GABA (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID)

OTHER NAME(S):

Acide Bêta-Phényl-Gamma-Amino-Butyrique, Acide Gamma-Aminobutyrique, Ácido Gama-Aminobutríco, Beta-Phenyl-Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid, GABA, Gamma Amino Butyric Acid, Gamma-aminobutyric Acid.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

GABA is a chemical that is made in the brain.

GABA is taken by mouth for relieving anxiety, improving mood, reducing symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), and treating attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is also used for promoting lean muscle growth, burning fat, stabilizing blood pressure, and relieving pain.

GABA is used under the tongue for increasing the sense of well-being, relieving injuries, improving exercise tolerance, decreasing body fat, and increasing lean body weight.

How does it work?

GABA works by blocking brain signals (neurotransmissions).

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Possibly Effective for

  • High blood pressure. Some research shows that taking products containing GABA along with other ingredients can reduce blood pressure in people with high blood pressure.
  • Motion sickness. Some research shows that taking GABA might slow the onset of motion sickness and reduce symptoms such as chills, cold sweats, and pale skin.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Cerebral palsy. Early research shows that taking GABA might improve mental development, learning, vocabulary, and physical function in children with cerebral palsy.
  • Long-term infection of the airways in the lung (bronchitis). Early research shows that taking GABA along with medications used for bronchitis increases the amount of time between symptom episodes.
  • Cushing’s disease. Early research shows that GABA reduces the release of the hormone that causes Cushing’s disease.
  • Seizures. Early research shows that taking GABA along with medication used for treating seizures reduces the frequency of seizures in some people, but does not benefit people who have seizures triggered by lights or other visual causes.
  • Huntington’s disease. Early research shows that taking GABA alone or with other treatments does not improve movement in people with Huntington’s disease.
  • Inflammation of the tissue around the brain and spine (Meningitis). Early research suggests that taking GABA reduces the development of symptoms after recovery and prevents the development of other serious conditions.
  • Brain disorder caused by exposure to chemicals. Early research shows that taking GABA improves attention, memory, and emotional responses in children with a brain disorder caused by exposure to chemicals.
  • Stress. Early research shows that taking GABA reduces stress, tension, anxiety, confusion, and depression in people under stress.
  • Relieving anxiety.
  • Improving mood.
  • Relieving premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
  • Treating attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • Promoting lean muscle growth.
  • Burning fat.
  • Stabilizing blood pressure.
  • Relieving pain.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of GABA for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

