaticum, Tige de Clou de Girofle.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Clove is a plant grown in parts of Asia and South America. People use the oils, dried flower buds, leaves, and stems to make medicine.

Clove is most commonly applied directly to the gums for toothache, pain control during dental work, and other dental-related issues. But there is limited scientific research to support these and other uses.

In foods and beverages, clove is used as a flavoring.

In manufacturing, clove is used in toothpaste, soaps, cosmetics, perfumes, and cigarettes. Clove cigarettes, also called kreteks, generally contain 60% to 80% tobacco and 20% to 40% ground clove.

How does it work?

Clove oil contains a chemical called eugenol that may help to decrease pain and fight infections, but more research is needed.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Possibly Effective for

  • Premature ejaculation. Research shows that applying a cream containing clove flower plus Panax ginseng root, Angelica root, Cistanches deserticola, Zanthoxyl species, Torlidis seed, Asiasari root, cinnamon bark, and toad venom (SS Cream) to the skin of the penis improves premature (early) ejaculation.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Anal tears. Early research shows that applying a clove oil cream to anal tears for 6 weeks improves healing compared to using stool softeners and applying lidocaine cream.
  • Mosquito repellent. Early research shows that applying clove oil or clove oil gel directly to the skin can repel mosquitos for up to 5 hours.
  • Pain. Early research shows that applying a gel containing ground cloves for 5 minutes before being stuck with a needle can reduce needle stick pain.
  • Toothache. Clove oil and eugenol, one of the chemicals it contains, have long been applied to the teeth and gums for toothache, but the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has reclassified eugenol, downgrading its effectiveness rating. The FDA now believes there is not enough evidence to rate eugenol as effective for toothache pain.
  • Dental plaque.
  • "Dry socket” following tooth extraction.
  • Vomiting.
  • Upset stomach.
  • Nausea.
  • Gas (flatulence).
  • Diarrhea.
  • Hernia.
  • Pain and swelling (inflammation) of the mouth and throat.
  • Cough.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of clove for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Clove is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth in amounts commonly found in food. Not enough is known about the safety of taking clove by mouth in larger medicinal amounts.

Clove oil or cream containing clove flower is POSSIBLY SAFE when applied directly to the skin. However, application of clove oil in the mouth or on the gums can sometimes cause damage to the gums, tooth pulp, skin, and mucous membranes.

Inhaling smoke from clove cigarettes or injecting clove oil into the veins is LIKELY UNSAFE and can cause side effects such as breathing problems and lung disease.

Dried clove can also cause mouth sensitivity and irritation, as well as damage to dental tissues.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Children: In children, clove oil is LIKELY UNSAFE to take by mouth. It can cause severe side effects such as seizures, liver damage, and fluid imbalances.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Clove is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in amounts commonly found in food. There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking clove in medicinal doses if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Bleeding disorders: Clove oil contains a chemical called eugenol that seems to slow blood clotting. There is a concern that taking clove oil might cause bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.

Surgery: Clove oil contains a chemical called eugenol that seems to slow blood clotting. There is a concern that it might cause bleeding during or after surgery. Stop using clove at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Interactions

Interactions?

