MACA

OTHER NAME(S):

Ayak Chichira, Ayuk Willku, Ginseng Andin, Ginseng Péruvien, Lepidium meyenii, Lepidium peruvianum, Maca Maca, Maca Péruvien, Maino, Maka, Peruvian Ginseng, Peruvian Maca.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Maca is a plant that grows in central Peru in the high plateaus of the Andes Mountains. It has been cultivated as a vegetable crop in this area for at least 3000 years. Maca is a relative of the radish and has an odor similar to butterscotch. Its root is used to make medicine.

People take maca by mouth for "tired blood" (anemia); chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); and enhancing energy, stamina, athletic performance, and memory. People also take maca by mouth for female hormone imbalance, menstrual problems, symptoms of menopause, improving fertility, and sexual dysfunction caused by antidepressants, weak bones (osteoporosis), depression, stomach cancer, leukemia, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, erectile dysfunction (ED), to arouse sexual desire, and to boost the immune system.

In foods, maca is eaten baked or roasted, prepared as a soup, and used for making a fermented drink called maca chicha.

In agriculture, it is used to increase fertility in livestock.

How does it work?

Maca root contains many chemicals, including fatty acids and amino acids. However, there isn't enough information to know how maca might work.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Sexual dysfunction caused by antidepressant drugs. Early research suggests that taking maca twice daily for 12 weeks slightly improves sexual dysfunction in women taking antidepressants.
  • Male infertility. Early research shows that taking a specific maca product (Maca Gelatinizada La Molina, Laboratories Hersil, Lima, Peru) daily for 4 months increases semen and sperm count in healthy men. But it's not clear if this results in improved fertility.
  • Postmenopausal conditions. Research suggests that taking maca (Maca Powder Healthychoices, Murwillumbah, NSW, Australia) daily for 6 weeks slightly improves blood pressure and some aspects of mood, including depression and anxiety, in postmenopausal women. But benefits are very small.
  • Sexual desire. Early research shows that taking a specific maca product (Maca Gelatinizada La Molina, Laboratories Hersil, Lima, Peru) daily for 12 weeks can increase sexual desire in healthy men.
  • "Tired blood" (anemia).
  • Leukemia.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Improving energy and athletic performance.
  • Improving memory.
  • Depression.
  • Female hormone imbalance.
  • Menstrual problems.
  • Symptoms of menopause.
  • Osteoporosis.
  • Stomach cancer.
  • Tuberculosis.
  • Boosting the immune system.
  • HIV/AIDS.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of maca for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Maca is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken in amounts found in foods. Maca is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth in larger amounts as medicine (up to 3 grams daily) for up to 4 months. Maca seems to be well tolerated by most people.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking maca if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: Extracts from maca might act like estrogen. If you have any condition that might be made worse by exposure to estrogen, do not use these extracts.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for MACA Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of maca depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for maca (in children/in adults). Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Deng, G., Lin, H., Seidman, A., Fornier, M., D'Andrea, G., Wesa, K., Yeung, S., Cunningham-Rundles, S., Vickers, A. J., and Cassileth, B. A phase I/II trial of a polysaccharide extract from Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom) in breast cancer patients: immunological effects. J.Cancer Res.Clin.Oncol. 2009;135(9):1215-1221. View abstract.
  • Fukushima, M., Ohashi, T., Fujiwara, Y., Sonoyama, K., and Nakano, M. Cholesterol-lowering effects of maitake (Grifola frondosa) fiber, shiitake (Lentinus edodes) fiber, and enokitake (Flammulina velutipes) fiber in rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood.) 2001;226(8):758-765. View abstract.
  • Fullerton, S. A., Samadi, A. A., Tortorelis, D. G., Choudhury, M. S., Mallouh, C., Tazaki, H., and Konno, S. Induction of apoptosis in human prostatic cancer cells with beta-glucan (Maitake mushroom polysaccharide). Mol Urol 2000;4(1):7-13. View abstract.
  • Gonmori, K. and Yokoyama, K. [Acute encephalopathy caused by cyanogenic fungi in 2004, and magic mushroom regulation in Japan]. Chudoku.Kenkyu 2009;22(1):61-69. View abstract.
  • Gu, C. Q., Li, J. W., Chao, F., Jin, M., Wang, X. W., and Shen, Z. Q. Isolation, identification and function of a novel anti-HSV-1 protein from Grifola frondosa. Antiviral Res 2007;75(3):250-257. View abstract.
  • Gu, C. Q., Li, J., and Chao, F. H. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus by D-fraction from Grifola frondosa: synergistic effect of combination with interferon-alpha in HepG2 2.2.15. Antiviral Res 2006;72(2):162-165. View abstract.
  • Hong, L., Xun, M., and Wutong, W. Anti-diabetic effect of an alpha-glucan from fruit body of maitake (Grifola frondosa) on KK-Ay mice. J Pharm Pharmacol 2007;59(4):575-582. View abstract.