GABA is LIKELY SAFE when taken correctly by mouth for short periods of time, up to 12 weeks.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of GABA during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for GABA (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) depends on several factors such as the user’s age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for GABA. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Abe, Y., Umemura, S., Sugimoto, K., Hirawa, N., Kato, Y., Yokoyama, N., Yokoyama, T., Iwai, J., and Ishii, M. Effect of green tea rich in gamma-aminobutyric acid on blood pressure of Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Am.J.Hypertens. 1995;8(1):74-79. View abstract.
  • Ackermann, D. Über ein neues, auf bakteriellem Wege gewinnbares, Aporrhegma. Hoppe-Seyler´s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie 1910;69(3-4):273-281.
  • Akama, K., Kanetou, J., Shimosaki, S., Kawakami, K., Tsuchikura, S., and Takaiwa, F. Seed-specific expression of truncated OsGAD2 produces GABA-enriched rice grains that influence a decrease in blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Transgenic Res. 2009;18(6):865-876. View abstract.
  • AWAPARA, J., LANDUA, A. J., FUERST, R., and SEALE, B. Free gamma-aminobutyric acid in brain. J.Biol.Chem. 1950;187(1):35-39. View abstract.
  • Baldrighi, G. and Tronconi, L. [Research on the antihypertensive effect induced by the mebutamate-GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) combination in essential hypertension]. Clin.Ter. 5-15-1966;37(3):207-234. View abstract.
  • Belloni, L. and Savioli, F. [Experience in hypotensive treatment with the association of mebutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid]. Minerva Med. 2-17-1967;58(14):501-509. View abstract.
  • Belloni, L., Savioli, F., and Barbieri, C. [On the antihypertensive properties of gamma-aminobutyric acid. Clinical experience in 29 hypertensive patients]. Arch.Maragliano.Patol.Clin. 1966;22(1):119-145. View abstract.
  • Benassi, E., Besio, G., Cupello, A., Mainardi, P., Patrone, A., Rapallino, M. V., Vignolo, L., and Loeb, C. W. Evaluation of the mechanisms by which gamma-amino-butyric acid in association with phosphatidylserine exerts an antiepileptic effect in the rat. Neurochem.Res. 1992;17(12):1229-1233. View abstract.
  • Cavagnini, F., Benetti, G., Invitti, C., Ramella, G., Pinto, M., Lazza, M., Dubini, A., Marelli, A., and Muller, E. E. Effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid on growth hormone and prolactin secretion in man: influence of pimozide and domperidone. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 1980;51(4):789-792. View abstract.
  • Cho, Y. R., Chang, J. Y., and Chang, H. C. Production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by Lactobacillus buchneri isolated from kimchi and its neuroprotective effect on neuronal cells. J.Microbiol.Biotechnol. 2007;17(1):104-109. View abstract.
  • Danilova, I. N., Neretin, V. I., and Nesterova, L. A. [Effect of aminalon electrophoresis on brain bioelectrical activity in cerebral atherosclerosis patients with disordered cerebral blood circulation]. Vopr.Kurortol.Fizioter.Lech.Fiz Kult. 1980;(4):13-17. View abstract.
  • ELLIOTT, K. A. and JASPER, H. H. Gammaaminobutyric acid. Physiol Rev. 1959;39(2):383-406. View abstract.
  • Enna, S. J. GABA. San Diego: Academic Press/Elsevier;2006.
  • Furukawa, T. and Kushiku, K. Antagonism by gamma-aminobutyric acid of the stimulant effect of angiotensin II on cardiac sympathetic ganglia in spinal dogs. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch.Pharmacol. 1981;317(2):149-153. View abstract.
  • Garkusha, L. G., Kukhtevich, I. I., and Proskurkina, O. A. [Treatment of chronic diffuse arachnoiditis with aminalon]. Vrach.Delo 1978;(1):114-116. View abstract.
  • Glebova, O. S. [Peculiarities of neuro-psychological and autonomic disorders in patients with remote consequences of closed craniocerebral injury]. Lik.Sprava. 2007;(5-6):85-89. View abstract.
  • Hayakawa, K., Kimura, M., Kasaha, K., Matsumoto, K., Sansawa, H., and Yamori, Y. Effect of a gamma-aminobutyric acid-enriched dairy product on the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. Br.J.Nutr. 2004;92(3):411-417. View abstract.
  • Jones, E. A., Schafer, D. F., Ferenci, P., and Pappas, S. C. The GABA hypothesis of the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy: current status. Yale J.Biol.Med. 1984;57(3):301-316. View abstract.
  • Kawabata, K., Tanaka, T., Murakami, T., Okada, T., Murai, H., Yamamoto, T., Hara, A., Shimizu, M., Yamada, Y., Matsunaga, K., Kuno, T., Yoshimi, N., Sugie, S., and Mori, H. Dietary prevention of azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis with rice-germ in F344 rats. Carcinogenesis 1999;20(11):2109-2115. View abstract.
  • Kim, J. Y., Lee, M. Y., Ji, G. E., Lee, Y. S., and Hwang, K. T. Production of gamma-aminobutyric acid in black raspberry juice during fermentation by Lactobacillus brevis GABA100. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 3-15-2009;130(1):12-16. View abstract.
  • Krnjevic, K. When and why amino acids? J.Physiol 1-1-2010;588(Pt 1):33-44. View abstract.
  • Likhodeev, V. A., Spasov, A. A., Isupov, I. B., and Mandrikov, V. B. [Effects of aminalon, fenibut, and picamilon on the typological parameters of cerebral hemodynamics in swimmers with dysadaptation syndrome]. Eksp.Klin.Farmakol. 2009;72(4):15-19. View abstract.
  • Loeb, C., Marinari, U. M., Benassi, E., Besio, G., Cottalasso, D., Cupello, A., Maffini, M., Mainardi, P., Pronzato, M. A., and Scotto, P. A. Phosphatidylserine increases in vivo the synaptosomal uptake of exogenous GABA in rats. Exp.Neurol. 1988;99(2):440-446. View abstract.
  • Lu, J. and Greco, M. A. Sleep circuitry and the hypnotic mechanism of GABAA drugs. J.Clin.Sleep Med. 4-15-2006;2(2):S19-S26. View abstract.
  • Meldrum, B. S. GABAergic mechanisms in the pathogenesis and treatment of epilepsy. Br.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 1989;27 Suppl 1:3S-11S. View abstract.
  • Melis, G. B., Paoletti, A. M., Mais, V., and Fioretti, P. Interference of dopamine infusion on gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)-stimulated prolactin increase. J.Endocrinol.Invest 1980;3(4):445-448. View abstract.
  • Mori, H., Kawabata, K., Yoshimi, N., Tanaka, T., Murakami, T., Okada, T., and Murai, H. Chemopreventive effects of ferulic acid on oral and rice germ on large bowel carcinogenesis. Anticancer Res. 1999;19(5A):3775-3778. View abstract.
  • Nakamura, H., Takishima, T., Kometani, T., and Yokogoshi, H. Psychological stress-reducing effect of chocolate enriched with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in humans: assessment of stress using heart rate variability and salivary chromogranin A. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2009;60 Suppl 5:106-113. View abstract.
  • Ouyang, C., Guo, L., Lu, Q., Xu, X., and Wang, H. Enhanced activity of GABA receptors inhibits glutamate release induced by focal cerebral ischemia in rat striatum. Neurosci.Lett. 6-13-2007;420(2):174-178. View abstract.
  • Park, K. B. and Oh, S. H. Cloning, sequencing and expression of a novel glutamate decarboxylase gene from a newly isolated lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus brevis OPK-3. Bioresour.Technol. 2007;98(2):312-319. View abstract.
  • Poemnyi, F. A. and Trubnikov, B. M. [Treatment of infectious-toxic and traumatic lesion, of the hypothalamic region with aminalon and gammalon]. Klin.Med.(Mosk) 1975;53(9):52-55. View abstract.
  • Powers, M. E., Yarrow, J. F., McCoy, S. C., and Borst, S. E. Growth hormone isoform responses to GABA ingestion at rest and after exercise. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2008;40(1):104-110. View abstract.
  • ROBERTS, E. and FRANKEL, S. gamma-Aminobutyric acid in brain: its formation from glutamic acid. J.Biol.Chem. 1950;187(1):55-63. View abstract.
  • Shizuka, F., Kido, Y., Nakazawa, T., Kitajima, H., Aizawa, C., Kayamura, H., and Ichijo, N. Antihypertensive effect of gamma-amino butyric acid enriched soy products in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biofactors 2004;22(1-4):165-167. View abstract.
  • Smirnov, A. N. [Cardiovascular preparations; clofibrate and aminalon]. Feldsher.Akush. 1978;43(3):37-38. View abstract.
  • Tillakaratne, N. J., Medina-Kauwe, L., and Gibson, K. M. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism in mammalian neural and nonneural tissues. Comp Biochem.Physiol A Physiol 1995;112(2):247-263. View abstract.
  • UDENFRIEND, S. Identification of gamma-aminobutyric acid in brain by the isotope derivative method. J.Biol.Chem. 1950;187(1):65-69. View abstract.
  • Winsky-Sommerer, R. Role of GABAA receptors in the physiology and pharmacology of sleep. Eur.J.Neurosci. 2009;29(9):1779-1794. View abstract.
  • Yamakoshi, J., Fukuda, S., Satoh, T., Tsuji, R., Saito, M., Obata, A., Matsuyama, A., Kikuchi, M., and Kawasaki, T. Antihypertensive and natriuretic effects of less-sodium soy sauce containing gamma-aminobutyric acid in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2007;71(1):165-173. View abstract.
  • Yoshimura, M., Toyoshi, T., Sano, A., Izumi, T., Fujii, T., Konishi, C., Inai, S., Matsukura, C., Fukuda, N., Ezura, H., and Obata, A. Antihypertensive effect of a gamma-aminobutyric acid rich tomato cultivar 'DG03-9' in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J.Agric.Food Chem. 1-13-2010;58(1):615-619. View abstract.
