LEMON

OTHER NAME(S):

Bioflavonoid Complex, Bioflavonoid Concentrate, Bioflavonoid Extract, Bioflavonoïde de Citron, Bioflavonoïdes, Bioflavonoïdes de Citron, Bioflavonoids, Citrin, Citron, Citronnade, Citrus, Citrus Bioflavones, Citrus Bioflavonoid, Citrus Bioflavonoid Complex, Citrus Bioflavonoid Extract, Citrus Bioflavonoids, Citrus Extract, Citrus Flavones, Citrus Flavonoids, Citrus limon, Citrus limonum, Citrus Medica Limonum, Citrus Peel Extract, Citrus Seed Extract, Complexe de Bioflavonoïdes, Complexe de Bioflavonoïdes de Citron, Concentré de Bioflavonoïdes, Eriodictiol, Eriodictyol, Eriodictyol Glycoside, Extrait de Bioflavonoïdes, Extrait de Bioflavonoïdes de Citron, Extrait de Pépins de Citron, Flavonoids, Flavonoïdes, Flavonoïdes de Citron, Jus de Citron, Lemon Bioflavonoid, Lemon Bioflavonoid Complex, Lemon Bioflavonoid Extract, Lemon Bioflavonoids, Lemon Essential Oil, Lemon Juice, Lemon Oil, Lemon Peel, Lemon Rind, Lemonade, Limón, Limonade, Nimbaka, Nimbuka, Zeste de Citron.

Overview

Overview Information

Lemon is a type of citrus fruit. The fruit, juice, and peel are used to make medicine.

People use lemon for conditions such as the common cold, a disease caused by vitamin C deficiency (scurvy), skin care, morning sickness, and many others, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

In foods, lemon is used as a food and flavoring ingredient.

How does it work?

Lemon contains antioxidants called bioflavonoids. Researchers think these bioflavonoids are responsible for the health benefits of lemon.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • High blood pressure. Middle-aged women who drink more lemon juice or eat more lemons seem to have lower systolic blood pressure (the top number). They don't seem to have lower diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number).
  • An inner ear disorder marked by dizziness, hearing loss, and ringing in the ear (Meniere disease). There are some reports that a chemical in lemon might improve hearing and decrease dizziness, nausea, and vomiting in some people with Meniere disease.
  • Heart attack. In people who are in the hospital after a heart attack, early research shows that inhaling the scent of lemon might reduce blood pressure and anxiety, and possibly help the heart recover.
  • Morning sickness. A small study shows that placing lemon essential oil on a cotton ball and inhaling the scent might reduce nausea in pregnant women.
  • Problems making saliva due to radiation therapy. Early research in people with thyroid cancer shows that aromatherapy baths with lemon and ginger essential oils can reduce damage inside the mouth from radioactive iodine treatment.
  • Common cold.
  • Decreasing swelling.
  • Flu.
  • Hay fever.
  • Kidney stones.
  • Increasing urine.
  • A disease caused by vitamin C deficiency (scurvy).
  • Skin care, when applied to the skin.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of lemon for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Lemon is LIKELY SAFE in the amounts typically found in foods. When taken as medicine, there isn't enough reliable information to know if lemon is safe or what the side effects might be.

When applied to the skin: There isn't enough reliable information to know if lemon is safe. It might cause side effects such as an increased risk of sunburn, especially in light-skinned people.

When applied into the nose: There isn't enough reliable information to know if lemon is safe or what the side effects might be.

