Barberry, Berberis aquifolium, Berberis nervosa, Berberis repens, Berberis sonnei, Blue Barberry, Creeping Barberry, Holly Barberry, Holly-Leaved Berberis, Holly Mahonia, Mahonia, Mahonia aquifolium, Mahonia diversifolia, Mahonia Faux Houx, Mahonia à Feuilles de Houx, Mahonia nervosa, Mahonia repens, Mahonie, Mountain-Grape, Oregon Barberry, Oregon-Grape, Oregon Grape-Holly, Scraperoot, Trailing Mahonia, Uva de Oregon, Vigne de l’Oregon, Water-Holly.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationOregon grape is a plant. The root and root-like stem (rhizome) are used to make medicine.
Oregon grape is used for stomach ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), stomach upset, as a bitter tonic, to treat infections, and to cleanse the bowels.
Oregon grape is applied to the skin for a skin disorder called psoriasis and as a disinfectant.
How does it work?The chemicals in Oregon grape might help fight bacterial and fungal infections. Oregon grape may also slow the overproduction of skin cells in diseases such as psoriasis.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Effective for
- Psoriasis. Some evidence suggests that applying a specific 10% Oregon grape extract cream (Relieva by Apollo Pharmaceutical) can reduce the severity of psoriasis and improve quality of life for people who have psoriasis. It might be as effective as the medicationcalcipotriene (Dovonex) cream for some people.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Itchy and inflamed skin (eczema). Early research suggests that applying a specific Oregon grape extract cream (Relieva by Apolla Pharmaceutical) for 12 weeks might improve the severity and area of itchy and inflamed skin in people with a skin condition called eczema. However, other research shows that topical application of a cream containing Oregon grape, heart’s ease, and gotu kola extracts does not improve eczema.
- Stomach ulcers.
- Stomach upset.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyOregon grape cream is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when applied directly to the skin. It can cause some side effects such as itching, burning, irritation, and allergic reactions.
There is not enough information to know if Oregon grape is safe when taken by mouth in medicinal amounts.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It’s LIKELY UNSAFE to use Oregon grape if you are pregnant. One of the chemicals in Oregon grape, berberine, may cross the placenta and might cause harm to the fetus. Brain damage (kernicterus) has been reported in newborn infants exposed to berberine. Berberine can also be transferred to the infant through breast milk. It’s also LIKELY UNSAFE to use Oregon grape if you are breast-feeding due to the berberine in Oregon grape.
Children: It’s LIKELY UNSAFE to give Oregon grape to children, especially newborns. The berberine in Oregon grape can cause brain damage (kernicterus) in newborns, particularly premature newborns who have jaundice. Jaundice is a condition in which there is yellowing of the eyes and skin caused by bile pigments in the blood. It can happen in newborns who have a different blood type than their mother.
Be cautious with this combination
Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) interacts with OREGON GRAPE
The body breaks down cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) to get rid of it. Oregon grape might decrease how fast the body breaks down cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune). This might cause there to be too much cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) in the body and potentially cause side effects.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates) interacts with OREGON GRAPE
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.<br><nb>Oregon grape might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking Oregon grape along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking Oregon grape, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.<br><nb>Some medications changed by the liver include cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), lovastatin (Mevacor), clarithromycin (Biaxin), indinavir (Crixivan), sildenafil (Viagra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
APPLIED TO THE SKIN:
- For psoriasis: A specific 10% Oregon grape bark extract cream (Relieva, Apolla Pharmaceutical) is applied to affected areas 2-3 times daily.
- Augustin, M., Andrees, U., Grimme, H., Schopf, E., and Simon, J. Effects of Mahonia aquifolium ointment on the expression of adhesion, proliferation, and activation markers in the skin of patients with psoriasis. Forsch.Komplementarmed. 1999;6 Suppl 2:19-21. View abstract.
- Bezakova, L., Misik, V., Malekova, L., Svajdlenka, E., and Kostalova, D. Lipoxygenase inhibition and antioxidant properties of bisbenzylisoqunoline alkaloids isolated from Mahonia aquifolium. Pharmazie 1996;51(10):758-761. View abstract.
- Brezova, V., Dvoranova, D., and Kost'alova, D. Oxygen activation by photoexcited protoberberinium alkaloids from Mahonia aquifolium. Phytother.Res 2004;18(8):640-646. View abstract.
- Cernakova, M. and Kostalova, D. Antimicrobial activity of berberine--a constituent of Mahonia aquifolium. Folia Microbiol.(Praha) 2002;47(4):375-378. View abstract.
- Cernakova, M., Kost'alova, D., Kettmann, V., Plodova, M., Toth, J., and Drimal, J. Potential antimutagenic activity of berberine, a constituent of Mahonia aquifolium. BMC.Complement Altern.Med 2-19-2002;2:2. View abstract.
- Donsky, H. and Clarke, D. Relieva, a Mahonia aquifolium extract for the treatment of adult patients with atopic dermatitis. Am.J.Ther. 2007;14(5):442-446. View abstract.
- Eaker, E. Y. and Sninsky, C. A. Effect of berberine on myoelectric activity and transit of the small intestine in rats. Gastroenterology 1989;96(6):1506-1513. View abstract.
- Hajnicka, V., Kost'alova, D., Svecova, D., Sochorova, R., Fuchsberger, N., and Toth, J. Effect of Mahonia aquifolium active compounds on interleukin-8 production in the human monocytic cell line THP-1. Planta Med 2002;68(3):266-268. View abstract.
- Haupt, H. [Poisonous and less poisonous plants. 63. Barberry (Berberidaceae) (Berberis vulgaris)]. Kinderkrankenschwester. 2003;22(12):538-539. View abstract.
- Klovekorn, W., Tepe, A., and Danesch, U. A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, half-side comparison with a herbal ointment containing Mahonia aquifolium, Viola tricolor and Centella asiatica for the treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis. Int.J.Clin.Pharmacol.Ther. 2007;45(11):583-591. View abstract.
- Kostalova, D., Bukovsky, M., Koscova, H., and Kardosova, A. [Anticomplement activity of Mahonia aquifolium bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids and berberine extract]. Ceska.Slov.Farm 2001;50(6):286-289. View abstract.
- Li, S. Y., Jei, W., Seow, W. K., and Thong, Y. H. Effect of berbamine on blood and bone-marrow stem cells of cyclophosphamide-treated mice. Int.J.Immunopharmacol. 1994;16(3):245-249. View abstract.
- Misik, V., Bezakova, L., Malekova, L., and Kostalova, D. Lipoxygenase inhibition and antioxidant properties of protoberberine and aporphine alkaloids isolated from Mahonia aquifolium. Planta Med 1995;61(4):372-373. View abstract.
- Muller, K. and Ziereis, K. The antipsoriatic Mahonia aquifolium and its active constituents; I. Pro- and antioxidant properties and inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. Planta Med 1994;60(5):421-424. View abstract.
- Muller, K., Ziereis, K., and Gawlik, I. The antipsoriatic Mahonia aquifolium and its active constituents; II. Antiproliferative activity against cell growth of human keratinocytes. Planta Med 1995;61(1):74-75. View abstract.
- Musumeci, R., Speciale, A., Costanzo, R., Annino, A., Ragusa, S., Rapisarda, A., Pappalardo, M. S., and Iauk, L. Berberis aetnensis C. Presl. extracts: antimicrobial properties and interaction with ciprofloxacin. Int.J.Antimicrob.Agents 2003;22(1):48-53. View abstract.
- Rackova, L., Oblozinsky, M., Kostalova, D., Kettmann, V., and Bezakova, L. Free radical scavenging activity and lipoxygenase inhibition of Mahonia aquifolium extract and isoquinoline alkaloids. J.Inflamm.(Lond) 2007;4:15. View abstract.