  • Abdou AM, Higashiguchi S, Horie K, et al. Relaxation and immunity enhancement effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) administration in humans. Biofactors 2006;26:201-8. View abstract.
  • Bloom FE, Kupfer DJ. Psychopharmacology: The Fourth Generation of Progress. New York, NY: Raven Press, Ltd., 1995.
  • Boonstra E, de Kleijn R, Colzato LS, Alkemade A, Forstmann BU, Nieuwenhuis S. Neurotransmitters as food supplements: the effects of GABA on brain and behavior. Front Psychol. 2015 Oct 6;6:1520. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01520. eCollection 2015.
  • Cavagnini F, Invitti C, Pinto M, et al. Effect of acute and repeated administration of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) on growth hormone and prolactin secretion in man. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1980;93:149-54. View abstract.
  • Cavagnini F, Pinto M, Dubini A, et al. Effects of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and muscimol on endocrine pancreatic function in man. Metabolism 1982;31:73-7. View abstract.
  • Cocito L, Bianchetti A, Bossi L, et al. GABA and phosphatidylserine in human photosensitivity: a pilot study. Epilepsy Res 1994;17:49-53. View abstract.
  • Franco L, Sánchez C, Bravo R, Rodríguez AB, Barriga C, Romero E, Cubero J. The sedative effect of non-alcoholic beer in healthy female nurses. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e37290. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037290. Epub 2012 Jul 18. View abstract.
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), Monograph. Altern.Med.Rev. 2007;12:274-79. View abstract.
  • Gershman RN, Vasilenko MA, Iliushina GG, et al. [Gammalon in the rehabilitation in infantile cerebral palsy]. Pediatr.Akus.Ginekol. 1977;(6):26-7. View abstract.
  • Hashimoto M, Yokota A, Matsuoka S, et al. [Choreo-ballistic status treated by GABA]. No To Hattatsu 1989;21:481-85. View abstract.
  • Inoue K, Shirai T, Ochiai H, et al. Blood-pressure-lowering effect of a novel fermented milk containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mild hypertensives. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003;57:490-95. View abstract.
  • Ivanova, RI and Senenkova, SI. [Experience with the use of aminalon in the complex treatment of children with meningococcal infections]. Zh.Nevropatol.Psikhiatr.Im S.S.Korsakova 1981;81(10):1502-1504. View abstract.
  • Kalant H, Roschlau WHE, Eds. Principles of Med. Pharmacology. New York, NY: Oxford Univ Press, 1998.
  • Lapaev EV, Voinova II, Vorob'ev OA, et al. [Aminalon as an agent for the prevention of motion sickness]. Zh.Ushn.Nos.Gorl.Bolezn. 1978;(5):35-9. View abstract.
  • Loeb C, Benassi E, Bo, GP, et al. Preliminary evaluation of the effect of GABA and phosphatidylserine in epileptic patients. Epilepsy Res. 1987;1:209-12 . View abstract.
  • Lupandin VM, Lando LI, Gromova EA, et al. [Role of biogenic amines in the pathogenesis of intellectual disorders in children with minimal psychoorganic syndromes]. Zh.Nevropatol.Psikhiatr.Im S.S.Korsakova 1978;78:1538-44. View abstract.
  • Mishunina TM, Kononenko VI, Komissarenko IV, et al. [The effect of GABA-ergic preparations on the function of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal system in patients with Itsenko-Cushing disease]. Probl.Endokrinol.(Mosk) 1991;37:28-31. View abstract.
  • Nurnberger JI Jr, Berrettini WH, Simmons-Alling S, et al. Intravenous GABA administration is anxiogenic in man. Psychiatry Res 1986;19:113-7. View abstract.
  • Shimada M, Hasegawa T, Nishimura C, et al. Anti-hypertensive effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-rich Chlorella on high-normal blood pressure and borderline hypertension in placebo-controlled double blind study. Clin.Exp.Hypertens. 2009;31:342-54. View abstract.
  • Shoulson I, Kartzinel R, and Chase TN. Huntington's disease: treatment with dipropylacetic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid. Neurology 1976;26:61-3. View abstract.
  • Sil'vestrov VP, Kinitin AV, and Chesnokova, IV. [Immunological and metabolic disorders and the means for their correction in patients with chronic bronchitis]. Ter.Arkh. 1991;63:7-11. View abstract.
  • Yoto A, Murao S, Motoki M, Yokoyama Y, Horie N, Takeshima K, Masuda K, Kim M, Yokogoshi H. Oral intake of ?-aminobutyric acid affects mood and activities of central nervous system during stressed condition induced by mental tasks. Amino Acids. 2012 Sep;43(3):1331-7. doi: 10.1007/s00726-011-1206-6. Epub 2011 Dec 28. View abstract.

More Resources for GABA (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID)

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version. © Therapeutic Research Faculty 2009.