When inhaled: Lemon essential oil is POSSIBLY SAFE when inhaled as aromatherapy.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if lemon is safe to use in amounts greater than those found in foods. Stay on the safe side and stick to food amounts.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for LEMON Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of lemon for use as treatment depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for lemon. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Abdelkawy KS, Donia AM, Turner RB, Elbarbry F. Effects of Lemon and Seville Orange Juices on the Pharmacokinetic Properties of Sildenafil in Healthy Subjects. Drugs R D. 2016 Sep;16(3):271-278. View abstract.
  • Aras B, Kalfazade N, Tugcu V, Kemahli E, Ozbay B, Polat H, Tasçi AI. Can lemon juice be an alternative to potassium citrate in the treatment of urinary calcium stones in patients with hypocitraturia? A prospective randomized study. Urol Res. 2008 Dec;36(6):313-7. View abstract.
  • Bear WL, Teel RW. Effects of citrus flavonoids on the mutagenicity of heterocyclic amines and on cytochrome P450 1A2 activity. Anticancer Res 2000;20:3609-14. View abstract.
  • Bear WL, Teel RW. Effects of citrus phytochemicals on liver and lung cytochrome P450 activity and on the in vitro metabolism of the tobacco specific nitrosamine NNK. Anticancer Res 2000;20:3323-30. View abstract.
  • Bernhard RA. Occurrence of coumarin analogues in lemon juice. Nature 1958;4643:1171. View abstract.
  • Ceccarelli I, Lariviere WR, Fiorenzani P, et al. Effects of long-term exposure of lemon essential oil odor on behavioral, hormonal and neuronal parameters in male and female rats. Brain Res 2004;1001:78-86. View abstract.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Freitas D, Boué F, Benallaoua M, Airinei G, Benamouzig R, Le Feunteun S. Lemon juice, but not tea, reduces the glycemic response to bread in healthy volunteers: a randomized crossover trial. Eur J Nutr. 2020. View abstract.
  • Goepfert M, Liebl P, Herth N, Ciarlo G, Buentzel J, Huebner J. Aroma oil therapy in palliative care: a pilot study with physiological parameters in conscious as well as unconscious patients. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017;143(10):2123-2129. View abstract.
  • Kato Y, Domoto T, Hiramitsu M, Katagiri T, Sato K, Miyake Y, Aoi S, Ishihara K, Ikeda H, Umei N, Takigawa A, Harada T. Effect on blood pressure of daily lemon ingestion and walking. J Nutr Metab. 2014;2014:912684. View abstract.
  • Liu D, Shao L, Zhang Y, Kang W. Safety and efficacy of Lactobacillus for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Int J Surg. 2020;76:79-87. View abstract.
  • Miyake Y, Murakami A, Sugiyama Y, et al. Identification of coumarins from lemon fruit (Citrus limon) as inhibitors of in vitro tumor promotion and superoxide and nitric oxide generation. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47:3151-7. View abstract.
  • Miyake Y, Yamamoto K, Tsujihara N, Osawa T. Protective effects of lemon flavonoids on oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Lipids 1998;33:689-95. View abstract.
  • Moufida S, Marzouk B. Biochemical characterization of blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange. Phytochemistry 2003;62:1283-9. View abstract.
  • Naganuma M, Hirose S, Nakayama Y, et al. A study of the phototoxicity of lemon oil. Arch Dermatol Res 1985;278:31-6. . View abstract.
  • Nakayama M, Okizaki A, Takahashi K. A Randomized Controlled Trial for the Effectiveness of Aromatherapy in Decreasing Salivary Gland Damage following Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:9509810. View abstract.
  • Odvina CV. Comparative value of orange juice versus lemonade in reducing stone-forming risk. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;1:1269-74.
  • Rambod M, Rakhshan M, Tohidinik S, Nikoo MH. The effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on blood pressure, electrocardiogram changes, and anxiety in acute myocardial infarction patients: A clinical, multi-centered, assessor-blinded trial design. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2020;39:101155. View abstract.
  • Ranganna S, Govindarajan VS, Ramana KV. Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. A. Chemistry. Critical Rev Food Sci Nutr 1983;19:313-86. View abstract.
  • Ranganna S, Govindarajan VS, Ramana KV. Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. B. Technology. Critical Rev Food Sci Nutr 1983;19:1-98. View abstract.
  • Riaz A, Khan RA, Algahtani HA. Memory boosting effect of Citrus limon, Pomegranate and their combinations. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2014 Nov;27(6):1837-40. View abstract.
  • Riaz A, Khan RA, Algahtani HA. Memory boosting effect of Citrus limon, Pomegranate and their combinations. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2014 Nov;27(6):1837-40. View abstract.
  • Seltzer MA, Low RK, McDonald M, et al. Dietary manipulation with lemonade to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis. J Urol 1996;156:907-9. View abstract.
  • Vitetta L, Thomsen M, Sali A. Black cohosh and other herbal remedies associated with acute hepatitis. Med J Aust 2003;178:411-2.. View abstract.
  • Williams HL Jr. Eriodictyol glycoside in meniere's disease. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1964;68:45-59. View abstract.
  • Williams HL, Maher FT, Corbin KB, et al. Eriodictyol glycoside in the treatment of meni'ere's disease. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1963;72:1082-101. View abstract.
  • Yavari Kia P, Safajou F, Shahnazi M, Nazemiyeh H. The effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014 Mar;16(3):e14360. View abstract.

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CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
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