Minor Interaction

Be watchful with this combination

!
  • Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interacts with CLOVE

    Clove might slow blood clotting. Taking clove oil along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.<br /><br /> Clove contains eugenol. Eugenol is the part of clove that might slow blood clotting. Eugenol is very fragrant and gives allspice and clove their distinctive smell.<br /><br /> Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of clove depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for clove. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • El Hag, E. A., El Nadi, A. H., and Zaitoon, A. A. Toxic and growth retarding effects of three plant extracts on Culex pipiens larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). Phytother.Res. 1999;13(5):388-392. View abstract.
  • El Maraghy, S. S. Effect of some spices as preservatives for storage of lentil (Lens esculenta L.) seeds. Folia Microbiol.(Praha) 1995;40(5):490-492. View abstract.
  • Elwakeel, H. A., Moneim, H. A., Farid, M., and Gohar, A. A. Clove oil cream: a new effective treatment for chronic anal fissure. Colorectal Dis. 2007;9(6):549-552. View abstract.
  • Fabio, A., Cermelli, C., Fabio, G., Nicoletti, P., and Quaglio, P. Screening of the antibacterial effects of a variety of essential oils on microorganisms responsible for respiratory infections. Phytother.Res. 2007;21(4):374-377. View abstract.
  • Feng, J. and Lipton, J. M. Eugenol: antipyretic activity in rabbits. Neuropharmacology 1987;26(12):1775-1778. View abstract.
  • Feng, R., He, W., and Hirotomo, O. [Experimental studies on antioxidation of extracts from several plants used as both medicines and foods in vitro]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2000;23(11):690-693. View abstract.
  • Fichi, G., Flamini, G., Giovanelli, F., Otranto, D., and Perrucci, S. Efficacy of an essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata against Psoroptes cuniculi. Exp.Parasitol. 2007;115(2):168-172. View abstract.
  • Fischer, I. U. and Dengler, H. J. Sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the determination of eugenol in body fluids. J Chromatogr. 2-23-1990;525(2):369-377. View abstract.
  • Fotos, P. G., Woolverton, C. J., Van Dyke, K., and Powell, R. L. Effects of eugenol on polymorphonuclear cell migration and chemiluminescence. J Dent.Res. 1987;66(3):774-777. View abstract.
  • Friedman, M., Henika, P. R., and Mandrell, R. E. Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. J Food Prot. 2002;65(10):1545-1560. View abstract.
  • Friedman, M., Henika, P. R., Levin, C. E., and Mandrell, R. E. Antibacterial activities of plant essential oils and their components against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in apple juice. J Agric.Food Chem. 9-22-2004;52(19):6042-6048. View abstract.
  • Fu, Y., Chen, L., Zu, Y., Liu, Z., Liu, X., Liu, Y., Yao, L., and Efferth, T. The antibacterial activity of clove essential oil against Propionibacterium acnes and its mechanism of action. Arch.Dermatol. 2009;145(1):86-88. View abstract.
  • Fu, Y., Zu, Y., Chen, L., Shi, X., Wang, Z., Sun, S., and Efferth, T. Antimicrobial activity of clove and rosemary essential oils alone and in combination. Phytother.Res. 2007;21(10):989-994. View abstract.
  • Garibaldi, J. A., Greenlaw, J., Choi, J., and Fotovatjah, M. Treatment of post-operative pain. J Calif.Dent.Assoc. 1995;23(4):71-2, 74. View abstract.
  • Ghelardini, C., Galeotti, N., Di Cesare, Mannelli L., Mazzanti, G., and Bartolini, A. Local anaesthetic activity of beta-caryophyllene. Farmaco 2001;56(5-7):387-389. View abstract.
  • Guidotti, T. L., Laing, L., and Prakash, U. B. Clove cigarettes. The basis for concern regarding health effects. West J Med 1989;151(2):220-228. View abstract.
  • Hackett, P. H., Rodriguez, G., and Roach, R. C. Clove cigarettes and high-altitude pulmonary edema. JAMA 6-28-1985;253(24):3551-3552. View abstract.
  • Hartnoll, G., Moore, D., and Douek, D. Near fatal ingestion of oil of cloves. Arch.Dis Child 1993;69(3):392-393. View abstract.
  • Hasan, H. A. and Issa, A. A. Influences of chemical fertilizers (in vitro) on aflatoxin and citrinin synthesis by two strains of aspergilli. Folia Microbiol.(Praha) 1993;38(6):456-458. View abstract.
  • Hasan, H. A. and Mahmoud, A. L. Inhibitory effect of spice oils on lipase and mycotoxin production. Zentralbl.Mikrobiol. 1993;148(8):543-548. View abstract.
  • Hashimoto, S., Uchiyama, K., Maeda, M., Ishitsuka, K., Furumoto, K., and Nakamura, Y. In vivo and in vitro effects of zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) on biosynthesis of cyclo-oxygenase products in rat dental pulp. J Dent.Res. 1988;67(8):1092-1096. View abstract.
  • Hemaiswarya, S. and Doble, M. Synergistic interaction of eugenol with antibiotics against Gram negative bacteria. Phytomedicine. 2009;16(11):997-1005. View abstract.
  • Hollander F and Goldfischer RL. Histological study of the destruction and regeneration of the gastric mucous barrier following application of eugenol. Preliminary report. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1949;10:339-346.
  • Howes, M. J., Houghton, P. J., Barlow, D. J., Pocock, V. J., and Milligan, S. R. Assessment of estrogenic activity in some common essential oil constituents. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 2002;54(11):1521-1528. View abstract.
  • Hronek, M., Vachtlova, D., Kudlackova, Z., and Jilek, P. [Antifungal effect in selected natural compounds and probiotics and their possible use in prophylaxis of vulvovaginitis]. Ceska.Gynekol. 2005;70(5):395-399. View abstract.
  • Huang Y, Choo L, Pang F, and et al. Insecticidal and repellent properties of nine volatile constituents of essential oils against the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.). Pesticide Science 1998;54(3):261.
  • Hume, W. R. Effect of eugenol on constrictor responses in blood vessels of the rabbit ear. J Dent.Res. 1983;62(9):1013-1015. View abstract.
  • Huss, U., Ringbom, T., Perera, P., Bohlin, L., and Vasange, M. Screening of ubiquitous plant constituents for COX-2 inhibition with a scintillation proximity based assay. J Nat Prod. 2002;65(11):1517-1521. View abstract.
  • Hussein E, Ahu A, and Kadir T. Investigation of bacteremia after toothbrushing in orthodontic patients. Korean Journal of Orthodontics 2009;39(3):177-184.
  • Hussein, G., Miyashiro, H., Nakamura, N., Hattori, M., Kakiuchi, N., and Shimotohno, K. Inhibitory effects of sudanese medicinal plant extracts on hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease. Phytother.Res. 2000;14(7):510-516. View abstract.
  • Ibrahim, Y. K. and Ogunmodede, M. S. Growth and survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in some aromatic waters. Pharm Acta Helv. 1991;66(9-10):286-288. View abstract.
  • Interaminense, L. F., Leal-Cardoso, J. H., Magalhaes, P. J., Duarte, G. P., and Lahlou, S. Enhanced hypotensive effects of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum leaves and its main constituent, eugenol, in DOCA-salt hypertensive conscious rats. Planta Med 2005;71(4):376-378. View abstract.
  • Isaacs, G. Permanent local anaesthesia and anhidrosis after clove oil spillage. Lancet 4-16-1983;1(8329):882. View abstract.
  • Islam, S. N., Ferdous, A. J., Ahsan, M., and Faroque, A. B. Antibacterial activity of clove extracts against phagogenic strains including clinically resistant isolates of Shigella and Vibrio cholerae. Pak.J Pharm.Sci 1990;3(1):1-5. View abstract.
  • Jadhav, B. K., Khandelwal, K. R., Ketkar, A. R., and Pisal, S. S. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive tablets containing eugenol for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Drug Dev.Ind.Pharm. 2004;30(2):195-203. View abstract.
  • Jaganathan, S. K. and Supriyanto, E. Antiproliferative and molecular mechanism of eugenol-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Molecules. 2012;17(6):6290-6304. View abstract.
  • Jagdale, G. B. and Grewal, P. S. Identification of alternatives for the management of foliar nematodes in floriculture. Pest.Manag.Sci 2002;58(5):451-458. View abstract.
  • Jager, S., Trojan, H., Kopp, T., Laszczyk, M. N., and Scheffler, A. Pentacyclic triterpene distribution in various plants - rich sources for a new group of multi-potent plant extracts. Molecules. 2009;14(6):2016-2031. View abstract.