- Reuter, J., Wolfle, U., Weckesser, S., and Schempp, C. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 1: Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, condyloma and herpes simplex. J Dtsch.Dermatol.Ges. 2010;8(10):788-796. View abstract.
- Rob C., Durk W. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the invasive shrub Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidacea) and their applicability in related species. Molecular Ecology Notes 2006;6(3):948-950.
- Rohrer, U., Kunz, E. M., Lenkeit, K., Schaffner, W., and Meyer, J. Antimicrobial activity of Mahonia aquifolium and two of its alkaloids against oral bacteria. Schweiz.Monatsschr.Zahnmed. 2007;117(11):1126-1131. View abstract.
- Sotnikova, R., Kettmann, V., Kostalova, D., and Taborska, E. Relaxant properties of some aporphine alkaloids from Mahonia aquifolium. Methods Find.Exp.Clin Pharmacol. 1997;19(9):589-597. View abstract.
- Sotnikova, R., Kost'alova, D., and Vaverkova, S. Effect of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids from Mahonia aquifolium on the isolated rat aorta. Gen Pharmacol. 1994;25(7):1405-1410. View abstract.
- Stermitz, F. R., Beeson, T. D., Mueller, P. J., Hsiang, J., and Lewis, K. Staphylococcus aureus MDR efflux pump inhibitors from a Berberis and a Mahonia (sensu strictu) species. Biochem.Syst.Ecol. 2001;29(8):793-798. View abstract.
- Stermitz, F. R., Lorenz, P., Tawara, J. N., Zenewicz, L. A., and Lewis, K. Synergy in a medicinal plant: antimicrobial action of berberine potentiated by 5'-methoxyhydnocarpin, a multidrug pump inhibitor. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 2-15-2000;97(4):1433-1437. View abstract.
- Vollekova, A., Kostalova, D., and Sochorova, R. Isoquinoline alkaloids from Mahonia aquifolium stem bark are active against Malassezia spp. Folia Microbiol.(Praha) 2001;46(2):107-111. View abstract.
- Wiesenauer M., Ludtke R. Mahonia aquifolium in patients with psoriasis vulgaris - an intraindividual study. 1996;3:231-235.
- Xu, R., Dong, Q., Yu, Y., Zhao, X., Gan, X., Wu, D., Lu, Q., Xu, X., and Yu, X. F. Berbamine: a novel inhibitor of bcr/abl fusion gene with potent anti-leukemia activity. Leuk.Res. 2006;30(1):17-23. View abstract.
- Amin AH, Subbaiah TV, Abbasi KM. Berberine sulfate: antimicrobial activity, bioassay, and mode of action. Can J Microbiol 1969;15:1067-76. View abstract.
- Ang ES, Lee ST, Gan CS, et al. Evaluating the role of alternative therapy in burn wound management: randomized trial comparing moist exposed burn ointment with conventional methods in the management of patients with second-degree burns. MedGenMed 2001;3:3. View abstract.
- Anis KV, Rajeshkumar NV, Kuttan R. Inhibition of chemical carcinogenesis by berberine in rats and mice. J Pharm Pharmacol 2001;53:763-8. . View abstract.
- Bernstein S, Donsky H, Gullver W, et al. Treatment of mild to moderate psoriasis with Relieva, a Mahonia aquifolium extract - a double blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Ther 2006;13:121-6. View abstract.
- Chan E. Displacement of bilirubin from albumin by berberine. Biol Neonate 1993;63:201-8. View abstract.
- Fukuda K, Hibiya Y, Mutoh M, et al. Inhibition by berberine of cyclooxygenase-2 transcriptional activity in human colon cancer cells. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;66:227-33. View abstract.
- Gieler U, von der Weth A, Heger M. Mahonia aquifolium- a new type of topical treatment for psoriasis. J Dermatol Treatment 1995;6:31-4.
- Gulliver WP, Donsky HJ. A report on three recent clinical trials using Mahonia aquifolium 10% topical cream and a review of the worldwide clinical experience with Mahonia aquifolium for the treatment of plaque psoriasis. Am J Ther 2005;12:398-406. View abstract.
- Gupte S. Use of berberine in treatment of giardiasis. Am J Dis Child 1975;129:866. View abstract.
- Hsiang CY, Wu SL, Cheng SE, Ho TY. Acetaldehyde-induced interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production is inhibited by berberine through nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway in HepG2 cells. J Biomed Sci 2005;12:791-801. View abstract.
- Hyodo T, Taira T, Kumakura M, et al. The immediate effect of Shakuyaku-kanzo-to, traditional Japanese herbal medicine, for muscular cramps during maintenance hemodialysis. Nephron 2002;90:240. View abstract.
- Janbaz KH, Gilani AH. Studies on preventive and curative effects of berberine on chemical-induced hepatotoxicity in rodents. Fitoterapia 2000;71:25-33.. View abstract.
- Kaneda Y, Torii M, Tanaka T, Aikawa M. In vitro effects of berberine sulphate on the growth and structure of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1991;85:417-25. View abstract.
- Kim SH, Shin DS, Oh MN, et al. Inhibition of the bacterial surface protein anchoring transpeptidase sortase by isoquinoline alkaloids. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2004;68:421-4.. View abstract.
- Li B, Shang JC, Zhou QX. [Study of total alkaloids from rhizoma coptis chinensis on experimental gastric ulcers]. Chin J Integr Med 2005;11:217-21. View abstract.
- Natural Health Remedies. Health Canada. Available at: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/english/archives/96-97/herbnae.html (Accessed 16 July 1999).
- Rabbani GH, Butler T, Knight J, et al. Randomized controlled trial of berberine sulfate therapy for diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. J Infect Dis 1987;155:979-84. View abstract.
- Rackova L, Majekova M, Kost'alova D, Stefek M. Antiradical and antioxidant activities of alkaloids isolated from Mahonia aquifolium. Structural aspects. Bioorg Med Chem 2004;12:4709-15. View abstract.
- Rehman J, Dillow JM, Carter SM, et al. Increased production of antigen-specific immunoglobulins G and M following in vivo treatment with the medicinal plants Echinacea angustifolia and Hydrastis canadensis. Immunol Lett 1999;68:391-5. View abstract.
- Scazzocchio F, Corneta MF, Tomassini L, Palmery M. Antibacterial activity of Hydrastis canadensis extract and its major isolated alkaloids. Planta Med 2001;67:561-4. View abstract.
- Slobodnikova L, Kost'alova D, Labudova D, et al. Antimicrobial activity of Mahonia aquifolium crude extract and its major isolated alkaloids. Phytother Res 2004;18:674-6. View abstract.
- Sun D, Courtney HS, Beachey EH. Berberine sulfate blocks adherence of Streptococcus pyogenes to epithelial cells, fibronectin, and hexadecane. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1988;32:1370-4. View abstract.
- Tsai PL, Tsai TH. Hepatobiliary excretion of berberine. Drug Metab Dispos 2004;32:405-12. . View abstract.
- Vollekova A, Kost'alova D, Kettmann V, Toth J. Antifungal activity of Mahonia aquifolium extract and its major protoberberine alkaloids. Phytother Res 2003;17:834-7. View abstract.
- Wiesenauer M, Lydtke R. Mahonia aquifolium in patients with Psoriasis vulgaris; an intraindividual study. Phytomedicine 1996;3:231-5.
- Wu X, Li Q, Xin H, Yu A, Zhong M. Effects of berberine on the blood concentration of cyclosporin A in renal transplanted recipients: clinical and pharmacokinetic study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2005;61:567-72. View abstract.
- Zeng XH, Zeng XJ, Li YY. Efficacy and safety of berberine for congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 2003;92:173-6. View abstract.
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