Acide de Cire d'Abeille, Baume de Propolis, Bee Glue, Bee Propolis, Beeswax Acid, Brazilian Green Propolis, Brazilian Propolis, Brown Propolis, Cire d'Abeille Synthétique, Cire de Propolis, Colle d'Abeille, Green Propolis, Hive Dross, Pénicilline Russe, Propóleos, Propolis Balsam, Propolis Cera, Propolis d'Abeille, Propolis Resin, Propolis Wax, Red Propolis, Résine de Propolis, Russian Penicillin, Synthetic Beeswax, Yellow Propolis.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationPropolis is a resin-like material made by bees from the buds of poplar and cone-bearing trees. Propolis is rarely available in its pure form. It is usually obtained from beehives and contains bee products. Bees use propolis to build their hives.
Propolis is used for canker sores and infections caused by bacteria (including tuberculosis and upper respiratory tract infections), by viruses (including HIV, H1N1 "swine" flu, and the common cold), by fungus, and by single-celled organisms called protozoans. Propolis is also used for cancer of the nose and throat; for treating warts; and for treating gastrointestinal (GI) problems including Helicobacter pylori infection in peptic ulcer disease.
People sometimes apply propolis directly to the skin for wound cleansing, genital herpes, cold sores (herpes labialis), vaginal swelling (vaginitis), and minor burns. Propolis is also used topically as a mouth rinse to treat painful mouth sores and inflammation (oral mucositis) and thrush (oropharyngeal candidiasis) and to improve healing following oral surgery.
In manufacturing, propolis is used as an ingredient in cosmetics.
How does it work?Propolis seems to have activity against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It might also have anti-inflammatory effects and help skin heal.
Uses & Effectiveness
Insufficient Evidence for
- Canker sores. Early research shows that taking propolis by mouth daily for 6-13 months reduces canker sore outbreaks.
- Diabetes. Early research shows that taking propolis may to improve blood sugar control in people with diabetes. But it doesn't seem to affect insulin levels or improve insulin resistance.
- Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Early research shows that taking 60 drops of a preparation containing Brazilian green propolis daily for 7 days does not reduce H. pylori infection.
- Cold sores. Early research shows that applying ointment containing 0.5% to 3% propolis five times daily improves healing time and reduce pain from cold sores.
- Genital herpes. Early research shows that applying a 3% propolis ointment four times daily for 10 days might improve healing of lesions in people with genital herpes. Some research suggests that it might heal lesions faster and more completely than the conventional treatment 5% acyclovir ointment.
- A type of intestinal infection called giardiasis. Early research suggests that taking a 30% propolis extract for 5 days can cure giardiasis in more people than the drug tinidazole.
- Minor burns. Early research shows that applying propolis to the skin every 3 days might help treat minor burns and prevent infections.
- Mouth surgery. Early research shows that using a propolis mouth rinse five times daily for 1 week might improve healing and reduce pain and swelling after mouth surgery.
- Painful mouth sores and inflammation (oral mucositis). Early research shows that rinsing the mouth with a propolis mouth rinse might help to heal sores caused by cancer drugs or dentures. But using a rinse with propolis and other natural ingredients doesn't seem to help.
- Thrush (oropharyngeal candidiasis). Early research suggests that using Brazilian green propolis extract four times daily for 7 days can prevent oral thrush in people with dentures.
- Gum disease (periodontitis). Early research shows that irrigation with a propolis extract solution decreases bleeding of gums in people with periodontitis.
- Athlete's foot. Early research shows that applying Brazilian green propolis resulted on the skin decreases itching, peeling and redness in students with athlete's foot.
- Upper respiratory tract infections. There is some early evidence that propolis might help prevent or reduce the duration of common colds and other upper respiratory tract infections.
- Vaginal swelling (vaginitis). Early research suggests that applying a 5% propolis solution vaginally for 7 days can reduce symptoms and improve quality of life in people with vaginal swelling.
- Warts. Early research shows that taking propolis by mouth daily for up to 3 months cures warts in some people with plane and common warts. However, propolis does not seem to treat plantar warts.
- Improving immune response.
- Nose and throat cancer.
- Stomach and intestinal disorders.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyPropolis is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth or applied to the skin appropriately. It can cause allergic reactions, particularly in people who are allergic to bees or bee products. Lozenges containing propolis can cause irritation and mouth ulcers.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking propolis if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Asthma: Some experts believe certain chemicals in propolis may make asthma worse. Avoid using propolis if you have asthma.