  • Janes, S. E., Price, C. S., and Thomas, D. Essential oil poisoning: N-acetylcysteine for eugenol-induced hepatic failure and analysis of a national database. Eur.J Pediatr 2005;164(8):520-522. View abstract.
  • Jayashankar, S., Panagoda, G. J., Amaratunga, E. A., Perera, K., and Rajapakse, P. S. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study on the effects of a herbal toothpaste on gingival bleeding, oral hygiene and microbial variables. Ceylon Med.J 2011;56(1):5-9. View abstract.
  • Jirovetz, L., Buchbauer, G., Stoilova, I., Stoyanova, A., Krastanov, A., and Schmidt, E. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of clove leaf essential oil. J Agric.Food Chem. 8-23-2006;54(17):6303-6307. View abstract.
  • Joe, B. and Lokesh, B. R. Role of capsaicin, curcumin and dietary n-3 fatty acids in lowering the generation of reactive oxygen species in rat peritoneal macrophages. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 11-10-1994;1224(2):255-263. View abstract.
  • Jorkjend, L. and Skoglund, L. A. Effect of non-eugenol- and eugenol-containing periodontal dressings on the incidence and severity of pain after periodontal soft tissue surgery. J Clin Periodontol. 1990;17(6):341-344. View abstract.
  • Juglal, S., Govinden, R., and Odhav, B. Spice oils for the control of co-occurring mycotoxin-producing fungi. J Food Prot. 2002;65(4):683-687. View abstract.
  • Kadey M. Lost in spice. Natural Health 2007;37(9):43-50.
  • Khaldun, A. O. [Antibacterial action of ether oils of some plants]. Zh.Mikrobiol.Epidemiol.Immunobiol. 2006;(3):92-93. View abstract.
  • Khan, M. S., Zahin, M., Hasan, S., Husain, F. M., and Ahmad, I. Inhibition of quorum sensing regulated bacterial functions by plant essential oils with special reference to clove oil. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2009;49(3):354-360. View abstract.
  • Khan, R., Islam, B., Akram, M., Shakil, S., Ahmad, A., Ali, S. M., Siddiqui, M., and Khan, A. U. Antimicrobial activity of five herbal extracts against multi drug resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and fungus of clinical origin. Molecules. 2009;14(2):586-597. View abstract.
  • Kharfi, M., El, Fekih N., Zayan, F., Mrad, S., and Kamoun, M. R. [Temporary tatooing: black henna or harkous?]. Med.Trop.(Mars.) 2009;69(5):527-528. View abstract.
  • Kim, B. J., Kim, J. H., Kim, H. P., and Heo, M. Y. Biological screening of 100 plant extracts for cosmetic use (II): anti-oxidative activity and free radical scavenging activity. Int.J Cosmet.Sci. 1997;19(6):299-307. View abstract.
  • Kim, D. O. and Lee, C. Y. Comprehensive study on vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) of various polyphenolics in scavenging a free radical and its structural relationship. Crit Rev.Food Sci.Nutr. 2004;44(4):253-273. View abstract.
  • Kim, E. H., Kim, H. K., and Ahn, Y. J. Acaricidal activity of clove bud oil compounds against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae). J Agric.Food Chem. 2-12-2003;51(4):885-889. View abstract.
  • Kim, H. J., Lee, J. S., Woo, E. R., Kim, M. K., Yang, B. S., Yu, Y. G., Park, H., and Lee, Y. S. Isolation of virus-cell fusion inhibitory components from Eugenia caryophyllata. Planta Med 2001;67(3):277-279. View abstract.
  • Kim, H. M., Lee, E. H., Hong, S. H., Song, H. J., Shin, M. K., Kim, S. H., and Shin, T. Y. Effect of Syzygium aromaticum extract on immediate hypersensitivity in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;60(2):125-131. View abstract.
  • Kim, H. M., Lee, E. H., Kim, C. Y., Chung, J. G., Kim, S. H., Lim, J. P., and Shin, T. Y. Antianaphylactic properties of eugenol. Pharmacol Res 1997;36(6):475-480. View abstract.
  • Kim, S. I., Na, Y. E., Yi, J. H., Kim, B. S., and Ahn, Y. J. Contact and fumigant toxicity of oriental medicinal plant extracts against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae). Vet.Parasitol. 4-30-2007;145(3-4):377-382. View abstract.
  • Kim, S. S., Oh, O. J., Min, H. Y., Park, E. J., Kim, Y., Park, H. J., Nam, Han Y., and Lee, S. K. Eugenol suppresses cyclooxygenase-2 expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Life Sci. 6-6-2003;73(3):337-348. View abstract.
  • Kluth, D., Banning, A., Paur, I., Blomhoff, R., and Brigelius-Flohe, R. Modulation of pregnane X receptor- and electrophile responsive element-mediated gene expression by dietary polyphenolic compounds. Free Radic.Biol.Med 2-1-2007;42(3):315-325. View abstract.
  • Knaap G. Kruidnagelen en Christenen. De Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie en de Bevolking van Ambon 1656-1696. Dissertation Abstracts International Section C 1985;46(4):46-4329c.
  • Knaap G. THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL AND THE SULTAN: AN ATTEMPT TO RESTRUCTURE A DIVIDED AMBOINA IN 1638. Itinerario 2005;29(1):79-100.
  • Kong, B., Wang, J., and Xiong, Y. L. Antimicrobial activity of several herb and spice extracts in culture medium and in vacuum-packaged pork. J Food Prot. 2007;70(3):641-647. View abstract.
  • Koulaouzidou, E. A., Papazisis, K. T., Economides, N. A., Beltes, P., and Kortsaris, A. H. Antiproliferative effect of mineral trioxide aggregate, zinc oxide-eugenol cement, and glass-ionomer cement against three fibroblastic cell lines. J Endod. 2005;31(1):44-46. View abstract.
  • Kreydiyyeh, S. I., Usta, J., and Copti, R. Effect of cinnamon, clove and some of their constituents on the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and alanine absorption in the rat jejunum. Food Chem Toxicol 2000;38(9):755-762. View abstract.
  • Kripke, B. J., Kupferman, A., and Luu, K. C. Suppression of chemotaxis to corneal inflammation by nitrous oxide. Zhonghua Min Guo.Wei Sheng Wu Ji.Mian.Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 1987;20(4):302-310. View abstract.
  • Kumar, P., Ansari, S. H., and Ali, J. Herbal remedies for the treatment of periodontal disease--a patent review. Recent Pat Drug Deliv.Formul. 2009;3(3):221-228. View abstract.
  • Lahlou, S., Interaminense, Lde F., Leal-Cardoso, J. H., Morais, S. M., and Duarte, G. P. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum leaves in rats: role of the autonomic nervous system. Clin Exp.Pharmacol.Physiol 2004;31(4):219-225. View abstract.
  • Lane, B. W., Ellenhorn, M. J., Hulbert, T. V., and McCarron, M. Clove oil ingestion in an infant. Hum.Exp Toxicol. 1991;10(4):291-294. View abstract.
  • Larhsini, M., Oumoulid, L., Lazrek, H. B., Wataleb, S., Bousaid, M., Bekkouche, K., and Jana, M. Antibacterial activity of some Moroccan medicinal plants. Phytother.Res. 2001;15(3):250-252. View abstract.
  • LaVoie, E. J., Adams, J. D., Reinhardt, J., Rivenson, A., and Hoffmann, D. Toxicity studies on clove cigarette smoke and constituents of clove: determination of the LD50 of eugenol by intratracheal instillation in rats and hamsters. Arch.Toxicol. 1986;59(2):78-81. View abstract.
  • Lee, G. I., Ha, J. Y., Min, K. R., Nakagawa, H., Tsurufuji, S., Chang, I. M., and Kim, Y. Inhibitory effects of Oriental herbal medicines on IL-8 induction in lipopolysaccharide-activated rat macrophages. Planta Med 1995;61(1):26-30. View abstract.
  • Lee, J. I., Lee, H. S., Jun, W. J., Yu, K. W., Shin, D. H., Hong, B. S., Cho, H. Y., and Yang, H. C. Purification and characterization of antithrombotics from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) MErr. & PERRY. Biol.Pharm.Bull 2001;24(2):181-187. View abstract.
  • Lee, M. H., Yeon, K. Y., Park, C. K., Li, H. Y., Fang, Z., Kim, M. S., Choi, S. Y., Lee, S. J., Lee, S., Park, K., Lee, J. H., Kim, J. S., and Oh, S. B. Eugenol inhibits calcium currents in dental afferent neurons. J Dent.Res. 2005;84(9):848-851. View abstract.
  • Lee, S. Y. and Jin, H. H. Inhibitory activity of natural antimicrobial compounds alone or in combination with nisin against Enterobacter sakazakii. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2008;47(4):315-321. View abstract.
  • Lee, Y. Y., Hung, S. L., Pai, S. F., Lee, Y. H., and Yang, S. F. Eugenol suppressed the expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory mediators in human macrophages. J Endod. 2007;33(6):698-702. View abstract.
  • Lee, Y. Y., Yang, S. F., Ho, W. H., Lee, Y. H., and Hung, S. L. Eugenol modulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression through the activation of nuclear factor kappa B in human osteoblasts. J Endod. 2007;33(10):1177-1182. View abstract.
