Bidarikand, Bilaikanda, Daidzein, Dolichos hirsutus, Dolichos lobatus, Fen Ke, Fenge, Gange, Ge Gen, Gegen, Ghora-bel, Indian Kudzu, Isoflavone, Isoflavones, Japanese Arrowroot, Kakkon, Kudsu, Kudzu Vine, Kwaao Khruea, Mealy Kudzu, Nepalem, Neustanthus chinensis, Pachyrhizus thunbergianus, Pueraria, Pueraria candollei, Pueraria hirsuta, Pueraria lobata, Pueraria lobata var. chinensis, Pueraria mirifica, Pueraria montana var. lobata, Pueraria montana var. thomsonii, Pueraria pseudohirsuta, Pueraria Root, Pueraria thomsonii, Pueraria thunbergiana, Pueraria tuberosa, Radix Puerariae, Red Indian Kudzu, Thai Kudzu Root Extract, Vidarikand, Vigne Kudzu, Wa Yaka, White Indian Kudzu, Yege.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationKudzu is a vine. Under the right growing conditions, it spreads easily, covering virtually everything that doesn’t move out of its path. Kudzu was introduced in North America in 1876 in the southeastern U.S. to prevent soil erosion. But kudzu spread quickly and overtook farms and buildings, leading some to call to kudzu "the vine that ate the South.”
Kudzu’s root, flower, and leaf are used to make medicine.
People use kudzu to treat alcoholism and to reduce symptoms of alcohol hangover, including headache, upset stomach, dizziness, and vomiting. Kudzu is also used for heart and circulatory problems, including high blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, heart failure, and chest pain; for upper respiratory problems including sinus infections, the common cold, hay fever, flu, and swine flu; and for skin problems, including allergic skin rash, itchiness, and psoriasis.
Some people use kudzu for menopause symptoms, weight loss, exercise performance, muscle pain, measles, dysentery, stomach pain (gastritis), fever, diarrhea, thirst, neck stiffness, and to promote sweating. Other oral uses include treatment of polio myelitis, encephalitis, migraine, deafness, diabetes, nerve pain and vision loss associated with diabetes, and traumatic injuries.
Health providers in China sometimes give puerarin, a chemical in kudzu, intravenously (by IV) to treat stroke due to a blood clot, as well as for back pain, heart attacks, and to reduce cholesterol levels in people with heart disease.
How does it work?There is information that suggests kudzu contains ingredients that counteract alcohol. It might also have effects like estrogen. Chemicals in kudzu might also increase blood circulation in the heart and brain.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Effective for
- Alcoholism. Research suggests that heavy drinkers or binge drinkers who take kudzu consume less beer when given a chance to drink. But kudzu doesn’t seem to decrease the craving for alcohol or improve sobriety in long-term alcoholics.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Chest pains. Some early research suggests that puerarin, a chemical in kudzu, might improve signs and symptoms of chest pain when taken by mouth or injected intravenously (by IV). Some evidence suggests that using IV puerarin along with usual treatment might be more effective than usual treatment alone. However, studies on puerarin are generally of poor quality and might not be reliable. Puerarin injection products are not available in North America.
- Preventing chest pain during a procedure called percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Early research suggests that injecting 200 mL of puerarin, a chemical in kudzu, intravenously (by IV) one week before and immediately prior to PTCA might reduce episodes of chest pain. Puerarin injection products are not available in North America.
- Coronary heart disease (CHD). Early research suggests that injecting 500 mL of puerarin, a chemical in kudzu, intravenously (by IV) once daily for 3 weeks might reduce “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, increase “good” high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and reduce pre-meal insulin levels in people with coronary heart disease. Puerarin injection products are not available in North America.
- Diabetes. Early research suggests that taking puerarin, a chemical in kudzu, 750 mg daily by mouth along with the diabetes medication rosiglitazone (Avandia) reduces blood sugar in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, injecting puerarin intravenously (by IV) does not appear to reduce blood sugar. Puerarin injection products are not available in North America.
- Kidney disease in people with diabetes (diabetic nephropathy). Early research suggests that taking puerarin, a chemical in kudzu, 750 mg daily by mouth along with the diabetes medication rosiglitazone (Avandia) improves kidney function in people with diabetic nephropathy.