  • Horio, H. and Ohtsuru, M. Maitake (Grifola frondosa) improve glucose tolerance of experimental diabetic rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2001;47(1):57-63. View abstract.
  • Inoue, A., Kodama, N., and Nanba, H. Effect of maitake (grifolafrondosa) D-fraction on the control of the T lymph node Th-1/Th-2 proportion. Biol Pharm Bull 2002;25(4):536-540. View abstract.
  • Ishibashi, K., Miura, N. N., Adachi, Y., Ohno, N., and Yadomae, T. Relationship between solubility of grifolan, a fungal 1,3-beta-D- glucan, and production of tumor necrosis factor by macrophages in vitro. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2001;65(9):1993-2000. View abstract.
  • Kidd, P. M. The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment. Altern.Med Rev. 2000;5(1):4-27. View abstract.
  • Kodama, N., Komuta, K., and Nanba, H. Can maitake MD-fraction aid cancer patients? Altern.Med Rev 2002;7(3):236-239. View abstract.
  • Kurashige, S., Akuzawa, Y., and Endo, F. Effects of Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa and Pleurotus ostreatus administration on cancer outbreak, and activities of macrophages and lymphocytes in mice treated with a carcinogen, N-butyl-N- butanolnitrosoamine. Immunopharmacol.Immunotoxicol. 1997;19(2):175-183. View abstract.
  • Li, X., Rong, J., Wu, M., and Zeng, X. [Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa and its influence on immunological function]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2003;26(1):31-32. View abstract.
  • Lin, J. T. and Liu, W. H. o-Orsellinaldehyde from the submerged culture of the edible mushroom Grifola frondosa exhibits selective cytotoxic effect against Hep 3B cells through apoptosis. J Agric Food Chem 10-4-2006;54(20):7564-7569. View abstract.
  • Manohar, V., Talpur, N. A., Echard, B. W., Lieberman, S., and Preuss, H. G. Effects of a water-soluble extract of maitake mushroom on circulating glucose/insulin concentrations in KK mice. Diabetes Obes.Metab 2002;4(1):43-48. View abstract.
  • Matsui, K., Kodama, N., and Nanba, H. Effects of maitake (Grifola frondosa) D-Fraction on the carcinoma angiogenesis. Cancer Lett 10-30-2001;172(2):193-198. View abstract.
  • Mayell, M. Maitake extracts and their therapeutic potential. Altern Med Rev 2001;6(1):48-60. View abstract.
  • Miura, N. N., Ohno, N., Aketagawa, J., Tamura, H., Tanaka, S., and Yadomae, T. Blood clearance of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan in MRL lpr/lpr mice. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1996;13(1):51-57. View abstract.
  • Nanba, H. Maitake D-fraction: Healing and preventing potentials for cancer. Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients 1996;151/152:84-85.
  • Ohno, N., Egawa, Y., Hashimoto, T., Adachi, Y., and Yadomae, T. Effect of beta-glucans on the nitric oxide synthesis by peritoneal macrophage in mice. Biol Pharm Bull 1996;19(4):608-612. View abstract.
  • Okazaki, M., Adachi, Y., Ohno, N., and Yadomae, T. Structure-activity relationship of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans in the induction of cytokine production from macrophages, in vitro. Biol Pharm Bull 1995;18(10):1320-1327. View abstract.
  • Preuss, H. G., Echard, B., Bagchi, D., Perricone, N. V., and Zhuang, C. Enhanced insulin-hypoglycemic activity in rats consuming a specific glycoprotein extracted from maitake mushroom. Mol.Cell Biochem 2007;306(1-2):105-113. View abstract.
  • Sanzen, I., Imanishi, N., Takamatsu, N., Konosu, S., Mantani, N., Terasawa, K., Tazawa, K., Odaira, Y., Watanabe, M., Takeyama, M., and Ochiai, H. Nitric oxide-mediated antitumor activity induced by the extract from Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom) in a macrophage cell line, RAW264.7. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2001;20(4):591-597. View abstract.
  • Sliva, D. Cellular and physiological effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi). Mini.Rev.Med Chem. 2004;4(8):873-879. View abstract.
  • Spelman, K., Burns, J., Nichols, D., Winters, N., Ottersberg, S., and Tenborg, M. Modulation of cytokine expression by traditional medicines: a review of herbal immunomodulators. Altern.Med.Rev. 2006;11(2):128-150. View abstract.
  • Chung, F., Rubio, J., Gonzales, C., Gasco, M., and Gonzales, G. F. Dose-response effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) aqueous extract on testicular function and weight of different organs in adult rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 4-8-2005;98(1-2):143-147. View abstract.
  • Cui, B., Zheng, B. L., He, K., and Zheng, Q. Y. Imidazole alkaloids from Lepidium meyenii. J Nat Prod 2003;66(8):1101-1103. View abstract.
  • Gonzales, C., Rubio, J., Gasco, M., Nieto, J., Yucra, S., and Gonzales, G. F. Effect of short-term and long-term treatments with three ecotypes of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on spermatogenesis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2-20-2006;103(3):448-454. View abstract.
  • Gonzales, G. F., Ruiz, A., Gonzales, C., Villegas, L., and Cordova, A. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) roots on spermatogenesis of male rats. Asian J Androl 2001;3(3):231-233. View abstract.
  • Lee, K. J., Dabrowski, K., Rinchard, J., and et al. Supplementation of maca (

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CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.