  • Leite A, Lima E, de Souza E, and et al. Inhibitory effect of beta-pinene, alpha-pinene and eugenol on the growth of potential infectious endocarditis causing Gram-positive bacteria. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Revista Brasileira de Ciencias Farmaceuticas) 2007;43:121-126.
  • Leuschner, R. G. and Ielsch, V. Antimicrobial effects of garlic, clove and red hot chilli on Listeria monocytogenes in broth model systems and soft cheese. Int J Food Sci.Nutr. 2003;54(2):127-133. View abstract.
  • Li, H. Y., Park, C. K., Jung, S. J., Choi, S. Y., Lee, S. J., Park, K., Kim, J. S., and Oh, S. B. Eugenol inhibits K+ currents in trigeminal ganglion neurons. J Dent.Res. 2007;86(9):898-902. View abstract.
  • Lindberg, C. M., Melathopoulos, A. P., and Winston, M. L. Laboratory evaluation of miticides to control Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae), a honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) parasite. J Econ.Entomol. 2000;93(2):189-198. View abstract.
  • Linde H. About 2 phenols in cloves. Archiv der Pharmazie (Weinheim, Germany) 1983;316:971-972.
  • Llewellyn, G. C., Burkett, M. L., and Eadie, T. Potential mold growth, aflatoxin production, and antimycotic activity of selected natural spices and herbs. J Assoc.Off Anal.Chem. 1981;64(4):955-960. View abstract.
  • Lofrano-Alves, M. S., Oliveira, E. L., Damiani, C. E., Kassouf-Silva, I., and Fogaca, R. T. Eugenol-induced contractions of saponin-skinned fibers are inhibited by heparin or by a ryanodine receptor blocker. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005;83(12):1093-1100. View abstract.
  • Lopez, P., Sanchez, C., Batlle, R., and Nerin, C. Solid- and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains. J Agric.Food Chem 8-24-2005;53(17):6939-6946. View abstract.
  • Mabrouk, S. S. and El Shayeb, N. M. Inhibition of aflatoxin formation by some spices. Z.Lebensm.Unters.Forsch. 1980;171(5):344-347. View abstract.
  • Martinez Nadal NG and Montalvo AE. Antimicrobial properties of bay and other phenolic essential oils. Cosmet.Perfum 1973;88(10):37-38.
  • Mayaud, L., Carricajo, A., Zhiri, A., and Aubert, G. Comparison of bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of 13 essential oils against strains with varying sensitivity to antibiotics. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2008;47(3):167-173. View abstract.
  • McDonald H. Colonic Hydrotherapy for Digestive Problems. Positive Health 2007;(134):32.
  • McDougal, R. A., Delano, E. O., Caplan, D., Sigurdsson, A., and Trope, M. Success of an alternative for interim management of irreversible pulpitis. J Am Dent.Assoc 2004;135(12):1707-1712. View abstract.
  • Mejlholm, O. and Dalgaard, P. Antimicrobial effect of essential oils on the seafood spoilage micro-organism Photobacterium phosphoreum in liquid media and fish products. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2002;34(1):27-31. View abstract.
  • Mesbah, H. A., Mourad, A. K., and Rokaia, A. Z. Efficacy of some plant oils alone and/or combined with different insecticides on the cotton leaf-worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Egypt. Commun.Agric.Appl.Biol.Sci. 2006;71(2 Pt B):305-328. View abstract.
  • Meyer, S. L., Lakshman, D. K., Zasada, I. A., Vinyard, B. T., and Chitwood, D. J. Dose-response effects of clove oil from Syzygium aromaticum on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Pest.Manag.Sci 2008;64(3):223-229. View abstract.
  • Minami, E., Shibata, H., Nomoto, M., and Fukuda, T. Effect of shitei-to, a traditional Chinese medicine formulation, on pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in mice. Phytomedicine. 2000;7(1):69-72. View abstract.
  • Mishra, R. K. and Singh, S. K. Safety assessment of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud (clove) extract with respect to testicular function in mice. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2008;46(10):3333-3338. View abstract.
  • Mitchell, R. Treatment of fibrinolytic alveolitis by a collagen paste (Formula K). A preliminary report. Int J Oral Maxillofac.Surg. 1986;15(2):127-133. View abstract.
  • Montes-Belmont, R. and Carvajal, M. Control of Aspergillus flavus in maize with plant essential oils and their components. J Food Prot. 1998;61(5):616-619. View abstract.
  • Morsy, M. A. and Fouad, A. A. Mechanisms of gastroprotective effect of eugenol in indomethacin-induced ulcer in rats. Phytother.Res. 2008;22(10):1361-1366. View abstract.
  • Mortazavi, M. and Mesbahi, M. Comparison of zinc oxide and eugenol, and Vitapex for root canal treatment of necrotic primary teeth. Int J Paediatr.Dent. 2004;14(6):417-424. View abstract.
  • Mortensen, H. [A case of allergic stomatitis due to eugenol]. Tandlaegebladet. 1968;72(12):1155-1158. View abstract.
  • Muniz, L. and Mathias, P. The influence of sodium hypochlorite and root canal sealers on post retention in different dentin regions. Oper.Dent. 2005;30(4):533-539. View abstract.
  • Musenga, A., Ferranti, A., Saracino, M. A., Fanali, S., and Raggi, M. A. Simultaneous determination of aromatic and terpenic constituents of cloves by means of HPLC with diode array detection. J Sep.Sci 2006;29(9):1251-1258. View abstract.
  • Natural compounds fight oral pathogens. J Am.Dent.Assoc. 1996;127(11):1582. View abstract.
  • Nelson, R. L., Thomas, K., Morgan, J., and Jones, A. Non surgical therapy for anal fissure. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;2:CD003431. View abstract.
  • Ogata, M. [Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of dimeric phenol compounds]. Yakugaku Zasshi 2008;128(8):1149-1158. View abstract.
  • Ogata, M., Kaneya, D., Shin-Ya, K., Li, L., Abe, Y., Katoh, H., Seki, S., Seki, Y., Gonda, R., Urano, S., and Endo, T. Trapping effect of eugenol on hydroxyl radicals induced by L-DOPA in vitro. Chem.Pharm.Bull (Tokyo) 2005;53(9):1167-1170. View abstract.
  • Ohkubo, T. and Kitamura, K. Eugenol activates Ca(2+)-permeable currents in rat dorsal root ganglion cells. J Dent.Res. 1997;76(11):1737-1744. View abstract.
  • Olasupo, N. A., Fitzgerald, D. J., Gasson, M. J., and Narbad, A. Activity of natural antimicrobial compounds against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2003;37(6):448-451. View abstract.
  • Oparaeke A, Dike M, and Amatobi C. Field Activity of Three Mixture Levels of Plant Extract Formulations for the Management of Post-Flowering Insect Pests of Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp-The Flower Thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom). Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 2006;28(4):45-54.
  • Ouattara, B., Simard, R. E., Holley, R. A., Piette, G. J., and Begin, A. Antibacterial activity of selected fatty acids and essential oils against six meat spoilage organisms. Int.J Food Microbiol. 7-22-1997;37(2-3):155-162. View abstract.
  • Owen P and Johns T. Antioxidants in Medicines and Spices as Cardioprotective Agents in Tibetan Highlanders. Pharmaceutical Biology 2002;40(5):346.
  • Ozalp, N., Saroglu, I., and Sonmez, H. Evaluation of various root canal filling materials in primary molar pulpectomies: an in vivo study. Am J Dent. 2005;18(6):347-350. View abstract.
  • Pallares, D. E. Link between clove cigarettes and urticaria? Postgrad.Med 10-1-1999;106(4):153. View abstract.
  • Park, B. S., Song, Y. S., Yee, S. B., Lee, B. G., Seo, S. Y., Park, Y. C., Kim, J. M., Kim, H. M., and Yoo, Y. H. Phospho-ser 15-p53 translocates into mitochondria and interacts with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL in eugenol-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis. 2005;10(1):193-200. View abstract.
  • Park, C. K., Kim, K., Jung, S. J., Kim, M. J., Ahn, D. K., Hong, S. D., Kim, J. S., and Oh, S. B. Molecular mechanism for local anesthetic action of eugenol in the rat trigeminal system. Pain 2009;144(1-2):84-94. View abstract.
  • Park, C. K., Li, H. Y., Yeon, K. Y., Jung, S. J., Choi, S. Y., Lee, S. J., Lee, S., Park, K., Kim, J. S., and Oh, S. B. Eugenol inhibits sodium currents in dental afferent neurons. J Dent.Res. 2006;85(10):900-904. View abstract.
  • Park, I. K. and Shin, S. C. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from garlic (Allium sativum) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) oils against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe). J Agric.Food Chem. 6-1-2005;53(11):4388-4392. View abstract.