- Problems with the retina of the eye in people with diabetes (diabetic retinopathy). Some research suggests that injecting puerarin, a chemical in kudzu, intravenously (by IV) does not improve vision in people with diabetic retinopathy. Puerarin injection products are not available in North America.
- Exercise performance. Early research suggests that taking a combination supplement containing kudzu isoflavones along with other ingredients might improve exercise performance in some people.
- Heart failure. Early research suggests that taking puerarin, a chemical in kudzu, 400 mg/day by mouth for 10 days might improve heart function in people with heart failure.
- High blood pressure. Early research shows that taking kudzu powder might decrease blood pressure in people with slightly high blood pressure.
- Stroke. Some early research suggests that taking puerarin, a chemical in kudzu, alone or with aspirin, might improve brain function in some people after stroke. However, other research shows that injecting puerarin intravenously (by IV) does not reduce death or dependency after a stroke.
- Low back pain. Early research suggests that injections of puerarin, a chemical in kudzu, might reduce pain in some people with low back pain. Puerarin injection products are not available in North America.
- Symptoms of menopause. Research on kudzu for symptoms of menopause has been conflicting. Some research suggests that taking kudzu by mouth can reduce hot flashes and improve vaginal dryness in women going through menopause. Other research shows that taking kudzu does not affect sex hormone levels, blood fat levels, bone density, or other symptoms of menopause. However, it might have a positive effect on the mental abilities of postmenopausal women.
- Heart attack (myocardial infarction). Early research suggests that injecting puerarin, a chemical in kudzu, intravenously (by IV) along with usual treatment might help some people after a heart attack. Puerarin injection products are not available in North America.
- Weight loss. Early research suggests that taking kudzu extract 300 mg by mouth for 12 weeks reduces body fat and body mass index (BMI) in people who are obese. However, taking kudzu extract 200 mg daily does not appear to have the same effects.
- Abnormal heart rate and rhythm.
- Muscle pain.
- Neck stiffness.
- Promoting sweating (diaphoretic).
- Stomach inflammation (gastritis).
- Symptoms of alcohol hangover (headache, upset stomach, dizziness and vomiting).
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyKudzu is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth appropriately for up to 4 months or when injected intravenously (by IV) for up to 20 days.
When kudzu is taken by mouth, side effects might include skin itchiness, stomach upset, and dizziness. There is also a case report of allergic reaction following use of a combination herbal product containing kudzu (Kakkonto). Other reports suggest that taking kudzu root by mouth might cause liver damage.
When given by IV, the kudzu ingredient, puerarin, has been associated with itching and nausea, as well as headache and fever. It has also caused red cells to break inside blood vessels.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking kudzu if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Bleeding or blood clotting disorders: Kudzu might slow blood clotting. It might make bleeding and blood clotting disorders worse, and it might also interfere with medications used as treatment.
Cardiovascular (heart and blood vessel) conditions: There is a concern that kudzu might interfere with cardiovascular treatments. Kudzu extracts seem to lower blood pressure and affect heart rhythm in animals.
Diabetes: Kudzu might affect blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use kudzu.
Hormone-sensitive condition such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: Kudzu might act like estrogen. If you have any condition that might be made worse by exposure to estrogen, don’t use kudzu.
Liver disease: There is some concern that taking kudzu might harm the liver. In theory, kudzu might make liver diseases, such as hepatitis, worse. People with liver disease or a history of liver disease should avoid kudzu.
Surgery: Kudzu might affect blood sugar levels and might interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop taking kudzu at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Be cautious with this combination
Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs) interacts with KUDZU
Some birth control pills contain estrogen. Kudzu might have some of the same effects as estrogen. But kudzu isn't as strong as the estrogen in birth control pills. Taking kudzu along with birth control pills might decrease the effectiveness of birth control pills. If you take birth control pills along with kudzu, use an additional form of birth control such as a condom.<br/><br/> Some birth control pills include ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (Triphasil), ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone (Ortho-Novum 1/35, Ortho-Novum 7/7/7), and others.
Estrogens interacts with KUDZU
The body breaks down caffeine (contained in kudzu) to get rid of it. Estrogens can decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Decreasing the break-down of caffeine can cause jitteriness, headache, fast heartbeat, and other side effects. If you take estrogens, limit your caffeine intake.<br/><br/> Some estrogen pills include conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interacts with KUDZU
Kudzu might slow blood clotting. Taking kudzu along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.<br/><br/> Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Methotrexate (MTX, Rheumatrex) interacts with KUDZU
Kudzu might decrease how fast the body gets rid of methotrexate (Rheumatrex). This might increase the risk of methotrexate side effects.
Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) interacts with KUDZU
Some types of cancer are affected by hormones in the body. Estrogen-sensitive cancers are cancers that are affected by estrogen levels in the body. Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) is used to help treat and prevent these types of cancer. Kudzu seems to also affect estrogen levels in the body. By affecting estrogen in the body, kudzu might decrease the effectiveness of tamoxifen (Nolvadex). Do not take kudzu if you are taking tamoxifen (Nolvadex).
Be watchful with this combination
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs) interacts with KUDZU
Kudzu might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking kudzu along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.<br/><br/> Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For alcoholism: 1.5-3 grams of kudzu root extract has been taken in 3 divided doses per day for 1-4 weeks. A single dose of 2 gram of kudzu extract has also been taken before a drinking episode.
- Wu, T. Q., Gu, N., and Wang, F. F. [Effect of ningxintong granule in treating patients of coronary heart disease with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and qi-deficiency blood-stasis syndrome]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi Jie.He.Za Zhi 2010;30(4):357-360. View abstract.
- Wu, X. P., Feng, J. G., Chen, H. M., Cheng, F., Zhang, L., Wei, Z., and Chen, W. [Protective effects of puerarin against myocardial injury in patients with hypertension during perioperational period]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi Jie.He.Za Zhi 2006;26(3):255-257. View abstract.
- Xiao, L. Z., Gao, L. J., and Ma, S. C. [Comparative study on effects of puerarin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in treating acute myocardial infarction]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2005;25(3):210-213. View abstract.
- Xiao, L. Z., Huang, Z., Ma, S. C., Zen, Z., Luo, B., Lin, X., and Xu, X. [Study on the effect and mechanism of puerarin on the size of infarction in patients with acute myocardial infarction]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2004;24(9):790-792. View abstract.
- Xie, R. Q., Du, J., and Hao, Y. M. [Myocardial protection and mechanism of Puerarin Injection on patients of coronary heart disease with ischemia/reperfusion]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2003;23(12):895-897. View abstract.
- Xie, W. and Du, L. Diabetes is an inflammatory disease: evidence from traditional Chinese medicines. Diabetes Obes.Metab 2011;13(4):289-301. View abstract.
- Xu, X. H. and Zhao, T. Q. Effects of puerarin on D-galactose-induced memory deficits in mice. Acta Pharmacol.Sin. 2002;23(7):587-590. View abstract.
- Xue, X. O., Jin, H., Niu, J. Z., and Wang, J. F. [Effects of extracts of root of kudzu vine on mammary gland and uterus development in rats]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2003;28(6):560-562. View abstract.
- Yin, Z. Z. and Zeng, G. Y. [Pharmacology of puerarin. V. Effects of puerarin on platelet aggregation and release of 5-HT from platelets]. Zhongguo Yi.Xue.Ke.Xue.Yuan Xue.Bao. 1981;3 Suppl 1:44-47. View abstract.
- Zhang SR, Liu GT Fang JP Hao YM Yan SC Dong L. Effect of puerarin on the endothelin and function of left ventricle in patients with unstable angina pectoris. Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine 2000;7(5):47-49.
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- Zheng, G., Zhang, X., Zheng, J., Meng, Q., and Zheng, D. [Estrogen-like effects of puerarin and total isoflavones from Pueraria lobata]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2002;25(8):566-568. View abstract.
- Zhou Y. A summary on 50 cases of unstable angina pectoris treated with combined therapy of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine. Hunan Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2003;19(2):4-5.
- Zhu J, Cheng DH Yang Q Li WS. Clinical observation of puerarin in the treatment of old patients with unstable angina pectoris. Liaoning Drugs and Clinic 2001;4(1):17-18.
- Zhu WM, Wu SY. Clinical therapeutic effects of nadroparin calcium combined with isosorbide dinitrate or puerarin on unstable angina pectoris. Chinese Journal of Clinical Pharmacy 2002;11(4):196-199.
- Zhu, X. Y., Su, G. Y., Li, Z. H., Yue, T. L., Yan, X. Z., and Wei, H. L. [The metabolic fate of the effective components of puerariae. III. The metabolism of puerarin (author's transl)]. Yao Xue.Xue.Bao. 1979;14(6):349-355. View abstract.