Bleeding conditions: A certain chemical in propolis might slow blood clotting. Taking propolis might increase the risk of bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.
Allergies: Do not use propolis if you are allergic to bee by-products including honey, conifers, poplars, Peru balsam, and salicylates.
Surgery: A certain chemical in propolis might slow blood clotting. Taking propolis might increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop taking propolis 2 weeks before surgery.
We currently have no information for PROPOLIS Interactions.
The appropriate dose of propolis depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for propolis. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
- Santana, Perez E., Lugones, Botell M., Perez, Stuart O, and et al. [Vaginal parasites and acute cervicitis: local treatment with propolis. Preliminary report]. Rev Cubana Enferm. 1995;11(1):51-56. View abstract.
- Santos, V. R., Pimenta, F. J., Aguiar, M. C., do Carmo, M. A., Naves, M. D., and Mesquita, R. A. Oral candidiasis treatment with Brazilian ethanol propolis extract. Phytother Res 2005;19(7):652-654. View abstract.
- Scheller, S., Tustanowski, J., Kurylo, B., Paradowski, Z., and Obuszko, Z. Biological properties and clinical application of propolis. III. Investigation of the sensitivity of Staphylococci isolated from pathological cases to ethanol extract of propolis (EEP). Attempts on inducing resistance in laboratory Staphylococcus strain to EEP. Arzneimittelforschung 1977;27(7):1395. View abstract.
- Schmidt, H., Hampel, C. M., Schmidt, G., and et al. [Double-blind trial of the effect of a propolis-containing mouthwash on inflamed and healthy gingiva]. Stomatol.DDR. 1980;30(7):491-497. View abstract.
- Sforcin, J. M., Fernandes, A., Jr., and et al. Seasonal effect on Brazilian propolis antibacterial activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;73(1-2):243-249. View abstract.
- Silici, S. and Koc, A. N. Comparative study of in vitro methods to analyse the antifungal activity of propolis against yeasts isolated from patients with superficial mycoses. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2006;43(3):318-324. View abstract.
- Siro, B., Szelekovszky, S., Lakatos, B., and et al. [Local treatment of rheumatic diseases with propolis compounds]. Orv.Hetil. 6-23-1996;137(25):1365-1370. View abstract.
- Sroka, Z. The screening analysis of antiradical activity of some plant extracts. Postepy Hig.Med Dosw.(Online.) 2006;60:563-570. View abstract.
- Steinberg, D., Kaine, G., and Gedalia, I. Antibacterial effect of propolis and honey on oral bacteria. Am.J.Dent. 1996;9(6):236-239. View abstract.
- Tsarev, N. I., Petrik, E. V., and Aleksandrova, V. I. [Use of propolis in the treatment of local suppurative infection]. Vestn.Khir.Im I I Grek. 1985;134(5):119-122. View abstract.
- Volpert, R. and Elstner, E. F. Interactions of different extracts of propolis with leukocytes and leukocytic enzymes. Arzneimittelforschung 1996;46(1):47-51. View abstract.
- Akbay E, Özenirler Ç, Çelemli ÖG, Durukan AB, Onur MA, Sorkun K. Effects of propolis on warfarin efficacy. Kardiochir Torakochirurgia Pol. 2017;14(1):43-46. View abstract.
- Akhavan-Karbassi MH, Yazdi MF, Ahadian H, Sadr-Abad MJ. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of propolis for oral mucositis in patients receiving chemotherapy for head and neck cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016;17(7):3611-4. View abstract.
- Amoros M, Lurton E, Boustie J, et al. Comparison of the anti-herpes simplex virus activities of propolis and 3-methyl-but-2-enyl caffeate. J Nat Prod 1994;57:644-7. View abstract.
- Anon. Bee Propolis. MotherNature.com 1999. http://www.mothernature.com/library/books/natmed/bee_propolis.asp (Accessed 28 May 2000).
- Bhadbhade, S. J., Acharya, A. B., Rodrigues, S. V., and Thakur, S. L. The antiplaque efficacy of pomegranate mouthrinse. Quintessence.Int. 2011;42(1):29-36. View abstract.