  • Pei, R. S., Zhou, F., Ji, B. P., and Xu, J. Evaluation of combined antibacterial effects of eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and carvacrol against E. coli with an improved method. J Food Sci 2009;74(7):M379-M383. View abstract.
  • Perez, C. and Anesini, C. Antibacterial activity of alimentary plants against Staphylococcus aureus growth. Am.J Chin Med 1994;22(2):169-174. View abstract.
  • Pongprayoon, U., Baeckstrom, P., Jacobsson, U., Lindstrom, M., and Bohlin, L. Compounds inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis isolated from Ipomoea pes-caprae. Planta Med 1991;57(6):515-518. View abstract.
  • Pourgholami, M. H., Kamalinejad, M., Javadi, M., Majzoob, S., and Sayyah, M. Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in male mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;64(2):167-171. View abstract.
  • Prabuseenivasan, S., Jayakumar, M., and Ignacimuthu, S. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils. BMC.Complement Altern.Med 2006;6:39. View abstract.
  • Prashar, A., Locke, I. C., and Evans, C. S. Cytotoxicity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil and its major components to human skin cells. Cell Prolif. 2006;39(4):241-248. View abstract.
  • Quirce, S., Fernandez-Nieto, M., del, Pozo, V, Sastre, B., and Sastre, J. Occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by eugenol in a hairdresser. Allergy 2008;63(1):137-138. View abstract.
  • Raghavenra, H., Diwakr, B. T., Lokesh, B. R., and Naidu, K. A. Eugenol--the active principle from cloves inhibits 5-lipoxygenase activity and leukotriene-C4 in human PMNL cells. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2006;74(1):23-27. View abstract.
  • Rahim, Z. H. and Khan, H. B. Comparative studies on the effect of crude aqueous (CA) and solvent (CM) extracts of clove on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans. J Oral Sci 2006;48(3):117-123. View abstract.
  • Ramanoelina, A. R., Terrom, G. P., Bianchini, J. P., and Coulanges, P. [Antibacterial action of essential oils extracted from Madagascar plants]. Arch.Inst.Pasteur Madagascar 1987;53(1):217-226. View abstract.
  • Rastogi, S., Pandey, M. M., and Rawat, A. K. High-performance thin-layer chromatography densitometric method for the simultaneous determination of three phenolic acids in Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. J AOAC Int. 2008;91(5):1169-1173. View abstract.
  • Rattanachaikunsopon, P. and Phumkhachorn, P. Protective effect of clove oil-supplemented fish diets on experimental Lactococcus garvieae infection in tilapia. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2009;73(9):2085-2089. View abstract.
  • Reddy, A. C. and Lokesh, B. R. Effect of curcumin and eugenol on iron-induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Toxicology 1-22-1996;107(1):39-45. View abstract.
  • Revay, E. E., Junnila, A., Xue, R. D., Kline, D. L., Bernier, U. R., Kravchenko, V. D., Qualls, W. A., Ghattas, N., and Muller, G. C. Evaluation of commercial products for personal protection against mosquitoes. Acta Trop. 2013;125(2):226-230. View abstract.
  • Rodrigues, T. G., Fernandes, A., Jr., Sousa, J. P., Bastos, J. K., and Sforcin, J. M. In vitro and in vivo effects of clove on pro-inflammatory cytokines production by macrophages. Nat.Prod.Res. 2009;23(4):319-326. View abstract.
  • Romaguera, C., Alomar, A., Camarasa, J. M., Garcia, Bravo B., Garcia, Perez A., Grimalt, F., Guerra, P., Lopez, Gorretcher B., Pascual, A. M., Miranda, A., and . Contact dermatitis in children. Contact Dermatitis 1985;12(5):283-284. View abstract.
  • Rompelberg, C. J., Vogels, J. T., de Vogel, N., Bruijntjes-Rozier, G. C., Stenhuis, W. H., Bogaards, J. J., and Verhagen, H. Effect of short-term dietary administration of eugenol in humans. Hum.Exp.Toxicol. 1996;15(2):129-135. View abstract.
  • Saad, el, Hussien, R., Saher, F., and Ahmed, Z. Acaricidal activities of some essential oils and their monoterpenoidal constituents against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae). J Zhejiang.Univ Sci B 2006;7(12):957-962. View abstract.
  • Saeed, S. A. and Gilani, A. H. Antithrombotic activity of clove oil. J Pak Med Assoc 1994;44(5):112-115. View abstract.
  • Saeki, Y., Ito, Y., Shibata, M., Sato, Y., Okuda, K., and Takazoe, I. Antimicrobial action of natural substances on oral bacteria. Bull.Tokyo Dent Coll. 1989;30(3):129-135. View abstract.
  • Saini, A., Sharma, S., and Chhibber, S. Induction of resistance to respiratory tract infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae in mice fed on a diet supplemented with tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and clove (Syzgium aromaticum) oils. J Microbiol.Immunol.Infect. 2009;42(2):107-113. View abstract.
  • Saito, K., Kohno, M., Yoshizaki, F., and Niwano, Y. Extensive screening for edible herbal extracts with potent scavenging activity against superoxide anions. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 2008;63(2):65-70. View abstract.
  • Saltzman, B., Sigal, M., Clokie, C., Rukavina, J., Titley, K., and Kulkarni, G. V. Assessment of a novel alternative to conventional formocresol-zinc oxide eugenol pulpotomy for the treatment of pulpally involved human primary teeth: diode laser-mineral trioxide aggregate pulpotomy. Int J Paediatr.Dent. 2005;15(6):437-447. View abstract.
  • Samara, A., Sarri, Y., Stravopodis, D., Tzanetakis, G. N., Kontakiotis, E. G., and Anastasiadou, E. A comparative study of the effects of three root-end filling materials on proliferation and adherence of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. J Endod. 2011;37(6):865-870. View abstract.
  • Sanchez-Perez, J. and Garcia-Diez, A. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from eugenol, oil of cinnamon and oil of cloves in a physiotherapist. Contact Dermatitis 1999;41(6):346-347. View abstract.
  • Santiesteban-Lopez, A., Palou, E., and Lopez-Malo, A. Susceptibility of food-borne bacteria to binary combinations of antimicrobials at selected a(w) and pH. J Appl.Microbiol. 2007;102(2):486-497. View abstract.
  • Santoro, G. F., Cardoso, M. G., Guimaraes, L. G., Mendonca, L. Z., and Soares, M. J. Trypanosoma cruzi: activity of essential oils from Achillea millefolium L., Syzygium aromaticum L. and Ocimum basilicum L. on epimastigotes and trypomastigotes. Exp.Parasitol. 2007;116(3):283-290. View abstract.
  • Sarrami, N., Pemberton, M. N., Thornhill, M. H., and Theaker, E. D. Adverse reactions associated with the use of eugenol in dentistry. Br.Dent.J 9-14-2002;193(5):257-259. View abstract.
  • Scarparo, R. K., Grecca, F. S., and Fachin, E. V. Analysis of tissue reactions to methacrylate resin-based, epoxy resin-based, and zinc oxide-eugenol endodontic sealers. J Endod. 2009;35(2):229-232. View abstract.
  • Schattner, P. and Randerson, D. Tiger Balm as a treatment of tension headache. A clinical trial in general practice. Aust.Fam.Physician 1996;25(2):216, 218, 220. View abstract.
  • Segura, J. J. and Jimenez-Rubio, A. Effect of eugenol on macrophage adhesion in vitro to plastic surfaces. Endod.Dent.Traumatol. 1998;14(2):72-74. View abstract.
  • Sensch, O., Vierling, W., Brandt, W., and Reiter, M. Effects of inhibition of calcium and potassium currents in guinea-pig cardiac contraction: comparison of beta-caryophyllene oxide, eugenol, and nifedipine. Br J Pharmacol 2000;131(6):1089-1096. View abstract.
  • Shakila, R. J., Vasundhara, T. S., and Rao, D. V. Inhibitory effect of spices on in vitro histamine production and histidine decarboxylase activity of Morganella morganii and on the biogenic amine formation in mackerel stored at 30 degrees C. Z Lebensm.Unters.Forsch. 1996;203(1):71-76. View abstract.
  • Shapiro, S., Meier, A., and Guggenheim, B. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and essential oil components towards oral bacteria. Oral Microbiol.Immunol. 1994;9(4):202-208. View abstract.
  • Sher, N. A., Doughman, D. J., Mindrup, E., and Minaai, L. A. Macrophage migration inhibition factor activity in the aqueous humor during experimental corneal xenograft and allograft rejection. Am.J Ophthalmol. 1976;82(6):858-865. View abstract.