- Bracken, B. K., Penetar, D. M., Maclean, R. R., and Lukas, S. E. Kudzu root extract does not perturb the sleep/wake cycle of moderate drinkers. J Altern Complement Med 2011;17(10):961-966. View abstract.
- Carlson, S., Peng, N., Prasain, J. K., and Wyss, J. M. Effects of botanical dietary supplements on cardiovascular, cognitive, and metabolic function in males and females. Gend.Med 2008;5 Suppl A:S76-S90. View abstract.
- Chandeying, V. and Lamlertkittikul, S. Challenges in the conduct of Thai herbal scientific study: efficacy and safety of phytoestrogen, pueraria mirifica (Kwao Keur Kao), phase I, in the alleviation of climacteric symptoms in perimenopausal women. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007;90(7):1274-1280. View abstract.
- Chandeying, V. and Sangthawan, M. Efficacy comparison of Pueraria mirifica (PM) against conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) with/without medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in the treatment of climacteric symptoms in perimenopausal women: phase III study. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007;90(9):1720-1726. View abstract.
- Chao JX, Ye M. Clinical study on Purerain for acute ischemic stroke. Guangdong Med J. 2004;4(3):38-39.
- Chen, J., Xu, J., and Li, J. [Effect of puerarin on fibrinolytic activity and lipid peroxide in patients with coronary heart disease]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1999;19(11):649-650. View abstract.
- Chen, L., Bi, X. Y., Zhu, L. X., Qiu, Y. Q., Ding, S. J., and Deng, B. Q. [Flavonoids of puerarin versus tanshinone II A for ischemic stroke: a randomized controlled trial]. Zhong.Xi.Yi Jie.He.Xue Bao 2011;9(11):1215-1220. View abstract.
- Chen, L., Chai, Q., Zhao, A., and Chai, X. [Effect of puerarin on cerebral blood flow in dogs]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 1995;20(9):560-2, inside. View abstract.
- Choo, M. K., Park, E. K., Yoon, H. K., and Kim, D. H. Antithrombotic and antiallergic activities of daidzein, a metabolite of puerarin and daidzin produced by human intestinal microflora. Biol.Pharm.Bull. 2002;25(10):1328-1332. View abstract.
- Deng MY. Clinical observation of 48 cases of puerarin for unstable angina pectoris. Hainan Medical Journal 2003;14(1):14-15.
- Ding, R. B., Tian, K., Huang, L. L., He, C. W., Jiang, Y., Wang, Y. T., and Wan, J. B. Herbal medicines for the prevention of alcoholic liver disease: a review. J Ethnopharmacol. 12-18-2012;144(3):457-465. View abstract.
- Dong PS, Liu YH Song RL Liu FX. Observation on curative effects of puerarin injection on unstable angina pectoris. Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine in Intensive and Critical Care 1999;6(5):355-356.
- Dong, K., Tao, Q. M., Xia, Q., Shan, Q. X., and Pan, G. B. [Endothelium-independent vasorelaxant effect of puerarin on rat thoracic aorta]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2004;29(10):981-984. View abstract.
- Dong, L. P. and Wang, T. Y. Effects of puerarin against glutamate excitotoxicity on cultured mouse cerebral cortical neurons. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue.Bao. 1998;19(4):339-342. View abstract.
- Duan, S., Li, Y. F., and Luo, X. L. [Effect of puerarin on heart function and serum oxidized-LDL in the patients with chronic cardiac failure]. Hunan.Yi.Ke.Da.Xue.Xue.Bao. 4-28-2000;25(2):176-178. View abstract.
- Fan P, Wang L Liu QX. The application of puerarin in the treatment of unstable angina pectoris. Modern Journal of Integrated Chinese Traditional and Western Medicine 1999;8(12):1945-1946.
- Guo YJ, Ceng YW Zhao HF. Effect observation of puerarin for unstable angina pectoris. 2000, (5):716-7. Journal of Youjiang Medical College for Nationalities 2000;5:716-717.
- Hou, Q., Ao, X., Li, G., and Zhang, Y. [Puerarin combined with avandia for diabetic nephropathy]. Zhong.Nan.Da.Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2012;37(1):73-77. View abstract.
- Hsu, H. H., Chang, C. K., Su, H. C., Liu, I. M., and Cheng, J. T. Stimulatory effect of puerarin on alpha1A-adrenoceptor to increase glucose uptake into cultured C2C12 cells of mice. Planta Med 2002;68(11):999-1003. View abstract.