- Bialonska, D., Kasimsetty, S. G., Khan, S. I., and Ferreira, D. Urolithins, intestinal microbial metabolites of Pomegranate ellagitannins, exhibit potent antioxidant activity in a cell-based assay. J.Agric.Food Chem. 11-11-2009;57(21):10181-10186. View abstract.
- Bialonska, D., Kasimsetty, S. G., Schrader, K. K., and Ferreira, D. The effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) byproducts and ellagitannins on the growth of human gut bacteria. J.Agric.Food Chem. 9-23-2009;57(18):8344-8349. View abstract.
- Russo, A., Cardile, V., Sanchez, F., Troncoso, N., Vanella, A., and Garbarino, J. A. Chilean propolis: antioxidant activity and antiproliferative action in human tumor cell lines. Life Sci. 12-17-2004;76(5):545-558. View abstract.
- Arenberger P, Arenbergerova M, Hladíková M, Holcova S, Ottillinger B. Comparative Study with a Lip Balm Containing 0.5% Propolis Special Extract GH 2002 versus 5% Aciclovir Cream in Patients with Herpes Labialis in the Papular/Erythematous Stage: A Single-blind, Randomized, Two-arm Study. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2017;88:1-7. View abstract.
- Coutinho A. Honeybee propolis extract in periodontal treatment: a clinical and microbiological study of propolis in periodontal treatment. Indian J Dent Res. 2012;23(2):294. View abstract.
- Eslami H, Pouralibaba F, Falsafi P, et al. Efficacy of Hypozalix spray and propolis mouthwash for prevention of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in leukemic patients: A double-blind randomized clinical trial. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2016;10(4):226-233. View abstract.
- Gregory SR, Piccolo N, Piccolo MT, et al. Comparision of propolis skin cream to silver sulfadiazine: a naturopathic alternative to antibiotics in treatment of minor burns. J Altern Complement Med 2002;8:77-83. View abstract.
- Hashimoto T, Tori M, Asakawa Y, Wollenweber E. Synthesis of two allergenic constituents of propolis and poplar bud excretion. Z Naturforsch [C] 1988;43:470-2. View abstract.
- Hay KD, Greig DE. Propolis allergy: a cause of oral mucositis with ulceration. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1990;70:584-6. View abstract.
- Hoheisel O. The effects of Herstat (3% propolis ointment ACF ) application in cold sores: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Research 2001;4:65-75.
- Hwu YJ, Lin FY. Effectiveness of propolis on oral health: a meta-analysis. J Nurs Res 2014;22(4):221-9. View abstract.
- Jensen CD, Andersen KE. Allergic contact dermatitis from cera alba (purified propolis) in a lip balm and candy. Contact Dermatitis 2006;55:312-3. View abstract.
- Lamoureux A, Meharon M, Durand AL, Darrigade AS, Doutre MS, Milpied B. A first case of erythema multiforme-like contact dermatitis caused by propolis. Contact Dermatitis. 2017;77(4):263-264. View abstract.
- Lee SK, Song L, Mata-Greenwood E, et al. Modulation of in vitro biomarkers of the carcinogenic process by chemopreventive agents. Anticancer Res 1999;19:35-44. View abstract.
- Li YJ, Lin JL, Yang CW, Yu CC. Acute renal failure induced by a Brazilian variety of propolis. Am J Kidney Dis 2005;46:e125-9. View abstract.
- Machado CS, Mokochinski JB, de Lira TO, et al. Comparative study of chemical composition and biological activity of yellow, green, brown, and red Brazilian propolis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2016;2016:6057650. View abstract.
- Magro-Filho O, de Carvalho AC. Application of propolis to dental sockets and skin wounds. J Nihon Univ Sch Dent 1990;32:4-13. View abstract.
- Magro-Filho O, de Carvalho AC. Topical effect of propolis in the repair of sulcoplasties by the modified Kazanjian technique. Cytological and clinical evaluation. J Nihon Univ Sch Dent 1994;36:102-11. View abstract.
- Marucci L, Farneti A, Di Ridolfi P, et al. Double-blind randomized phase III study comparing a mixture of natural agents versus placebo in the prevention of acute mucositis during chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Head Neck. 2017;39(9):1761-1769. View abstract.
- Matos D, Serrano P, Brandao FM. A case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by propolis-enriched honey. Contact Dermatitis 2015;72(1):59-60. View abstract.
- Mirzoeva OK, Calder PC. The effect of propolis and its components on eicosanoid production during the inflammatory response. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1996;55:441-9. View abstract.
- Naramoto K, Kato M, Ichihara K. Effects of an ethanol extract of Brazilian green propolis on human cytochrome P450 enzyme activities in vitro. J Agric Food Chem 2014;62(46):11296-302. View abstract.
- Ngatu NR, Saruta T, Hirota R, et al. Brazilian green propolis extracts improve Tinea pedis interdigitalis and Tinea corporis. J Altern Complement Med. 2012;18(1):8-9. View abstract.
- Nyman G, Hagvall L. A case of allergic contact cheilitis caused by propolis and honey. Contact Dermatitis 2016;74(3):186-7. View abstract.
- Park YK, et al. Antimicrobial activity of propolis on oral microorganisms. Curr Microbiol 1998;36:24-8. View abstract.
- Pina GM, Lia EN, Berretta AA, et al. Efficacy of Propolis on the Denture Stomatitis Treatment in Older Adults: A Multicentric Randomized Trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017;2017:8971746. View abstract.
- Piredda M, Facchinetti G, Biagioli V, et al. Propolis in the prevention of oral mucositis in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: A pilot randomised controlled trial. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2017;26(6). View abstract.
- Ryu CS, Oh SJ, Oh JM, et al. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 by propolis in human liver microsomes. Toxicol Res 2016;32(3):207-13. View abstract.
- Samadi N, Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Rahmanian M, Askarishahi M. Effects of bee propolis supplementation on glycemic control, lipid profile and insulin resistance indices in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. J Integr Med. 2017;15(2):124-134. View abstract.
- Samet N, Laurent C, Susarla SM, Samet-Rubinsteen N. The effect of bee pollen on recurrent aphthous stomatitis. A pilot study. Clin Oral Investig 2007;11:143-7. View abstract.
- Santos FA, Bastos EM, Uzeda M, et al. Antibacterial activity of Brazilian propolis and fractions against oral anaerobic bacteria. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;80:1-7. View abstract.
- Santos VR, Gomes RT, de Mesquita RA, et al. Efficacy of Brazilian propolis gel for the management of denture stomatitis: a pilot study. Phytother Res. 2008;22(11):1544-7. View abstract.
- Szmeja Z, Kulczynski B, Konopacki K. [Clinical usefulness of the preparation Herpestat in the treatment of Herpes labialis]. Otolaryngol Pol 1987;41:183-8. View abstract.
- Szmeja Z, Kulczynski B, Sosnowski Z, Konopacki K. [Therapeutic value of flavonoids in Rhinovirus infections]. Otolaryngol Pol 1989;43:180-4. View abstract.
- Vynograd N, Vynograd I, Sosnowski Z. A comparative multi-centre study of the efficacy of propolis, acyclovir and placebo in the treatment of genital herpes (HSV). Phytomedicine 2000;7:1-6. View abstract.
- Zedan H, Hofny ER, Ismail SA. Propolis as an alternative treatment for cutaneous warts. Int J Dermatol 2009;48(11):1246-9. View abstract.
- Zhang YX, Yang TT, Xia L, Zhang WF, Wang JF, Wu YP. Inhibitory Effect of Propolis on Platelet Aggregation In Vitro. J Healthc Eng. 2017;2017:3050895. View abstract.
- Dumitrescu, M., Crisan, I., and Esanu, V. [The mechanism of the antiherpetic action of an aqueous propolis extract. II. The action of the lectins of an aqueous propolis extract]. Rev Roum.Virol. 1993;44(1-2):49-54. View abstract.
- Eley, B. M. Antibacterial agents in the control of supragingival plaque--a review. Br Dent.J 3-27-1999;186(6):286-296. View abstract.
- Feiks FK. Topical application of propolis tincture in the treatment of herpes zoster. Third International Symposium on Apitherapy 1978;109-111.
- Focht, J., Hansen, S. H., Nielsen, J. V., and et al. Bactericidal effect of propolis in vitro against agents causing upper respiratory tract infections. Arzneimittelforschung 1993;43(8):921-923. View abstract.
- Freitas, S. F., Shinohara, L., Sforcin, J. M., and Guimaraes, S. In vitro effects of propolis on Giardia duodenalis trophozoites. Phytomedicine 2006;13(3):170-175. View abstract.
- Gebaraa, E. C., Pustiglioni, A. N., de Lima, L. A., and Mayer, M. P. Propolis extract as an adjuvant to periodontal treatment. Oral Health Prev.Dent. 2003;1(1):29-35. View abstract.
- Grange, J. M. and Davey, R. W. Antibacterial properties of propolis (bee glue). J R.Soc Med 1990;83(3):159-160. View abstract.
- Hartwich, A., Legutko, J., and Wszolek, J. [Propolis: its properties and administration to patients treated for some surgical diseases]. Przegl.Lek. 2000;57(4):191-194. View abstract.
- Higashi, K. O. and de Castro, S. L. Propolis extracts are effective against Trypanosoma cruzi and have an impact on its interaction with host cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 7-8-1994;43(2):149-155. View abstract.
- Hsu, C. Y., Chiang, W. C., Weng, T. I., Chen, W. J., and Yuan, A. Laryngeal edema and anaphalactic shock after topical propolis use for acute pharyngitis. Am J Emerg.Med 2004;22(5):432-433. View abstract.
- Ikeno, K., Ikeno, T., and Miyazawa, C. Effects of propolis on dental caries in rats. Caries Res 1991;25(5):347-351. View abstract.
- Imhof, M., Lipovac, M., Kurz, Ch, Barta, J., Verhoeven, H. C., and Huber, J. C. Propolis solution for the treatment of chronic vaginitis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2005;89(2):127-132. View abstract.
- Khalil, M. L. Biological activity of bee propolis in health and disease. Asian Pac.J Cancer Prev. 2006;7(1):22-31. View abstract.
- Korkina, L. G. Phenylpropanoids as naturally occurring antioxidants: from plant defense to human health. Cell Mol.Biol (Noisy.-le-grand) 2007;53(1):15-25. View abstract.
- Kosenko, S. V. and Kosovich, T. I. [The treatment of periodontitis with prolonged-action propolis preparations (clinical x-ray research)]. Stomatologiia (Mosk) 1990;69(2):27-29. View abstract.
- Mahmoud, A. S., Almas, K., and Dahlan, A. A. The effect of propolis on dentinal hypersensitivity and level of satisfaction among patients from a university hospital Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Indian J Dent.Res 1999;10(4):130-137. View abstract.
- Maichuk, I. F., Orlovskaia, L. E., and Andreev, V. P. [The use of ocular drug films of propolis in the sequelae of ophthalmic herpes]. Voen.Med Zh. 1995;12:36-9, 80. View abstract.
- Martinez, Silveira G., Gou, Godoy A., Ona, Torriente R., and et al. [Preliminary study of the effects of propolis in the treatment of chronic gingivitis and oral ulceration]. Rev Cubana Estomatol. 1988;25(3):36-44. View abstract.
- Melliou, E. and Chinou, I. Chemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of Greek propolis. Planta Med 2004;70(6):515-519. View abstract.
- Metzner, J., Bekemeier, H., Paintz, M., and et al. [On the antimicrobial activity of propolis and propolis constituents (author's transl)]. Pharmazie 1979;34(2):97-102. View abstract.
- Miyares, C., Hollands, I., Castaneda C, and et al. [Clinical trial with a preparation based on propolis "propolisina" in human giardiasis]. Acta Gastroenterol.Latinoam. 1988;18(3):195-201. View abstract.
- Montoro, A., Almonacid, M., Serrano, J., Saiz, M., Barquinero, J. F., Barrios, L., Verdu, G., Perez, J., and Villaescusa, J. I. Assessment by cytogenetic analysis of the radioprotection properties of propolis extract. Radiat.Prot.Dosimetry. 2005;115(1-4):461-464. View abstract.
- Murray, M. C., Worthington, H. V., and Blinkhorn, A. S. A study to investigate the effect of a propolis-containing mouthrinse on the inhibition of de novo plaque formation. J Clin Periodontol. 1997;24(11):796-798. View abstract.
- Oliveira, A. C., Shinobu, C. S., Longhini, R., Franco, S. L., and Svidzinski, T. I. Antifungal activity of propolis extract against yeasts isolated from onychomycosis lesions. Mem.Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2006;101(5):493-497. View abstract.
- Oncag, O., Cogulu, D., Uzel, A., and Sorkun, K. Efficacy of propolis as an intracanal medicament against Enterococcus faecalis. Gen.Dent 2006;54(5):319-322. View abstract.
- Abdel-Fattah, N. S. and Nada, O. H. Effect of propolis versus metronidazole and their combined use in treatment of acute experimental giardiasis. J Egypt.Soc Parasitol. 2007;37(2 Suppl):691-710. View abstract.
- Al Shaher, A., Wallace, J., Agarwal, S., Bretz, W., and Baugh, D. Effect of propolis on human fibroblasts from the pulp and periodontal ligament. J Endod. 2004;30(5):359-361. View abstract.
- Almas, K., Mahmoud, A., and Dahlan, A. A comparative study of propolis and saline application on human dentin. A SEM study. Indian J Dent.Res 2001;12(1):21-27. View abstract.
- Amoros, M., Simoes, C. M., Girre, L., Sauvager, F., and Cormier, M. Synergistic effect of flavones and flavonols against herpes simplex virus type 1 in cell culture. Comparison with the antiviral activity of propolis. J Nat Prod. 1992;55(12):1732-1740. View abstract.
- Bankova, V., Marcucci, M. C., Simova, S., and et al. Antibacterial diterpenic acids from Brazilian propolis. Z Naturforsch [C.] 1996;51(5-6):277-280. View abstract.
- Banskota, A. H., Tezuka, Y., Adnyana, I. K., and et al. Cytotoxic, hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging effects of propolis from Brazil, Peru, the Netherlands and China. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;72(1-2):239-246. View abstract.
- Bezuglyi, B. S. [Effect of the Propomix preparation on corneal regeneration]. Oftalmol.Zh. 1980;35(1):48-52. View abstract.
- Black, R. J. Vulval eczema associated with propolis sensitization from topical therapies treated successfully with pimecrolimus cream. Clin Exp.Dermatol. 2005;30(1):91-92. View abstract.
- Bosio, K., Avanzini, C., D'Avolio, A., and et al. In vitro activity of propolis against Streptococcus pyogenes. Lett Appl.Microbiol. 2000;31(2):174-177. View abstract.
- Botushanov, P. I., Grigorov, G. I., and Aleksandrov, G. A. A clinical study of a silicate toothpaste with extract from propolis. Folia Med (Plovdiv.) 2001;43(1-2):28-30. View abstract.
- Boyanova, L., Kolarov, R., Gergova, G., and Mitov, I. In vitro activity of Bulgarian propolis against 94 clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria. Anaerobe. 2006;12(4):173-177. View abstract.
- Brumfitt, W., Hamilton-Miller, J. M., and Franklin, I. Antibiotic activity of natural products: 1. Propolis. Microbios 1990;62(250):19-22. View abstract.
- Burdock, G. A. Review of the biological properties and toxicity of bee propolis (propolis). Food Chem Toxicol 1998;36(4):347-363. View abstract.
- Chen, T. G., Lee, J. J., Lin, K. H., Shen, C. H., Chou, D. S., and Sheu, J. R. Antiplatelet activity of caffeic acid phenethyl ester is mediated through a cyclic GMP-dependent pathway in human platelets. Chin J Physiol 6-30-2007;50(3):121-126. View abstract.
- Coelho, L. G., Bastos, E. M., Resende, C. C., Paula e Silva CM, Sanches, B. S., de Castro, F. J., Moretzsohn, L. D., Vieira, W. L., and Trindade, O. R. Brazilian green propolis on Helicobacter pylori infection. a pilot clinical study. Helicobacter. 2007;12(5):572-574. View abstract.
- Cohen, H. A., Varsano, I., Kahan, E., Sarrell, E. M., and Uziel, Y. Effectiveness of an herbal preparation containing echinacea, propolis, and vitamin C in preventing respiratory tract infections in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. Arch.Pediatr.Adolesc.Med. 2004;158(3):217-221. View abstract.
- Crisan, I., Zaharia, C. N., Popovici, F., and et al. Natural propolis extract NIVCRISOL in the treatment of acute and chronic rhinopharyngitis in children. Rom.J Virol. 1995;46(3-4):115-133. View abstract.
- Debiaggi, M., Tateo, F., Pagani, L., and et al. Effects of propolis flavonoids on virus infectivity and replication. Microbiologica 1990;13(3):207-213. View abstract.
Have you ever purchased PROPOLIS?
Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Do you buy vitamins online or instore?
What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)