  • Siddiqui A and Ansari A, Khan S. Antibacterial Activity of Some Commonly Used Food Commodities Against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 2009;52:143-145.
  • Singh, U. P., Singh, D. P., Maurya, S., Maheshwari, R., Singh, M., Dubey, R. S., and Singh, R. B. Investigation on the phenolics of some spices having pharmacotherapeuthic properties. J Herb.Pharmacother. 2004;4(4):27-42. View abstract.
  • Slamenova, D., Horvathova, E., Wsolova, L., Sramkova, M., and Navarova, J. Investigation of anti-oxidative, cytotoxic, DNA-damaging and DNA-protective effects of plant volatiles eugenol and borneol in human-derived HepG2, Caco-2 and VH10 cell lines. Mutat.Res. 2009;677(1-2):46-52. View abstract.
  • Smith-Palmer, A., Stewart, J., and Fyfe, L. Antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils and essences against five important food-borne pathogens. Lett Appl Microbiol. 1998;26(2):118-122. View abstract.
  • Smith-Palmer, A., Stewart, J., and Fyfe, L. Influence of subinhibitory concentrations of plant essential oils on the production of enterotoxins A and B and alpha-toxin by Staphylococcus aureus. J Med Microbiol. 2004;53(Pt 10):1023-1027. View abstract.
  • Smith-Palmer, A., Stewartt, J., and Fyfe, L. Inhibition of listeriolysin O and phosphatidylcholine-specific production in Listeria monocytogenes by subinhibitory concentrations of plant essential oils. J Med Microbiol. 2002;51(7):567-574. View abstract.
  • Soetiarto, F. The relationship between habitual clove cigarette smoking and a specific pattern of dental decay in male bus drivers in Jakarta, Indonesia. Caries Res 1999;33(3):248-250. View abstract.
  • Somova, L. O., Nadar, A., Rammanan, P., and Shode, F. O. Cardiovascular, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of oleanolic and ursolic acids in experimental hypertension. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(2-3):115-121. View abstract.
  • Sosto, F. and Benvenuti, C. Controlled study on thymol + eugenol vaginal douche versus econazole in vaginal candidiasis and metronidazole in bacterial vaginosis. Arzneimittelforschung. 2011;61(2):126-131. View abstract.
  • Srivastava, K. C. and Malhotra, N. Acetyl eugenol, a component of oil of cloves (Syzygium aromaticum L.) inhibits aggregation and alters arachidonic acid metabolism in human blood platelets. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 1991;42(1):73-81. View abstract.
  • Srivastava, K. C. Antiplatelet principles from a food spice clove (Syzygium aromaticum L) [corrected]. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 1993;48(5):363-372. View abstract.
  • Sticht, F. D. and Smith, R. M. Eugenol: some pharmacologic observations. J Dent.Res. 1971;50(6):1531-1535. View abstract.
  • Stojicevic, M., Dordevic, O., Kostic, L., Madanovic, N., and Karanovic, D. [Action of clove oil, eugenol, and zinc-oxide eugenol paste on the dental pulp within "in vitro" conditions]. Stomatol.Glas.Srb. 1980;27(2):85-89. View abstract.
  • Tajuddin, Ahmad, S., Latif, A., and Qasmi, I. A. Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) on sexual behaviour of normal male rats. BMC.Complement Altern.Med 11-5-2004;4:17. View abstract.
  • Takemasa, N., Ohnishi, S., Tsuji, M., Shikata, T., and Yokoigawa, K. Screening and analysis of spices with ability to suppress verocytotoxin production by Escherichia coli O157. J Food Sci 2009;74(8):M461-M466. View abstract.
  • Tayel, A. A. and El Tras, W. F. Possibility of fighting food borne bacteria by egyptian folk medicinal herbs and spices extracts. J Egypt.Public Health Assoc. 2009;84(1-2):21-32. View abstract.
  • Thompson, D. C., Constantin-Teodosiu, D., and Moldeus, P. Metabolism and cytotoxicity of eugenol in isolated rat hepatocytes. Chem Biol.Interact. 1991;77(2):137-147. View abstract.
  • Tobias, R. S., Browne, R. M., and Wilson, C. A. Antibacterial activity of dental restorative materials. Int.Endod.J 1985;18(3):161-171. View abstract.
  • Toda, S., Ohnishi, M., Kimura, M., and Toda, T. Inhibitory effects of eugenol and related compounds on lipid peroxidation induced by reactive oxygen. Planta Med 1994;60(3):282. View abstract.
  • Tominaga, H., Kobayashi, Y., Goto, T., Kasemura, K., and Nomura, M. DPPH radical-scavenging effect of several phenylpropanoid compounds and their glycoside derivatives. Yakugaku Zasshi 2005;125(4):371-375. View abstract.
  • Tragoolpua, Y. and Jatisatienr, A. Anti-herpes simplex virus activities of Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison and essential oil, eugenol. Phytother.Res. 2007;21(12):1153-1158. View abstract.
  • Trongtokit, Y., Curtis, C. F., and Rongsriyam, Y. Efficacy of repellent products against caged and free flying Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Southeast Asian J Trop.Med Public Health 2005;36(6):1423-1431. View abstract.
  • Trongtokit, Y., Rongsriyam, Y., Komalamisra, N., and Apiwathnasorn, C. Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites. Phytother Res 2005;19(4):303-309. View abstract.
  • Trongtokit, Y., Rongsriyam, Y., Komalamisra, N., Krisadaphong, P., and Apiwathnasorn, C. Laboratory and field trial of developing medicinal local Thai plant products against four species of mosquito vectors. Southeast Asian J Trop.Med Public Health 2004;35(2):325-333. View abstract.
  • Uchibayashi, M. [Etymology of clove]. Yakushigaku.Zasshi 2001;36(2):167-170. View abstract.
  • Valero, M. and Salmeron, M. C. Antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils against Bacillus cereus in tyndallized carrot broth. Int.J Food Microbiol. 8-15-2003;85(1-2):73-81. View abstract.
  • Walsh, S. E., Maillard, J. Y., Russell, A. D., Catrenich, C. E., Charbonneau, D. L., and Bartolo, R. G. Activity and mechanisms of action of selected biocidal agents on Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. J Appl.Microbiol. 2003;94(2):240-247. View abstract.
  • Wang, H. F., Wang, Y. K., and Yih, K. H. DPPH free-radical scavenging ability, total phenolic content, and chemical composition analysis of forty-five kinds of essential oils. J Cosmet.Sci. 2008;59(6):509-522. View abstract.
  • Williams, R. N., Paterson, C. A., Eakins, K. E., and Bhattacherjee, P. Quantification of ocular inflammation: evaluation of polymorphonuclear leucocyte infiltration by measuring myeloperoxidase activity. Curr.Eye Res. 1982;2(7):465-470. View abstract.
  • Woolverton, C. J., Fotos, P. G., Mokas, M. J., and Mermigas, M. E. Evaluation of eugenol for mutagenicity by the mouse micronucleus test. J Oral Pathol. 1986;15(8):450-453. View abstract.
  • Xing, F., Tan, Y., Yan, G. J., Zhang, J. J., Shi, Z. H., Tan, S. Z., Feng, N. P., and Liu, C. H. Effects of Chinese herbal cataplasm Xiaozhang Tie on cirrhotic ascites. J Ethnopharmacol. 1-31-2012;139(2):343-349. View abstract.
  • Xu, H., Delling, M., Jun, J. C., and Clapham, D. E. Oregano, thyme and clove-derived flavors and skin sensitizers activate specific TRP channels. Nat.Neurosci. 2006;9(5):628-635. View abstract.
  • Yadav, A. S. and Bhatnagar, D. Free radical scavenging activity, metal chelation and antioxidant power of some of the Indian spices. Biofactors 2007;31(3-4):219-227. View abstract.
  • Yang, B. H., Piao, Z. G., Kim, Y. B., Lee, C. H., Lee, J. K., Park, K., Kim, J. S., and Oh, S. B. Activation of vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) by eugenol. J Dent.Res. 2003;82(10):781-785. View abstract.
  • Yang, Y. C., Lee, S. H., Lee, W. J., Choi, D. H., and Ahn, Y. J. Ovicidal and adulticidal effects of Eugenia caryophyllata bud and leaf oil compounds on Pediculus capitis. J Agric.Food Chem. 8-13-2003;51(17):4884-4888. View abstract.
  • Yano, Y., Satomi, M., and Oikawa, H. Antimicrobial effect of spices and herbs on Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Int.J Food Microbiol. 8-15-2006;111(1):6-11. View abstract.
  • Yarnell E and Abascal E. Herbal Support for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections. Alternative & Complementary Therapies (England) 2009;15:189-195.
  • Yarnell E and Abascal K. Botanical medicines for headache. Alternative & Complementary Therapies (England) 2007;13:148-152.
  • Yoo, C. B., Han, K. T., Cho, K. S., Ha, J., Park, H. J., Nam, J. H., Kil, U. H., and Lee, K. T. Eugenol isolated from the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata induces a reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Cancer Lett. 7-8-2005;225(1):41-52. View abstract.
  • Zanata, R. L., Navarro, M. F., Barbosa, S. H., Lauris, J. R., and Franco, E. B. Clinical evaluation of three restorative materials applied in a minimal intervention caries treatment approach. J Public Health Dent. 2003;63(4):221-226. View abstract.
  • Zhang, S. B. and Guo, Y. S. [Study on determination of metal elements in buds of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry by ICP-AES]. Guang.Pu.Xue.Yu Guang.Pu.Fen.Xi. 2006;26(7):1339-1341. View abstract.
  • Zhang, W. J. [Mildewproof of Chinese traditional medicinal materials]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 1994;19(9):532-4, 574. View abstract.
  • Zhu, B. C., Henderson, G., Chen, F., Fei, H., and Laine, R. A. Evaluation of vetiver oil and seven insect-active essential oils against the Formosan subterranean termite. J Chem.Ecol. 2001;27(8):1617-1625. View abstract.
  • Asha MK, Prashanth D, Murali B, et al. Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum sanctum and eugenol. Fitoterapia 2001;72:669-70. View abstract.
  • Chen SJ, Wang MH, Chen IJ. Antiplatelet and calcium inhibitory properties of eugenol and sodium eugenol acetate. Gen Pharmacol 1996;27:629-33. View abstract.
  • Choi HK, Jung GW, Moon KH, et al. Clinical study of SS-Cream in patients with lifelong premature ejaculation. Urology 2000;55:257-61. View abstract.
  • Cortés-Rojas DF, de Souza CR, Oliveira WP. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): a precious spice. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2014;4(2):90-6. View abstract.
  • Covington TR, et al. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs. 11th ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmaceutical Association, 1996.
  • Dorman HJ, Deans SG. Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J Appl Microbiol 2000;88:308-16. View abstract.
  • Dwivedi V, Shrivastava R, Hussain S, Ganguly C, Bharadwaj M. Comparative anticancer potential of clove (Syzygium aromaticum)- an Indian spice- against cancer cell lines of various anatomical origin. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2011;12(8):1989-93. View abstract.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Fetrow CW, Avila JR. Professional's Handbook of Complementary & Alternative Medicines. 1st ed. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp., 1999.
  • Hong CH, Hur SK, Oh OJ, et al. Evaluation of natural products on inhibition of inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cultured mouse macrophage cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;83:153-9. View abstract.
  • Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from spices. Contact Dermatitis 1996;35:157-62. View abstract.
  • Kaya GS, Yapici G, Savas Z, et al. Comparison of alvogyl, SaliCept patch, and low-level laser therapy in the management of alveolar osteitis.J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;69:1571-7. View abstract.
  • Kirsch CM, Yenokida GG, Jensen WA, et al. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema due to the intravenous administration of clove oil. Thorax 1990;45:235-6. View abstract.
  • Kothiwale SV, Patwardhan V, Gandhi M, Sohoni R, Kumar A. A comparative study of antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of herbal mouthrise containing tea tree oil, clove, and basil with commercially available essential oil mouthrinse. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2014;18(3): 316-20. View abstract.
  • Kurokawa M, Hozumi T, Basnet P, et al. Purification and characterization of eugeniin as an anti-herpesvirus compound from Geum japonicum and Syzgium aromaticum. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1998;284(2):728-35. View abstract.
  • Kurokawa M, Nagasaka K, Hirabayashi T, et al. Efficacy of traditional herbal medicines in combination with acyclovir against herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro and in vivo. Antiviral Res 1995;27:19-37. View abstract.
  • Li, Y., Xu, C., Zhang, Q., Liu, J. Y., and Tan, R. X. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori action of 30 Chinese herbal medicines used to treat ulcer diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 4-26-2005;98(3):329-333. View abstract.
  • Liu H, Schmitz JC, Wei J, et al. Clove extract inhibits tumor growth and promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Oncol Res 2014;21(5):247-59. View abstract.
  • Machado M, Dinis AM, Salgueiro L, Custódio JB, Cavaleiro C, Sousa MC. Anti-Giardia activity of Syzygium aromaticum essential oil and eugenol: effects on growth, viability, adherence and ultrastructure. Exp Parasitol 2011;127(4):732-9. View abstract.
  • Malson JL, Lee EM, Murty R, et al. Clove cigarette smoking: biochemical, physiological, and subjective effects. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2003;74:739-45. View abstract.
  • Prasad RC, Herzog B, Boone B, et al. An extract of Syzygium aromaticum represses genes encoding hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;96:295-301. View abstract.
  • Robbers JE, Tyler VE. Tyler's Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicinals. New York, NY: The Haworth Herbal Press, 1999.
  • Shiraki K, Yukawa T, Kurokawa M, Kageyama S. [Cytomegalovirus infection and its possible treatment with herbal medicines]. Nippon Rinsho 1998;56:156-60. View abstract.
  • Cai, L. and Wu, C. D. Compounds from Syzygium aromaticum possessing growth inhibitory activity against oral pathogens. J Nat.Prod. 1996;59(10):987-990. View abstract.
  • Carrasco, F. R., Schmidt, G., Romero, A. L., Sartoretto, J. L., Caparroz-Assef, S. M., Bersani-Amado, C. A., and Cuman, R. K. Immunomodulatory activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Salvia officinalis L. and Syzygium aromaticum L. essential oils: evidence for humor- and cell-mediated responses. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 2009;61(7):961-967. View abstract.
  • Chaieb, K., Hajlaoui, H., Zmantar, T., Kahla-Nakbi, A. B., Rouabhia, M., Mahdouani, K., and Bakhrouf, A. The chemical composition and biological activity of clove essential oil, Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzigium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae): a short review. Phytother.Res. 2007;21(6):501-506. View abstract.
  • Chaieb, K., Zmantar, T., Ksouri, R., Hajlaoui, H., Mahdouani, K., Abdelly, C., and Bakhrouf, A. Antioxidant properties of the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata and its antifungal activity against a large number of clinical Candida species. Mycoses 2007;50(5):403-406. View abstract.
  • Chami, F., Chami, N., Bennis, S., Trouillas, J., and Remmal, A. Evaluation of carvacrol and eugenol as prophylaxis and treatment of vaginal candidiasis in an immunosuppressed rat model. J Antimicrob.Chemother. 2004;54(5):909-914. View abstract.
  • Chami, N., Bennis, S., Chami, F., Aboussekhra, A., and Remmal, A. Study of anticandidal activity of carvacrol and eugenol in vitro and in vivo. Oral Microbiol.Immunol. 2005;20(2):106-111. View abstract.
  • Chaudhari LK, Jawale BA Sharma S Sharma H Kumar CD Kulkarni PA. Antimicrobial activity of commercially available essential oils against Streptococcus mutans. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2012;13(1):71-74. View abstract.
  • Chen, D. C., Lee, Y. Y., Yeh, P. Y., Lin, J. C., Chen, Y. L., and Hung, S. L. Eugenol inhibited the antimicrobial functions of neutrophils. J Endod. 2008;34(2):176-180. View abstract.
  • Choi, W. I., Lee, E. H., Choi, B. R., Park, H. M., and Ahn, Y. J. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). J Econ.Entomol. 2003;96(5):1479-1484. View abstract.
  • Chong, B. S., Owadally, I. D., Pitt Ford, T. R., and Wilson, R. F. Antibacterial activity of potential retrograde root filling materials. Endod.Dent.Traumatol. 1994;10(2):66-70. View abstract.
  • Chung, G., Rhee, J. N., Jung, S. J., Kim, J. S., and Oh, S. B. Modulation of CaV2.3 calcium channel currents by eugenol. J Dent.Res. 2008;87(2):137-141. View abstract.
  • Cisak, E., Wojcik-Fatla, A., Zajac, V., and Dutkiewicz, J. Repellents and acaricides as personal protection measures in the prevention of tick-borne diseases. Ann Agric.Environ.Med. 2012;19(4):625-630. View abstract.
  • Criddle, D. N., Madeira, S. V., and Soares, de Moura. Endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilator effects of eugenol in the rat mesenteric vascular bed. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 2003;55(3):359-365. View abstract.
  • Damiani, C. E., Rossoni, L. V., and Vassallo, D. V. Vasorelaxant effects of eugenol on rat thoracic aorta. Vascul.Pharmacol. 2003;40(1):59-66. View abstract.
  • Del Bufalo A, Bernad J Dardenne C Verda D Meunier JR Rousset F Martinozzi-Teissier S Pipy B. Contact sensitizers modulate the arachidonic acid metabolism of PMA-differentiated U-937 monocytic cells activated by LPS. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011;256(1):35-43. View abstract.
  • Didry, N., Dubreuil, L., and Pinkas, M. Activity of thymol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on oral bacteria. Pharm.Acta Helv. 1994;69(1):25-28. View abstract.
  • Dip, E. C., Pereira, N. A., and Fernandes, P. D. Ability of eugenol to reduce tongue edema induced by Dieffenbachia picta Schott in mice. Toxicon 2004;43(6):729-735. View abstract.
  • Dudonne, S., Vitrac, X., Coutiere, P., Woillez, M., and Merillon, J. M. Comparative Study of Antioxidant Properties and Total Phenolic Content of 30 Plant Extracts of Industrial Interest Using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, SOD, and ORAC Assays. J Agric.Food Chem. 2-6-2009; View abstract.
  • Dyrbye, B. A., Dubois, L., Vink, R., and Horn, J. A patient with clove oil intoxication. Anaesth.Intensive Care 2012;40(2):365-366. View abstract.
  • Eamsobhana, P., Yoolek, A., Kongkaew, W., Lerdthusnee, K., Khlaimanee, N., Parsartvit, A., Malainual, N., and Yong, H. S. Laboratory evaluation of aromatic essential oils from thirteen plant species as candidate repellents against Leptotrombidium chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), the vector of scrub typhus. Exp.Appl.Acarol. 2009;47(3):257-262. View abstract.
  • Eisen, J. S., Koren, G., Juurlink, D. N., and Ng, V. L. N-acetylcysteine for the treatment of clove oil-induced fulminant hepatic failure. J Toxicol.Clin Toxicol. 2004;42(1):89-92. View abstract.
  • Abdel-Fatah MK, El-Hawa MA, Samia EM, and et al. Antimicrobial activities of some local medicinal plants. Journal of Drug Research (Egypt) 2002;24:179-186.
  • Agbaje, E. O. Gastrointestinal effects of Syzigium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae) in animal models. Nig.Q.J Hosp.Med 2008;18(3):137-141. View abstract.
  • Ahmad, N., Alam, M. K., Shehbaz, A., Khan, A., Mannan, A., Hakim, S. R., Bisht, D., and Owais, M. Antimicrobial activity of clove oil and its potential in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. J Drug Target 2005;13(10):555-561. View abstract.
  • Alqareer, A., Alyahya, A., and Andersson, L. The effect of clove and benzocaine versus placebo as topical anesthetics. J Dent 2006;34(10):747-750. View abstract.
  • Andersen, K. E., Johansen, J. D., Bruze, M., Frosch, P. J., Goossens, A., Lepoittevin, J. P., Rastogi, S., White, I., and Menne, T. The time-dose-response relationship for elicitation of contact dermatitis in isoeugenol allergic individuals. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol. 2-1-2001;170(3):166-171. View abstract.
  • Anonymous. Evaluation of the health hazard of clove cigarettes. Council on Scientific Affairs. JAMA 12-23-1988;260(24):3641-3644. View abstract.
  • Arora, D. S. and Kaur, J. Antimicrobial activity of spices. Int.J Antimicrob.Agents 1999;12(3):257-262. View abstract.
  • Azuma, Y., Ozasa, N., Ueda, Y., and Takagi, N. Pharmacological studies on the anti-inflammatory action of phenolic compounds. J Dent.Res. 1986;65(1):53-56. View abstract.
  • Bachiega, T. F., Orsatti, C. L., Pagliarone, A. C., Missima, F., Sousa, J. P., Bastos, J. K., and Sforcin, J. M. Th1/Th2 cytokine production by clove-treated mice. Nat.Prod.Res. 2009;23(16):1552-1558. View abstract.
  • Bae, E. A., Han, M. J., Kim, N. J., and Kim, D. H. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of herbal medicines. Biol Pharm Bull. 1998;21(9):990-992. View abstract.
  • Bandell, M., Story, G. M., Hwang, S. W., Viswanath, V., Eid, S. R., Petrus, M. J., Earley, T. J., and Patapoutian, A. Noxious cold ion channel TRPA1 is activated by pungent compounds and bradykinin. Neuron 3-25-2004;41(6):849-857. View abstract.
  • Banerjee, S. and Das, S. Anticarcinogenic effects of an aqueous infusion of cloves on skin carcinogenesis. Asian Pac.J Cancer Prev. 2005;6(3):304-308. View abstract.
  • Banerjee, S., Panda, C. K., and Das, S. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), a potential chemopreventive agent for lung cancer. Carcinogenesis 2006;27(8):1645-1654. View abstract.
  • Barbosa, L. N., Rall, V. L., Fernandes, A. A., Ushimaru, P. I., da, Silva Probst, I, and Fernandes, A., Jr. Essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria in minced meat. Foodborne.Pathog.Dis. 2009;6(6):725-728. View abstract.
  • Barnard, D. R. Repellency of essential oils to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 1999;36(5):625-629. View abstract.
  • Ben Arfa, A., Combes, S., Preziosi-Belloy, L., Gontard, N., and Chalier, P. Antimicrobial activity of carvacrol related to its chemical structure. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2006;43(2):149-154. View abstract.
  • Bennis, S., Chami, F., Chami, N., Bouchikhi, T., and Remmal, A. Surface alteration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by thymol and eugenol. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2004;38(6):454-458. View abstract.
  • Betoni, J. E., Mantovani, R. P., Barbosa, L. N., Di Stasi, L. C., and Fernandes, Junior A. Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases. Mem.Inst.Oswaldo Cruz 2006;101(4):387-390. View abstract.
  • Bhalla, M. and Thami, G. P. Acute urticaria due to dental eugenol. Allergy 2003;58(2):158. View abstract.
  • Bhamarapravati, S., Pendland, S. L., and Mahady, G. B. Extracts of spice and food plants from Thai traditional medicine inhibit the growth of the human carcinogen Helicobacter pylori. In Vivo 2003;17(6):541-544. View abstract.
  • Bolliger, G. A., Kupferman, A., and Leibowitz, H. M. Quantitation of anterior chamber inflammation and its response to therapy. Arch.Ophthalmol. 1980;98(6):1110-1114. View abstract.
  • Bonneff M. VU DE KUDUS: L'ISLAM À JAVA. Annales: Economies, Societes, Civilisations 1980;35(3-4):801-815.
  • Braga, P. C., Dal Sasso, M., Spallino, A., Sturla, C., and Culici, M. Vaginal gel adsorption and retention by human vaginal cells: visual analysis by means of inorganic and organic markers. Int.J Pharm. 5-21-2009;373(1-2):10-15. View abstract.
  • Briozzo, J., Nunez, L., Chirife, J., Herszage, L., and D'Aquino, M. Antimicrobial activity of clove oil dispersed in a concentrated sugar solution. J Appl.Bacteriol. 1989;66(1):69-75. View abstract.
  • Brown, S. A., Biggerstaff, J., and Savidge, G. F. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatocellular necrosis due to clove oil. Blood Coagul.Fibrinolysis 1992;3(5):665-668. View abstract.
  • Buch, J. G., Dikshit, R. K., and Mansuri, S. M. Effect of certain volatile oils on ejaculated human spermatozoa. Indian J Med Res 1988;87:361-363. View abstract.
  • Burgoyne, C. C., Giglio, J. A., Reese, S. E., Sima, A. P., and Laskin, D. M. The efficacy of a topical anesthetic gel in the relief of pain associated with localized alveolar osteitis. J Oral Maxillofac.Surg. 2010;68(1):144-148. View abstract.
  • Burstein S, Varanelli C, and Slade L. Prostaglandins and cannabis. 3. Inhibition of biosynthesis by essential oil components of marihuana. Biochem.Pharmacol. 1975;24:1053-1054.
  • Burt, S. A. and Reinders, R. D. Antibacterial activity of selected plant essential oils against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2003;36(3):162-167. View abstract.
  • Buyukbalci, A. and El, S. N. Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects, antioxidant activities and phenol contents of some herbal teas. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 2008;63(1):27-33. View abstract.
  • Yukawa TA, Kurokawa M, Sato H, et al. Prophylactic treatment of cytomegalovirus infection with traditional herbs. Antiviral Res 1996;32:63-70. View abstract.
  • Zheng GQ, Kenney PM, Lam LK. Sesquiterpenes from clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) as potential anticarcinogenic agents. J Nat Prod 1992;55:999-1003. View abstract.

More Resources for CLOVE

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.