- Hu, H. T., Fen, F., and Ding, M. P. [Effects of puerarin with aspirin on the markers of damaged vascular endothelial cells in patients with acute cerebral infarction]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi 2008;33(23):2827-2829. View abstract.
- Huang XF, Lu YL Fan XN Jiang M. Clinical observation of Puerarin for unstable angina pectoris. Journal of Medical Theory and Practice 2002;15(7):776-777.
- Jang, M. H., Shin, M. C., Kim, Y. J., Chung, J. H., Yim, S. V., Kim, E. H., Kim, Y., and Kim, C. J. Protective effects of puerariaeflos against ethanol-induced apoptosis on human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC. Jpn.J Pharmacol. 2001;87(4):338-342. View abstract.
- Jeon, G. C., Park, M. S., Yoon, D. Y., Shin, C. H., Sin, H. S., and Um, S. J. Antitumor activity of spinasterol isolated from Pueraria roots. Exp Mol.Med 4-30-2005;37(2):111-120. View abstract.
- Jiang RY. Clinical observation of 48 cases of puerarin for unstable angina pectoris. 2001;15(3):197-8. Journal of Xianning Medical College 2001;15(3):197-198.
- Jiang, B., Liu, J. H., Bao, Y. M., and An, L. J. Hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in pc12 cells and the protective effect of puerarin. Cell Biol.Int 2003;27(12):1025-1031. View abstract.
- Jiang, R. W., Lau, K. M., Lam, H. M., Yam, W. S., Leung, L. K., Choi, K. L., Waye, M. M., Mak, T. C., Woo, K. S., and Fung, K. P. A comparative study on aqueous root extracts of Pueraria thomsonii and Pueraria lobata by antioxidant assay and HPLC fingerprint analysis. J Ethnopharmacol. 1-4-2005;96(1-2):133-138. View abstract.
- Jiang, X. X., Li, Y., and Wu, Y. B. [Effect of puerarin preconditioning on cytokine levels in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass in perioperative period]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi Jie.He.Za Zhi 2009;29(12):1089-1091. View abstract.
- Jin, W. S., Tan, Y. Y., Chen, Y. G., and Wang, Y. [Determination of puerarin, daidzin and daidzein in root of Pueraria lobata of different origin by HPLC]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2003;28(1):49-51. View abstract.
- Kamiya, T., Takano, A., Matsuzuka, Y., Kusaba, N., Ikeguchi, M., Takagaki, K., and Kondo, K. Consumption of Pueraria flower extract reduces body mass index via a decrease in the visceral fat area in obese humans. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2012;76(8):1511-1517. View abstract.
- Kang, R. X. [The intraocular pressure depressive effect of puerarin]. Zhonghua Yan.Ke.Za Zhi. 1993;29(6):336-339. View abstract.
- Keung, W. M., Lazo, O., Kunze, L., and Vallee, B. L. Potentiation of the bioavailability of daidzin by an extract of Radix puerariae. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 4-30-1996;93(9):4284-4288. View abstract.
- Keyler, D. E., Baker, J. I., Lee, D. Y., Overstreet, D. H., Boucher, T. A., and Lenz, S. K. Toxicity study of an antidipsotropic Chinese herbal mixture in rats: NPI-028. J Altern.Complement Med 2002;8(2):175-183. View abstract.
- Kim, I. T., Park, Y. M., Shin, K. M., Ha, J., Choi, J., Jung, H. J., Park, H. J., and Lee, K. T. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the extract from Kalopanax pictus, Pueraria thunbergiana and Rhus verniciflua. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;94(1):165-173. View abstract.
- Lamlertkittikul, S. and Chandeying, V. Efficacy and safety of Pueraria mirifica (Kwao Kruea Khao) for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms in perimenopausal women: Phase II Study. J Med Assoc Thai 2004;87(1):33-40. View abstract.
- Lau, C. S., Carrier, D. J., Beitle, R. R., Howard, L. R., Lay, J. O., Liyanage, R., and Clausen, E. C. A glycoside flavonoid in Kudzu (Pueraria lobata): identification, quantification, and determination of antioxidant activity. Appl.Biochem.Biotechnol. 2005;121-124:783-794. View abstract.
