LEMON

OTHER NAME(S):

Bioflavonoid Complex, Bioflavonoid Concentrate, Bioflavonoid Extract, Bioflavonoïde de Citron, Bioflavonoïdes, Bioflavonoïdes de Citron, Bioflavonoids, Citrin, Citron, Citronnade, Citrus, Citrus Bioflavones, Citrus Bioflavonoid, Citrus Bioflavonoid Complex, Citrus Bioflavonoid Extract, Citrus Bioflavonoids, Citrus Extract, Citrus Flavones, Citrus Flavonoids, Citrus limon, Citrus limonum, Citrus Medica Limonum, Citrus Peel Extract, Citrus Seed Extract, Complexe de Bioflavonoïdes, Complexe de Bioflavonoïdes de Citron, Concentré de Bioflavonoïdes, Eriodictiol, Eriodictyol, Eriodictyol Glycoside, Extrait de Bioflavonoïdes, Extrait de Bioflavonoïdes de Citron, Extrait de Pépins de Citron, Flavonoids, Flavonoïdes, Flavonoïdes de Citron, Jus de Citron, Lemon Bioflavonoid, Lemon Bioflavonoid Complex, Lemon Bioflavonoid Extract, Lemon Bioflavonoids, Lemon Juice, Lemon Oil, Lemon Peel, Lemon Rind, Lemonade, Limón, Limonade, Nimbaka, Nimbuka, Zeste de Citron.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Lemon is a type of citrus fruit. The fruit, juice, and peel are used to make medicine.

Lemon is used to treat scurvy, a condition caused by not having enough vitamin C. Lemon is also used for the common cold and flu, H1N1 (swine) flu, ringing in the ears (tinnitus), Meniere's disease, stomach upset and vomiting from pregnancy, and kidney stones. It is also used to aid digestion, reduce hay fever symptoms, reduce pain and swelling (inflammation), lower blood pressure, improve the function of blood vessels, and increase urination to reduce fluid retention.

In foods, lemon is used as a food and flavoring ingredient.

How does it work?

Lemon contains antioxidants called bioflavonoids. Researchers think these bioflavonoids are responsible for the health benefits of lemon.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Allergies (hayfever). Results from a small study show that using a nasal spray containing lemon and quince doesn't improve allergy symptoms.
  • High blood pressure. Middle-aged women who drink more lemon juice or eat more lemons seem to have lower systolic blood pressure (the top number). They don't seem to have lower diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number).
  • Meniere's disease. There are some reports that a chemical in lemon might improve hearing and decrease dizziness, nausea, and vomiting in some people with Meniere's disease.
  • Kidney stones. Not having enough citrate in the urine seems to increase the risk of developing kidney stones. There is some evidence that drinking 2 liters of lemonade throughout the day can significantly raise citrate levels in the urine. This might help to prevent kidney stones in these people.
  • Pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. A small study shows that placing lemon essential oil on a cotton ball and inhaling the scent might reduce nausea in pregnant women.
  • Decreasing swelling.
  • Increasing urine.
  • The common cold and flu.
  • Treating scurvy.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of lemon for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Lemon is LIKELY SAFE in the amounts typically found in foods. The safety of lemon when used as medicine is unknown.

Applying lemon to the skin may increase the chance of sunburn, especially in light-skinned people.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It's unknown whether it's safe to use lemon in medicinal amounts during pregnancy or breast-feeding. Stick to food amounts.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for LEMON Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of lemon for use as treatment depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for lemon. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Abdelkawy KS, Donia AM, Turner RB, Elbarbry F. Effects of Lemon and Seville Orange Juices on the Pharmacokinetic Properties of Sildenafil in Healthy Subjects. Drugs R D. 2016 Sep;16(3):271-278. View abstract.
  • Aras B, Kalfazade N, Tugcu V, Kemahli E, Ozbay B, Polat H, Tasçi AI. Can lemon juice be an alternative to potassium citrate in the treatment of urinary calcium stones in patients with hypocitraturia? A prospective randomized study. Urol Res. 2008 Dec;36(6):313-7. View abstract.
  • Bear WL, Teel RW. Effects of citrus flavonoids on the mutagenicity of heterocyclic amines and on cytochrome P450 1A2 activity. Anticancer Res 2000;20:3609-14. View abstract.
  • Bear WL, Teel RW. Effects of citrus phytochemicals on liver and lung cytochrome P450 activity and on the in vitro metabolism of the tobacco specific nitrosamine NNK. Anticancer Res 2000;20:3323-30. View abstract.
  • Bernhard RA. Occurrence of coumarin analogues in lemon juice. Nature 1958;4643:1171. View abstract.
  • Ceccarelli I, Lariviere WR, Fiorenzani P, et al. Effects of long-term exposure of lemon essential oil odor on behavioral, hormonal and neuronal parameters in male and female rats. Brain Res 2004;1001:78-86. View abstract.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Kato Y, Domoto T, Hiramitsu M, Katagiri T, Sato K, Miyake Y, Aoi S, Ishihara K, Ikeda H, Umei N, Takigawa A, Harada T. Effect on blood pressure of daily lemon ingestion and walking. J Nutr Metab. 2014;2014:912684. View abstract.
  • Miyake Y, Murakami A, Sugiyama Y, et al. Identification of coumarins from lemon fruit (Citrus limon) as inhibitors of in vitro tumor promotion and superoxide and nitric oxide generation. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47:3151-7. View abstract.
  • Miyake Y, Yamamoto K, Tsujihara N, Osawa T. Protective effects of lemon flavonoids on oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Lipids 1998;33:689-95. View abstract.
  • Moufida S, Marzouk B. Biochemical characterization of blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange. Phytochemistry 2003;62:1283-9. View abstract.
  • Naganuma M, Hirose S, Nakayama Y, et al. A study of the phototoxicity of lemon oil. Arch Dermatol Res 1985;278:31-6. . View abstract.
  • Odvina CV. Comparative value of orange juice versus lemonade in reducing stone-forming risk. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;1:1269-74.
  • Ranganna S, Govindarajan VS, Ramana KV. Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. A. Chemistry. Critical Rev Food Sci Nutr 1983;19:313-86. View abstract.
  • Ranganna S, Govindarajan VS, Ramana KV. Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. B. Technology. Critical Rev Food Sci Nutr 1983;19:1-98. View abstract.
  • Riaz A, Khan RA, Algahtani HA. Memory boosting effect of Citrus limon, Pomegranate and their combinations. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2014 Nov;27(6):1837-40. View abstract.
  • Riaz A, Khan RA, Algahtani HA. Memory boosting effect of Citrus limon, Pomegranate and their combinations. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2014 Nov;27(6):1837-40. View abstract.
  • Seltzer MA, Low RK, McDonald M, et al. Dietary manipulation with lemonade to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis. J Urol 1996;156:907-9. View abstract.
  • Vitetta L, Thomsen M, Sali A. Black cohosh and other herbal remedies associated with acute hepatitis. Med J Aust 2003;178:411-2.. View abstract.
  • Williams HL Jr. Eriodictyol glycoside in meniere's disease. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1964;68:45-59. View abstract.
  • Williams HL, Maher FT, Corbin KB, et al. Eriodictyol glycoside in the treatment of meni'ere's disease. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1963;72:1082-101. View abstract.
  • Yavari Kia P, Safajou F, Shahnazi M, Nazemiyeh H. The effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014 Mar;16(3):e14360. View abstract.

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CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.