Autumn Crocus, Azafrán, Azafron, Croci Stigma, Crocus Cultivé, Crocus sativus, Indian Saffron, Kashmira, Kesar, Kumkuma, Saffron Crocus, Safran, Safran Cultivé, Safran Espagnol, Safran des Indes, Safran Véritable, Spanish Saffron, True Saffron, Zafran.
Overview InformationSaffron is a plant. The dried stigmas (thread-like parts of the flower) are used to make saffron spice. It can take 75,000 saffron blossoms to produce a single pound of saffron spice. Saffron is largely cultivated and harvested by hand. Due to the amount of labor involved in harvesting, saffron is considered one of the world's most expensive spices. The stigmas, and sometimes the petals, are also used to make medicine.
People use saffron most commonly for depression, anxiety, Alzheimer disease, menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea), and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Saffron is also used for many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support many of these uses.
In foods, saffron is used as a spice, yellow food coloring, and as a flavoring agent.
In manufacturing, saffron extracts are used as fragrance in perfumes and as a dye for cloth.
How does it work?Saffron contains chemicals that alter mood, kill cancer cells, decrease swelling, and act like antioxidants.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Effective for
- Alzheimer disease. Taking a specific saffron extract by mouth for up to 22 weeks seems to improve symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Saffron might work about as well as the prescription drug donepezil (Aricept).
- Depression. Research shows that taking saffron or saffron extract by mouth for 6-12 weeks improves symptoms of major depression. Some studies show that saffron might be as effective as taking a prescription antidepressant, such as fluoxetine, imipramine, or citalopram. Early research in patients already taking an antidepressant shows that taking crocin, a chemical found in saffron, for 4 weeks reduces symptoms of depression more than taking the antidepressant alone. However, taking saffron might not help for all types of depression.
- Menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea). Some research shows the taking a specific product containing saffron, anise, and celery seed reduces pain during the menstrual cycle.
- Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Some research shows that taking a specific saffron extract improves symptoms of PMS after two menstrual cycles.
Insufficient Evidence for
- An eye disease that leads to vision loss in older adults (age-related macular degeneration or AMD). Early research shows that taking saffron for up to 6 months might lead to small improvements in vision for people with AMD.
- Sexual problems caused by antidepressants (antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction). Taking an antidepressant can make some people lose interest in sex. Early research shows that taking saffron for 4 weeks improves satisfaction with sex in men and women taking an antidepressant. But it doesn't seem to improve desire for sex or orgasm.
- Metabolic side effects caused by antipsychotic drugs. Some antipsychotic drugs can increase blood sugar and cholesterol levels. Early research shows that taking saffron for 12 weeks can prevent this increase in blood sugar. But taking saffron doesn't seem to prevent the increase in blood cholesterol.
- Anxiety. Some research shows that taking saffron extract by mouth for 8-12 weeks can reduce anxiety symptoms in some people.
- Asthma. Early research shows that taking saffron might reduce some symptoms of asthma in people with allergic asthma.
- Athletic performance. Early research shows that taking saffron, or a chemical from saffron called crocetin, can decrease fatigue and improve muscle strength in men during exercise.
- Diabetes. Taking saffron might reduce blood sugar in people with diabetes who have not eaten. But it doesn't seem to help people with diabetes to control their blood sugar when used for up to 3 months.
- Erectile dysfunction (ED). Early research shows that applying saffron to the skin can improve symptoms of erectile dysfunction. Some research has also shown that taking saffron by mouth can benefit men with erectile dysfunction. But other research shows that taking saffron by mouth is not beneficial. More research is needed to understand if saffron is useful for treating erectile dysfunction.
- Muscle soreness caused by exercise. Early research shows that taking saffron might prevent sore muscles in men who do not typically exercise.
- A group of eye disorders that can lead to vision loss (glaucoma). Early research shows that taking saffron for 4 weeks, in addition to regular treatment, might reduce some of the symptoms of glaucoma.
- High levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia). Taking saffron doesn't seem to reduce lipid levels in most people. But more research is needed in people with high levels of fats in the blood.
- High blood pressure. Early research shows that drinking black tea containing saffron three times daily for 8 weeks does not reduce blood pressure in people who have diabetes and high blood pressure.