- Li X, Ni XQ Zhu YJ. Effect observation of puerarin plus heparin for senile unstable angina pectoris. Chinese Medicine of Factory and Mine 2002;15(5):420-421.
- Li, X., Sun, S., and Tong, E. Experimental study on the protective effect of puerarin to Parkinson disease. J Huazhong.Univ Sci.Technolog.Med Sci. 2003;23(2):148-150. View abstract.
- Lin, R. C., Guthrie, S., Xie, C. Y., Mai, K., Lee, D. Y., Lumeng, L., and Li, T. K. Isoflavonoid compounds extracted from Pueraria lobata suppress alcohol preference in a pharmacogenetic rat model of alcoholism. Alcohol Clin Exp.Res. 1996;20(4):659-663. View abstract.
- Liu, J. M., Ma, L., and He, W. P. [Therapeutic effect of puerarin therapy on sudden deafness]. Di Yi Jun.Yi Da.Xue Xue Bao 2002;22(11):1044-1045. View abstract.
- Liu, Q., Lu, Z., and Wang, L. Restrictive effect of puerarin on myocardial infarct area in dogs and its possible mechanism. J Tongji Med Univ 2000;20(1):43-45. View abstract.
- Liu, X. J., Zhao, J., and Gu, X. Y. The effects of genistein and puerarin on the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB and the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in asthma patients. Pharmazie 2010;65(2):127-131. View abstract.
- Lu, L., Liu, Y., Zhu, W., Shi, J., Liu, Y., Ling, W., and Kosten, T. R. Traditional medicine in the treatment of drug addiction. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2009;35(1):1-11. View abstract.
- Luo ZR, Gai XB Zheng WX Zheng B. Effect of puerarin on unstable angina pectoris and its coagulant, fibrinolytic and function of endothelial cells. Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine in Intensive and Critical Care 2000;7(2):105-106.
- Manonai, J., Chittacharoen, A., Theppisai, U., and Theppisai, H. Effect of Pueraria mirifica on vaginal health. Menopause. 2007;14(5):919-924. View abstract.
- Manonai, J., Chittacharoen, A., Udomsubpayakul, U., Theppisai, H., and Theppisai, U. Effects and safety of Pueraria mirifica on lipid profiles and biochemical markers of bone turnover rates in healthy postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2008;15(3):530-535. View abstract.
- McGregor, N. R. Pueraria lobata (Kudzu root) hangover remedies and acetaldehyde-associated neoplasm risk. Alcohol 2007;41(7):469-478. View abstract.
- Meng, P., Zhou, D., and Hu, X. [Clinical observation of the treatment of infantile viral myocarditis with puerarin]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1999;19(11):647-648. View abstract.
- Okamura, S., Sawada, Y., Satoh, T., Sakamoto, H., Saito, Y., Sumino, H., Takizawa, T., Kogure, T., Chaichantipyuth, C., Higuchi, Y., Ishikawa, T., and Sakamaki, T. Pueraria mirifica phytoestrogens improve dyslipidemia in postmenopausal women probably by activating estrogen receptor subtypes. Tohoku J Exp.Med 2008;216(4):341-351. View abstract.
- Overstreet DH, Lee D Y-W, Chen YT, and et al. The Chinese herbal medicine NPI-028 suppresses alcohol intake in alcohol-preferring rats and monkeys without inducing taste aversion. Perfusion 1998;11:381-390.
- Penetar, D. M., Teter, C. J., Ma, Z., Tracy, M., Lee, D. Y., and Lukas, S. E. Pharmacokinetic profile of the isoflavone puerarin after acute and repeated administration of a novel kudzu extract to human volunteers. J Altern Complement Med 2006;12(6):543-548. View abstract.
- Penetar, D. M., Toto, L. H., Farmer, S. L., Lee, D. Y., Ma, Z., Liu, Y., and Lukas, S. E. The isoflavone puerarin reduces alcohol intake in heavy drinkers: a pilot study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 11-1-2012;126(1-2):251-256. View abstract.
- Prasain, J. K., Jones, K., Brissie, N., Moore, R., Wyss, J. M., and Barnes, S. Identification of puerarin and its metabolites in rats by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Agric.Food Chem. 6-16-2004;52(12):3708-3712. View abstract.
- Qi, B. L. and Qi, B. M. [Effect of the purariae-isofiavones on estrogen level in normal and ovariectomized rats]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2002;27(11):850-852. View abstract.
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