Bovine Colostrum, Bovine Immunoglobulin, Bovine Lacteal Compounds, Calostro, Colostrum Bovin, Colostrum Bovin Hyperimmune, Colostrum de Chèvre, Colostrum de Lait de Vache, Cow Milk Colostrum, Goat Colostrum, Hyperimmune Bovine Colostrum, Immunoglobuline Bovine, Lait Colostral, Protogala.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationColostrum is a milky fluid that comes from the breasts of humans, cows, and other mammals the first few days after giving birth, before true milk appears. It contains proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and proteins (antibodies) that fight disease-causing agents such as bacteria and viruses. Antibody levels in colostrums can be 100 times higher than levels in regular cow’s milk.
People originally got interested in bovine colostrum because of the high antibody levels. They thought that the antibodies might prevent intestinal infections in people, but they seem to be wrong.
Some athletes use bovine colostrum to burn fat, build lean muscle, increase stamina and vitality, and improve athletic performance. Bovine colostrum is not on the banned drug list of the International Olympic Committee.
Bovine colostrum is also used for boosting the immune system, healing injuries, repairing nervous system damage, improving mood and sense of well being, slowing and reversing aging, and as an agent for killing bacteria and fungus.
Bovine colostrum is used in the rectum to treat inflammation of the colon (colitis).
Researchers have created a special type of bovine colostrum called “hyperimune bovine colostrum.” This special colostrum is produced by cows that have received vaccinations against specific disease-causing organisms. The vaccinations cause the cows to develop antibodies to fight those specific organisms. The antibodies pass into the colostrum. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum has been used in clinical trials for treating AIDS-related diarrhea, diarrhea associated with graft versus host disease following bone marrow transplant, and rotavirus diarrhea in children.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted hyperimmune bovine colostrum “orphan drug status.” Under the Orphan Drug Law, drug makers who invest in the development of treatments for rare conditions enjoy special market advantages; for example, permission to sell the drug without competition for 7 years. If these special incentives were not in place, pharmaceutical companies might not develop drugs for rare conditions because the potential market is so small.
How does it work?Colostrum is collected from cows that have been vaccinated to produce antibodies that fight the bacteria that cause diarrheal disease. These antibodies appear in the colostrum that is collected as medicine. Though the hope is that these cow antibodies will help fight human disease, the cow antibodies do not seem to be very active in humans.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Effective for
- Upper airway infection in people who exercise. Research shows that taking bovine colostrum by mouth for 8-12 weeks can reduce of the number of episodes and symptoms of upper airway infections in people who exercise.
- Infectious diarrhea. Taking bovine colostrum seems to prevent infectious diarrhea from developing in adults, as well as children with a history of infectious diarrhea. It also seems to treat infectious diarrhea that has already developed in children. But it doesn't appear to speed recovery from infectious diarrhea in children who are also taking an antibiotic.
- Diarrhea in people with HIV. Taking bovine colostrum helps reduce diarrhea in people with HIV. Most research has used hyperimmune bovine colostrum.
- The flu (influenza). Taking a specific type of bovine colostrum (Ad Colostrum, Corcon srl) by mouth for 8 weeks helps prevent the flu, including in people that have already been vaccinated against the flu and in people with heart disease who have a higher risk of getting the flu.
- Rotaviral diarrhea. Taking bovine colostrum seems to reduce diarrhea in children with diarrhea due to rotavirus. Most research has used hyperimmune bovine colostrum.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Muscle loss in the elderly. Some research shows that taking a specific bovine colostrum product (Eterna Gold, Saskatoon Colostrum Co. Ltd.) improves leg strength but not upper body strength or body composition in older adults doing some weight training.
- Athletic performance. Early research suggests that bovine colostrum might increase athletic performance for some athletic activities. Activities that seem to benefit are cycling and sprinting activities that are done following a previous exercise session.
- Memory (cognitive function). Early research shows that taking bovine colostrum does not improve memory in older adults also taking part in an exercise program.
- Diabetes. Early research shows taking bovine colostrum might help to reduce levels of blood sugar following a meal, as well as cholesterol levels in people with type 2 diabetes.
- Inflammation of the colon (colitis). There is some early evidence that a rectal enema containing 10% bovine colostrum might be helpful for treating colitis.
- Reduced health in young children (failure to thrive). In young children that are not growing well, early research suggests taking bovine colostrum by mouth improves weight but not height.
- Human papilloma virus (HPV). Early research shows that applying bovine colostrum to the vagina for 6 months helps cure cervical lesions in people with HPV.
- Diarrhea related to an immune disease called hypogammaglobulinemia. One report shows that taking bovine colostrum helps treat infectious diarrhea in a child with hypogammaglobulinemia.
- Multiple sclerosis (MS). Taking hyperimmune bovine colostrum might help treat symptoms of MS, but conflicting results exist.
- Upper airway infection. Research shows that taking bovine colostrum protein helps prevent upper airway infections in adult men. However, it doesn't appear to reduce the duration of upper airway infections if they do occur. Bovine colostrum also seems to reduce the number of upper airway infections in children who get them frequently.
- Bacterial and fungal infections.
- Building lean muscle.
- Burning fat.
- Dry eyes.
- Elevating mood and sense of well-being.
- Healing injuries.
- Increasing stamina and vitality.
- Inflammation in the mouth.
- Repairing nervous system damage.
- Stimulating the immune system.
- Slowing and reversing aging.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyBovine colostrum seems to be LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken appropriately by mouth. When it is given rectally as an enema it seems to be POSSIBLY SAFE for most people. While most people don't experience any side effects from bovine colostrum, there have been rare reports of problems in HIV-positive people such as nausea, vomiting, abnormal liver function tests, and decreased red blood cells.
There is some concern about the possibility of catching "mad cow disease" (bovine spongiform encephalitis, BSE) or other diseases from products that come from animals. "Mad cow disease" does not appear to be transmitted through milk products, but it is probably wise to avoid animal products from countries where "mad cow disease" has been found.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking bovine colostrum if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Allergy to cow’s milk: If you are allergic to cow’s milk or milk products, you may also be allergic to bovine colostrum. In that case, it is best to avoid it.
We currently have no information for BOVINE COLOSTRUM Interactions.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For preventing upper airway infections in people who exercise: 10-20 grams of bovine colostrum daily for 8-12 weeks has been used.
- For diarrhea in people with HIV: 10-30 grams of bovine colostrum powder has been taken 1-4 times daily for 10-21 days.
- For the flu (influenza): 400 mg of a defatted freeze-dried bovine colostrum daily for 8 weeks has been used.
- For infectious diarrhea: 7 grams of bovine colostrum three times daily for 14 days has been used. For preventing infectious diarrhea, 3 grams of bovine colostrum once daily for 4 weeks has been used in children under 1-2 years-old, and 3 grams twice daily for 4 weeks has been used in children 2-6 years-old.
- For rotaviral diarrhea: 10 grams of bovine colostrum daily for 4 days, or 20-300 mL daily for up to 2 weeks, has been used.
- Aniansson, G., Andersson, B., Lindstedt, R., and Svanborg, C. Anti-adhesive activity of human casein against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Microb.Pathog. 1990;8(5):315-323. View abstract.
- Antonio, J., Sanders, M. S., and Van Gammeren, D. The effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in active men and women. Nutrition 2001;17(3):243-247. View abstract.
- Ashraf, H., Mahalanabis, D., Mitra, A. K., Tzipori, S., and Fuchs, G. J. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum in the treatment of shigellosis in children: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Acta Paediatr. 2001;90(12):1373-1378. View abstract.
- Bayard, B. L. and James, M. A. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum inefficacious as multiple sclerosis therapy in double-blind study. J.Am.Diet.Assoc. 1987;87(10):1388-1390. View abstract.
- Bolke, E., Orth, K., Jehle, P. M., Schwarz, A., Steinbach, G., Schleich, S., Ulmer, C., Storck, M., and Hannekum, A. Enteral application of an immunoglobulin-enriched colostrum milk preparation for reducing endotoxin translocation and acute phase response in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery--a randomized placebo-controlled pilot trial. Wien.Klin Wochenschr. 11-30-2002;114(21-22):923-928. View abstract.
- Brinkworth, G. D. and Buckley, J. D. Concentrated bovine colostrum protein supplementation reduces the incidence of self-reported symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection in adult males. Eur.J.Nutr. 2003;42(4):228-232. View abstract.
- Brinkworth, G. D., Buckley, J. D., Bourdon, P. C., Gulbin, J. P., and David, A. Oral bovine colostrum supplementation enhances buffer capacity but not rowing performance in elite female rowers. Int.J.Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2002;12(3):349-365. View abstract.
- Brinkworth, G. D., Buckley, J. D., Slavotinek, J. P., and Kurmis, A. P. Effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on the composition of resistance trained and untrained limbs in healthy young men. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 2004;91(1):53-60. View abstract.
- Buckley, J. D., Abbott, M. J., Brinkworth, G. D., and Whyte, P. B. Bovine colostrum supplementation during endurance running training improves recovery, but not performance. J.Sci.Med.Sport 2002;5(2):65-79. View abstract.
- Casswall, T. H., Nilsson, H. O., Bjorck, L., Sjostedt, S., Xu, L., Nord, C. K., Boren, T., Wadstrom, T., and Hammarstrom, L. Bovine anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies for oral immunotherapy. Scand J Gastroenterol 2002;37(12):1380-1385. View abstract.
- Casswall, T. H., Sarker, S. A., Albert, M. J., Fuchs, G. J., Bergstrom, M., Bjorck, L., and Hammarstrom, L. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in infants in rural Bangladesh with oral immunoglobulins from hyperimmune bovine colostrum. Aliment.Pharmacol.Ther. 1998;12(6):563-568. View abstract.
- Casswall, T. H., Sarker, S. A., Faruque, S. M., Weintraub, A., Albert, M. J., Fuchs, G. J., Alam, N. H., Dahlstrom, A. K., Link, H., Brussow, H., and Hammarstrom, L. Treatment of enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli-induced diarrhoea in children with bovine immunoglobulin milk concentrate from hyperimmunized cows: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Scand.J.Gastroenterol. 2000;35(7):711-718. View abstract.
- Coombes, J. S., Conacher, M., Austen, S. K., and Marshall, P. A. Dose effects of oral bovine colostrum on physical work capacity in cyclists. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2002;34(7):1184-1188. View abstract.
- Crooks, C. V., Wall, C. R., Cross, M. L., and Rutherfurd-Markwick, K. J. The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on salivary IgA in distance runners. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc.Metab 2006;16(1):47-64. View abstract.
- Davidson, G. P., Whyte, P. B., Daniels, E., Franklin, K., Nunan, H., McCloud, P. I., Moore, A. G., and Moore, D. J. Passive immunisation of children with bovine colostrum containing antibodies to human rotavirus. Lancet 9-23-1989;2(8665):709-712. View abstract.
- Ebina, T., Ohta, M., Kanamaru, Y., Yamamoto-Osumi, Y., and Baba, K. Passive immunizations of suckling mice and infants with bovine colostrum containing antibodies to human rotavirus. J.Med.Virol. 1992;38(2):117-123. View abstract.
- Ebina, T., Sato, A., Umezu, K., Aso, H., Ishida, N., Seki, H., Tsukamoto, T., Takase, S., Hoshi, S., and Ohta, M. Treatment of multiple sclerosis with anti-measles cow colostrum. Med Microbiol.Immunol 1984;173(2):87-93. View abstract.
- Fernandez, L. B., Averbach, J., Ledesma de Paolo, M. I., Delledone, M. E., and Gonzalez, E. Lyophilized bovine colostrum in the treatment of prolonged infantile diarrhea. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1973;26(4):383-384. View abstract.
- Fiat, A. M., Chevan, J., Jolles, P., De Waard, P., Vliegenthart, J. F., Piller, F., and Cartron, J. P. Structural variability of the neutral carbohydrate moiety of cow colostrum kappa-casein as a function of time after parturition. Identification of a tetrasaccharide with blood group I specificity. Eur J Biochem 4-15-1988;173(2):253-259. View abstract.
- Flanigan, T., Marshall, R., Redman, D., Kaetzel, C., and Ungar, B. In vitro screening of therapeutic agents against Cryptosporidium: hyperimmune cow colostrum is highly inhibitory. J Protozool. 1991;38(6):225S-227S. View abstract.
- Griffiths, E. and Humphreys, J. Bacteriostatic effect of human milk and bovine colostrum on Escherichia coli: importance of bicarbonate. Infect.Immun. 1977;15(2):396-401. View abstract.
- He, F., Tuomola, E., Arvilommi, H., and Salminen, S. Modulation of human humoral immune response through orally administered bovine colostrum. FEMS Immunol.Med.Microbiol. 2001;31(2):93-96. View abstract.
- Heaton, P. Bovine colostrum immunoglobulin concentrate for cryptosporidiosis in AIDS. Arch.Dis.Child 1994;70(4):356-357. View abstract.
- Hofman, Z., Smeets, R., Verlaan, G., Lugt, R., and Verstappen, P. A. The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on exercise performance in elite field hockey players. Int.J.Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2002;12(4):461-469. View abstract.
- Kelly, G. S. Bovine colostrums: a review of clinical uses. Altern Med Rev 2003;8(4):378-394. View abstract.
- Lindbaek, M., Francis, N., Cannings-John, R., Butler, C. C., and Hjortdahl, P. Clinical course of suspected viral sore throat in young adults: cohort study. Scand J Prim.Health Care 2006;24(2):93-97. View abstract.
- Loimaranta, V., Nuutila, J., Marnila, P., Tenovuo, J., Korhonen, H., and Lilius, E. M. Colostral proteins from cows immunised with Streptococcus mutans/S. sobrinus support the phagocytosis and killing of mutans streptococci by human leucocytes. J Med Microbiol. 1999;48(10):917-926. View abstract.
- Mero, A., Nykanen, T., Keinanen, O., Knuutinen, J., Lahti, K., Alen, M., Rasi, S., and Leppaluoto, J. Protein metabolism and strength performance after bovine colostrum supplementation. Amino.Acids 2005;28(3):327-335. View abstract.
- Naaber, P., Lehto, E., Salminen, S., and Mikelsaar, M. Inhibition of adhesion of Clostridium difficile to Caco-2 cells. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 1996;14(4):205-209. View abstract.
- Ouwehand, A. C., Conway, P. L., and Salminen, S. J. Inhibition of S-fimbria-mediated adhesion to human ileostomy glycoproteins by a protein isolated from bovine colostrum. Infect.Immun. 1995;63(12):4917-4920. View abstract.
- Pedersen, A. M., Andersen, T. L., Reibel, J., Holmstrup, P., and Nauntofte, B. Oral findings in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome and oral lichen planus--a preliminary study on the effects of bovine colostrum-containing oral hygiene products. Clin.Oral Investig. 2002;6(1):11-20. View abstract.
- Sambasivarao, D., Hooton, J., Dost, A., and Paetkau, V. A novel immunosuppressive factor in bovine colostrum blocks activation of the interleukin 2 gene enhancer at the NFAT site. Biochem.Cell Biol. 1996;74(4):585-593. View abstract.
- Saxon, A. and Weinstein, W. Oral administration of bovine colostrum anti-cryptosporidia antibody fails to alter the course of human cryptosporidiosis. J.Parasitol. 1987;73(2):413-415. View abstract.
- Shield, J., Melville, C., Novelli, V., Anderson, G., Scheimberg, I., Gibb, D., and Milla, P. Bovine colostrum immunoglobulin concentrate for cryptosporidiosis in AIDS. Arch.Dis.Child 1993;69(4):451-453. View abstract.
- Shing, C. M., Peake, J., Suzuki, K., Okutsu, M., Pereira, R., Stevenson, L., Jenkins, D. G., and Coombes, J. S. Effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on immune variables in highly trained cyclists. J Appl Physiol 2007;102(3):1113-1122. View abstract.
- Slukvin, I. I., Pylypenko, V. V., Filchenkov, A. A., and Chernyshov, V. P. [Effect of human colostrum and its fraction on functional activity of B-lymphocytes]. Fiziol.Zh. 1993;39(4):57-62. View abstract.
- Stephan, W., Dichtelmuller, H., and Lissner, R. Antibodies from colostrum in oral immunotherapy. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1990;28(1):19-23. View abstract.
- Thapa, B. R. Health factors in colostrum. Indian J Pediatr 2005;72(7):579-581. View abstract.
- Thapa, B. R. Therapeutic potentials of bovine colostrums. Indian J Pediatr 2005;72(10):849-852. View abstract.
- Ungar, B. L., Ward, D. J., Fayer, R., and Quinn, C. A. Cessation of Cryptosporidium-associated diarrhea in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient after treatment with hyperimmune bovine colostrum. Gastroenterology 1990;98(2):486-489. View abstract.
- Anon. Colostrum. The Natural Pharmacist. Prima Communications, Inc., 2000. http://www.tnp.com/substance.asp?ID=121 (Accessed 5 May 2000).
- Aunsholt L, Jeppesen PB, Lund P, Sangild PT, Ifaoui IB, Qvist N, Husby S. Bovine colostrum to children with short bowel syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, crossover pilot study. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2014 Jan;38(1):99-106. View abstract.
- Balachandran B, Dutta S, Singh R, Prasad R, Kumar P. Bovine Colostrum in Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Sepsis in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Pilot Trial. J Trop Pediatr. 2016 Jun 9. pii: fmw029. [Epub ahead of print] View abstract.
- Bitzan MM, Gold BD, Philpott DJ, et al. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter mustelae binding to lipid receptors by bovine colostrum. J Infect Dis 1998;177:955-61. View abstract.
- Brinkworth GD, Buckley JD. Bovine colostrum supplementation does not affect nutrient absorptive capacity in healthy young men. Nutr Res 2003;23:1619-29.
- Buckley JD, Brinkworth GD, Abbott MJ. Effect of bovine colostrum on anaerobic exercise performance and plasma insulin-like growth factor I. J Sports Sci 2003;21:577-88. View abstract.
- Buckley JD. Bovine colostrum: Does it improve athletic performance? Nutrition 2002;18:776-7. View abstract.
- Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Di Renzo A, Dugall M, Cacchio M, Ruffini I, Pellegrini L, Del Boccio G, Fano F, Ledda A, Bottari A, Ricci A, Stuard S, Vinciguerra G. Prevention of influenza episodes with colostrum compared with vaccination in healthy and high-risk cardiovascular subjects: the epidemiologic study in San Valentino. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2007 Apr;13(2):130-6. View abstract.
- Crooks C, Cross ML, Wall C, Ali A. Effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on respiratory tract mucosal defenses in swimmers. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2010 Jun;20(3):224-35. View abstract.
- Duff WR, Chilibeck PD, Rooke JJ, Kaviani M, Krentz JR, Haines DM. The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation in older adults during resistance training. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2014 Jun;24(3):276-85. View abstract.
- FDA Orphan Drug List. http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/00/mar00/030100/lst0094.pdf (Accessed 2 May 2003).
- Florén CH, Chinenye S, Elfstrand L, Hagman C, Ihse I. ColoPlus, a new product based on bovine colostrum, alleviates HIV-associated diarrhoea. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006 Jun;41(6):682-6. View abstract.
- Freedman DJ, Tacket CO, Delehanty A, et al. Milk immunoglobulin with specific activity against purified colonization factor antigens can protect against oral challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. J Infect Dis 1998;177:662-7. View abstract.
- Greenberg PD, Cello JP. Treatment of severe diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum with oral bovine immunoglobulin concentrate in patients with AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1996;13:348-54. View abstract.
- Huppertz HI, Rutkowski S, Busch DH, et al. Bovine colostrum ameliorates diarrhea in infection with diarrheogenic Escherichia coli, shiga toxin-producing E. Coli, and E. coli expressing intimin and hemolysin. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1999;29:452-6. View abstract.
- Hurley WL, Theil PK. Perspectives on Immunoglobulins in Colostrum and Milk. Nutrients. 2011;3(4):442-74. View abstract.
- Jones AW, Cameron SJ, Thatcher R, Beecroft MS, Mur LA, Davison G. Effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on upper respiratory illness in active males. Brain Behav Immun. 2014 Jul;39:194-203. View abstract.
- Jones AW, March DS, Curtis F, Bridle C. Bovine colostrum supplementation and upper respiratory symptoms during exercise training: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil. 2016 Jul 26;8:21. View abstract.
- Khan Z, Macdonald C, Wicks AC, et al. Use of the 'nutriceutical', bovine colostrum, for the treatment of distal colitis: results from an initial study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002;16:1917-22.. View abstract.
- Kim JH, Jung WS, Choi NJ, Kim DO, Shin DH, Kim YJ. Health-promoting effects of bovine colostrum in Type 2 diabetic patients can reduce blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and ketones. J Nutr Biochem. 2009 Apr;20(4):298-303. View abstract.
- Kuipers H, van Breda E, Verlaan G, Smeets R. Effects of oral bovine colostrum supplementation on serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels. Nutrition 2002;18:566-7. View abstract.
- Lewis CJ. Letter to reiterate certain public health and safety concerns to firms manufacturing or importing dietary supplements that contain specific bovine tissues. FDA. Available at: www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/dspltr05.html.
- Lund P, Sangild PT, Aunsholt L, Hartmann B, Holst JJ, Mortensen J, Mortensen PB, Jeppesen PB. Randomised controlled trial of colostrum to improve intestinal function in patients with short bowel syndrome. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Sep;66(9):1059-65. View abstract.
- Marchbank T, Davison G, Oakes JR, Ghatei MA, Patterson M, Moyer MP, Playford RJ. The nutriceutical bovine colostrum truncates the increase in gut permeability caused by heavy exercise in athletes. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011 Mar;300(3):G477-84. View abstract.
- Mero A, Miikkulainen H, Riski J, et al. Effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on serum IGF-I, IgG, hormone, and saliva IgA during training. J Appl Physiol 1997;83:1144-51. View abstract.
- Mitra AK, Mahalanabis D, Ashraf H, et al. Hyperimmune cow colostrum reduces diarrhoea due to rotavirus: a double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Acta Paediatr 1995;84:996-1001. View abstract.
- Nord J, Ma P, DiJohn D, et al. Treatment with bovine hyperimmune colostrum of cryptosporidial diarrhea in AIDS patients. AIDS 1990;4:581-4. View abstract.
- Panahi Y, Falahi G, Falahpour M, Moharamzad Y, Khorasgani MR, Beiraghdar F, Naghizadeh MM. Bovine colostrum in the management of nonorganic failure to thrive: a randomized clinical trial. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010 May;50(5):551-4. View abstract.
- Petschow BW, Talbott RD. Reduction in virus-neutralizing activity of a bovine colostrum immunoglobulin concentrate by gastric acid and digestive enzymes. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1994;19:228-35. View abstract.
- Playford RJ, Floyd DN, Macdonald CE, et al. Bovine colostrum is a health food supplement which prevents NSAID induced gut damage. Gut 1999;44:653-8. View abstract.
- Playford RJ, Macdonald CE, Johnson WS. Colostrum and milk-derived peptide growth factors for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:5-14. View abstract.
- Plettenberg A, Stoehr A, Stellbrink HJ, et al. A preparation of bovine colostrum in the treatment of HIV-positive patients with chronic diarrhea. Clin Investig 1993;71:42-5. View abstract.
- Rump JA, Arndt R, Arnold A, et al. Treatment of diarrhoea in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with immunoglobulins from bovine colostrum. Clin Investig 1992;70:588-94. View abstract.
- Saad K, Abo-Elela MG, El-Baseer KA, et al. Effects of bovine colostrum on recurrent respiratory tract infections and diarrhea in children. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016;95(37):e4560. View abstract.
- Sarker SA, Casswall TH, Mahalanabis D, et al. Successful treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in children with immunoglobulin from immunized bovine colostrum. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1998;17:1149-54. View abstract.
- Shing CM, Jenkins DG, Stevenson L, Coombes JS. The influence of bovine colostrum supplementation on exercise performance in highly trained cyclists. Br J Sports Med 2006;40:797-801. View abstract.
- Shing CM, Peake JM, Suzuki K, Jenkins DG, Coombes JS. A pilot study: bovine colostrum supplementation and hormonal and autonomic responses to competitive cycling. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2013 Oct;53(5):490-501. View abstract.
- Stefani C, Liverani CA, Bianco V, Penna C, Guarnieri T, Comparetto C, Monti E, Valente I, Pieralli AL, Fiaschi C, Origoni M. Spontaneous regression of low-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions is positively improved by topical bovine colostrum preparations (GINEDIE®). A multicentre, observational, italian pilot study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2014;18(5):728-33. View abstract.
- Tacket CO, Binion SB, Bostwick E, et al. Efficacy of bovine milk immunoglobulin concentrate in preventing illness after Shigella flexneri challenge. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1992;47:276-83. View abstract.
- Tacket CO, Losonsky G, Link H, et al. Protection by milk immunoglobulin concentrate against oral challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. N Engl J Med 1988;318:1240-3. View abstract.
- Tacket CO, Losonsky G, Livio S, et al. Lack of prophylactic efficacy of an enteric-coated bovine hyperimmune milk product against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli challenge administered during a standard meal. J Infect Dis 1999;180:2056-9. View abstract.
- Tzipori S, Roberton D, Chapman C. Remission of diarrhoea due to cryptosporidiosis in an immunodeficient child treated with hyperimmune bovine colostrum. Br Med J 1986;293:1276-7.. View abstract.
- Ylitalo S, Uhari M, Rasi S, et al. Rotaviral antibodies in the treatment of acute rotaviral gastroenteritis. Acta Paediatr 1998;87:264-7. View abstract.