- Conditions in a man that prevent him from getting a woman pregnant within a year of trying to conceive (male infertility). Some research shows that saffron might improve sperm function in men. But other research has not shown this benefit.
- Depression after childbirth (postpartum depression). Early research shows that taking a specific saffron product for 6 weeks works as well as fluoxetine for reducing symptoms of depression in women after giving birth. Other early research shows that taking saffron for 8 weeks might reduce symptoms of depression in breastfeeding women. But it's not clear if saffron caused this effect or if the depression went away on its own.
- Early male orgasm (premature ejaculation).
- "Hardening of the arteries" (atherosclerosis).
- Stomach gas.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyWhen taken by mouth: Saffron is LIKELY SAFE in food amounts. Saffron is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken as a medicine for up to 26 weeks. Some possible side effects include dry mouth, anxiety, agitation, drowsiness, low mood, sweating, nausea or vomiting, constipation or diarrhea, change in appetite, flushing, and headache. Allergic reactions can occur in some people.
Taking large amounts of saffron by mouth is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. High doses of 5 grams or more can cause poisoning. Doses of 12-20 grams can cause death.
When applied to the skin: There isn't enough reliable information to know if saffron is safe or what the side effects might be.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Taking saffron by mouth in amounts larger than what is normally found in food is LIKELY UNSAFE. Larger amounts of saffron can make the uterus contract and might cause a miscarriage.
There isn't enough reliable information to know if saffron is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and stick to food amounts.
Bipolar disorder: Saffron seems to be able to affect mood. There is a concern that it might trigger excitability and impulsive behavior (mania) in people with bipolar disorder. Don't use saffron if you have this condition.
Allergies to Lolium, Olea (includes olive), and Salsola plant species: People who are allergic to these plants might also be allergic to saffron.
Diabetes: Saffron might affect blood sugar levels. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use saffron.
Heart conditions: Saffron might affect how fast and how strong the heart beats. Taking large amounts of saffron might worsen some heart conditions.
Low blood pressure: Saffron might lower blood pressure. Taking saffron might make blood pressure become too low in people with low blood pressure.
We currently have no information for SAFFRON Interactions.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For Alzheimer disease: 30 mg of saffron extract daily for 22 weeks.
- For depression: 30 mg of a saffron extract or 100 mg of saffron daily for up to 12 weeks.
- For premenstrual syndrome (PMS): 15 mg of a saffron extract twice daily.
- For menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea): 500 mg of a specific combination product containing saffron, celery seed and anise extracts (SCA, Gol Daro Herbal Medicine Laboratory) taken three times a day for the first three days of menstruation.
- [Saffron for the mood]. Praxis (Bern.1994.) 6-29-2005;94(26-27):1090. View abstract.
- Abe, K. and Saito, H. Effects of saffron extract and its constituent crocin on learning behaviour and long-term potentiation. Phytother.Res 2000;14(3):149-152. View abstract.
- Abe, K., Sugiura, M., Shoyama, Y., and Saito, H. Crocin antagonizes ethanol inhibition of NMDA receptor-mediated responses in rat hippocampal neurons. Brain Res 3-16-1998;787(1):132-138. View abstract.
- Ahmad, A. S., Ansari, M. A., Ahmad, M., Saleem, S., Yousuf, S., Hoda, M. N., and Islam, F. Neuroprotection by crocetin in a hemi-parkinsonian rat model. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav. 2005;81(4):805-813. View abstract.
- Asdaq, S. M. and Inamdar, M. N. Potential of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituent, crocin, as hypolipidemic and antioxidant in rats. Appl.Biochem.Biotechnol. 2010;162(2):358-372. View abstract.
- Aung, H. H., Wang, C. Z., Ni, M., Fishbein, A., Mehendale, S. R., Xie, J. T., Shoyama, C. Y., and Yuan, C. S. Crocin from Crocus sativus possesses significant anti-proliferation effects on human colorectal cancer cells. Exp.Oncol. 2007;29(3):175-180. View abstract.
- Aytekin, A. and Acikgoz, A. O. Hormone and microorganism treatments in the cultivation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) plants. Molecules. 2008;13(5):1135-1147. View abstract.
- Boskabady, M. H., Shafei, M. N., Shakiba, A., and Sefidi, H. S. Effect of aqueous-ethanol extract from Crocus sativus (saffron) on guinea-pig isolated heart. Phytother.Res 2008;22(3):330-334. View abstract.
- Carmona, M., Zalacain, A., Pardo, J. E., Lopez, E., Alvarruiz, A., and Alonso, G. L. Influence of different drying and aging conditions on saffron constituents. J Agric.Food Chem. 5-18-2005;53(10):3974-3979. View abstract.
- Chen, X., Krakauer, T., Oppenheim, J. J., and Howard, O. M. Yin zi huang, an injectable multicomponent chinese herbal medicine, is a potent inhibitor of T-cell activation. J Altern.Complement Med. 2004;10(3):519-526. View abstract.
- Chryssanthi, D. G., Lamari, F. N., Iatrou, G., Pylara, A., Karamanos, N. K., and Cordopatis, P. Inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation by style constituents of different Crocus species. Anticancer Res 2007;27(1A):357-362. View abstract.
- Das, I., Chakrabarty, R. N., and Das, S. Saffron can prevent chemically induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Asian Pac.J Cancer Prev. 2004;5(1):70-76. View abstract.
- Dhar, A., Mehta, S., Dhar, G., Dhar, K., Banerjee, S., Van Veldhuizen, P., Campbell, D. R., and Banerjee, S. K. Crocetin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and tumor progression in a xenograft mouse model. Mol.Cancer Ther. 2009;8(2):315-323. View abstract.
- el Daly, E. S. Protective effect of cysteine and vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa extracts on cisplatin-induced toxicity in rats. J Pharm.Belg. 1998;53(2):87-93. View abstract.
- Fatehi, M., Rashidabady, T., and Fatehi-Hassanabad, Z. Effects of Crocus sativus petals' extract on rat blood pressure and on responses induced by electrical field stimulation in the rat isolated vas deferens and guinea-pig ileum. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;84(2-3):199-203. View abstract.
- Ferrence, S. C. and Bendersky, G. Therapy with saffron and the goddess at Thera. Perspect.Biol.Med. 2004;47(2):199-226. View abstract.
- Garcia-Olmo, D. C., Riese, H. H., Escribano, J., Ontanon, J., Fernandez, J. A., Atienzar, M., and Garcia-Olmo, D. Effects of long-term treatment of colon adenocarcinoma with crocin, a carotenoid from saffron (Crocus sativus L.): an experimental study in the rat. Nutr.Cancer 1999;35(2):120-126. View abstract.
- Ghazavi, A., Mosayebi, G., Salehi, H., and Abtahi, H. Effect of ethanol extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on the inhibition of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57bl/6 mice. Pak.J Biol.Sci. 5-1-2009;12(9):690-695. View abstract.
- Gregory, M. J., Menary, R. C., and Davies, N. W. Effect of drying temperature and air flow on the production and retention of secondary metabolites in saffron. J Agric.Food Chem. 7-27-2005;53(15):5969-5975. View abstract.
- Hosseinzadeh, H. and Noraei, N. B. Anxiolytic and hypnotic effect of Crocus sativus aqueous extract and its constituents, crocin and safranal, in mice. Phytother.Res 2009;23(6):768-774. View abstract.
- Hosseinzadeh, H. and Sadeghnia, H. R. Protective effect of safranal on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in the rat: involvement of GABAergic and opioids systems. Phytomedicine. 2007;14(4):256-262. View abstract.
- Hosseinzadeh, H. and Sadeghnia, H. R. Safranal, a constituent of Crocus sativus (saffron), attenuated cerebral ischemia induced oxidative damage in rat hippocampus. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2005;8(3):394-399. View abstract.
- Hosseinzadeh, H. and Talebzadeh, F. Anticonvulsant evaluation of safranal and crocin from Crocus sativus in mice. Fitoterapia 2005;76(7-8):722-724. View abstract.
- Hosseinzadeh, H. and Younesi, H. M. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Crocus sativus L. stigma and petal extracts in mice. BMC.Pharmacol 3-15-2002;2:7. View abstract.
- Hosseinzadeh, H., Abootorabi, A., and Sadeghnia, H. R. Protective effect of Crocus sativus stigma extract and crocin (trans-crocin 4) on methyl methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage in mice organs. DNA Cell Biol. 2008;27(12):657-664. View abstract.
- