GAMMA LINOLENIC ACID
Acide Gammalinolénique, Acide Gamma-Linolénique, Ácido Gama Linolénico, AGL, Gamolenic Acid, GLA, Gammalinolenic Acid, Gamma-Linolenic Acid, (Z,Z,Z)-Octadeca-6,9,12-trienoic acid.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationGamma linolenic acid is a fatty substance. It's found in various plant seed oils such as borage oil and evening primrose oil. People use it as medicine.
People use gamma linolenic acid (GLA) for conditions such as arthritis, nerve damage due to diabetes, eczema, high blood pressure, and other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of these uses.
How does it work?Gamma linolenic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid. The body converts gamma linolenic acid to substances that reduce inflammation and cell growth.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Effective for
- Nerve damage due to diabetes (diabetic neuropathy). Taking gamma linolenic acid by mouth for 6-12 months seems to reduce symptoms and prevent nerve damage in people with nerve pain due to type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Gamma linolenic acid seems to work better in people with good blood sugar control.
Possibly Ineffective for
- Eczema. Most research shows that taking gamma linolenic acid by mouth does not improve itchy or dry skin in people with eczema.
- Scleroderma, a condition in which skin hardens. Taking gamma linolenic acid by mouth does not seem to reduce symptoms of scleroderma.
- Ulcerative colitis. Taking gamma linolenic acid plus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) does not reduce symptoms of ulcerative colitis.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Back pain. Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid plus gamma linolenic acid and going to physical therapy improves back pain intensity better than only going to physical therapy.
- Breast cancer. Early research shows that taking gamma linolenic acid improves the response to tamoxifen in people with breast cancer.
- High blood pressure. Some research shows that taking gamma linolenic acid with eicosapentaenoic acid does not decrease modestly high blood pressure. Other research shows that taking gamma linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid for 6 weeks may decrease diastolic (the bottom number) blood pressure.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
- Cancer prevention.
- Chronic fatigue syndrome.
- Hay fever.
- Heart disease.
- High cholesterol.
- Oral polyps.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyGamma linolenic acid is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth in amounts of no more than 2.8 grams per day for up to a year. It can cause digestive-tract side effects, such as soft stools, diarrhea, belching, and intestinal gas. It can also make blood take longer to clot.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking gamma linolenic acid if you are pregnant or breast-feeding . Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Bleeding disorders: Gamma linolenic acid might slow blood clotting. There is some concern that it might increase the risk of bruising and bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.
Surgery: Since gamma linolenic acid might slow blood clotting, there is concern that it might increase the risk of extra bleeding during and after surgery. Stop taking gamma linolenic acid at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Be cautious with this combination
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interacts with GAMMA LINOLENIC ACID
Gamma linolenic acid might slow blood clotting. Taking gamma linolenic acid along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.<br/><br/> Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Phenothiazines interacts with GAMMA LINOLENIC ACID
Taking gamma linolenic acid with phenothiazines might increase the risk of having a seizure in some people.<br/><br/> Some phenothiazines include chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), trifluoperazine (Stelazine), thioridazine (Mellaril), and others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For nerve pain due to diabetes: 360 to 480 mg of gamma linolenic acid per day has been used.
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- Jamal GA, Carmichael H. The effect of gamma-linolenic acid on human diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Diabet Med 1990;7:319-23. View abstract.
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- Kawamura A, Ooyama K, Kojima K, Kachi H, Abe T, Amano K, et al. Dietary supplementation of gamma-linolenic acid improves skin parameters in subjects with dry skin and mild atopic dermatitis. J Oleo Sci. 2011;60(12):597-607. View abstract.
- Keen H, Payan J, Allawi J, et al. Treatment of diabetic neuropathy with gamma-linolenic acid. The gamma-Linolenic Acid Multicenter Trial Group. Diabetes Care 1993;16:8-15. View abstract.
- Kenny FS, Pinder SE, Ellis IO, et al. Gamma linolenic acid with tamoxifen as primary therapy in breast cancer. Int J Cancer 2000;85:643-8. View abstract.
- Kruger MC, Coetzer H, de Winter R, et al. Calcium, gamma-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in senile osteoporosis. Aging (Milano) 1998;10:385-94. View abstract.
- Leventhal LJ, Boyce EG, Zurier RB. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with gammalinolenic acid. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:867-73. View abstract.
- Leventhal LJ, Boyce EG, Zurier RB. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with gammalinolenic acid. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:867-73. View abstract.
- Manthorpe, R., Hagen, Petersen S., and Prause, J. U. Primary Sjogren's syndrome treated with Efamol/Efavit. A double-blind cross-over investigation. Rheumatol.Int. 1984;4(4):165-167. View abstract.
- McIllmurray, M. B. and Turkie, W. Controlled trial of gamma linolenic acid in Duke's C colorectal cancer. Br.Med.J.(Clin.Res.Ed) 5-16-1987;294(6582):1260. View abstract.
- Menendez JA, Colomer R, Lupu R. Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid gamma-linolenic acid (18:3n-6) is a selective estrogen-response modulator in human breast cancer cells: gamma-Linolenic acid antagonizes estrogen receptor-dependent transcriptional activity, transcriptionally represses estrogen receptor expression and synergistically enhances tamoxifen and ICI 182,780 (Faslodex) efficacy in human breast cancer cells. Int J Cancer 2004;10;109:949-54. View abstract.
- Menendez JA, del Mar Barbacid M, Montero S, et al. Effects of gamma-linolenic acid and oleic acid on paclitaxel cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells. Eur J Cancer 2001;37:402-13. View abstract.
- Miles, E. A., Banerjee, T., Dooper, M. M., M'Rabet, L., Graus, Y. M., and Calder, P. C. The influence of different combinations of gamma-linolenic acid, stearidonic acid and EPA on immune function in healthy young male subjects. Br.J.Nutr. 2004;91(6):893-903. View abstract.
- Mills, D. E. and Ward, R. Attenuation of psychosocial stress-induced hypertension by gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) administration in rats. Proc.Soc.Exp.Biol.Med. 1984;176(1):32-37. View abstract.
- Pacht, E. R., DeMichele, S. J., Nelson, J. L., Hart, J., Wennberg, A. K., and Gadek, J. E. Enteral nutrition with eicosapentaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and antioxidants reduces alveolar inflammatory mediators and protein influx in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2003;31(2):491-500. View abstract.
- Pullman-Mooar S, Laposata M, Lem D. Alteration of the cellular fatty acid profile and the production of eicosanoids in human monocytes by gamma-linolenic acid. Arthritis Rheum 1990;33:1526-33. View abstract.
- Puolakka J, Makarainen L, Viinikka L, and Ylikorkala O. Biochemical and clinical effects of treating the premenstrual syndrome with prostaglandin synthesis precursors. J Reprod Med 1985;30(3):149-153. View abstract.
- Ranieri M., Sciuscio M., Cortese A. M., Santamato A., Di Teo L., Ianieri G., Bellomo R. G., Stasi M., Megna M. The use of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and rehabilitation in the treatment of back pain: effect on health-related quality of life. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2009;22(3 Suppl):45-50. View abstract.
- Rose DP, Connolly JM, Liu XH. Effects of linoleic acid and gamma-linolenic acid on the growth and metastasis of a human breast cancer cell line in nude mice and on its growth and invasive capacity in vitro. Nutr Cancer 1995;24:33-45. . View abstract.
- Stainforth JM, Layton AM, Goodfield MJ. Clinical aspects of the use of gamma linolenic acid in systemic sclerosis. Acta Derm Venereol 1996;76:144-6. View abstract.
- Takwale A, Tan E, Agarwal S, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of borage oil in adults and children with atopic eczema: randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group trial. BMJ 2003;327:1385. View abstract.
- van der Merwe CF, Booyens J, Joubert HF, van der Merwe CA. The effect of gamma-linolenic acid, an in vitro cytostatic substance contained in evening primrose oil, on primary liver cancer. A double- blind placebo controlled trial. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1990;40:199-202. View abstract.
- van der Merwe, C. F., Booyens, J., and Katzeff, I. E. Oral gamma-linolenic acid in 21 patients with untreatable malignancy. An ongoing pilot open clinical trial. Br.J.Clin.Pract. 1987;41(9):907-915. View abstract.
- van Gool CJ, Zeegers MP, Thijs C. Oral essential fatty acid supplementation in atopic dermatitis-a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Br J Dermatol 2004;150:728-40. View abstract.
- Wu D, Meydani M, Leka LS, et al. Effect of dietary supplementation with black currant seed oil on the immune response of healthy elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:536-43. View abstract.
- Zurier RB, Furse RK, Rosetti RG. Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) prevents amplification of interleukin-1-beta (IL-1-beta). Altern Ther 2001;7:112.
- Zurier RB, Rossetti RG, Jacobson EW, et al. Gamma-linolenic acid treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 1996;39:1808-17. View abstract.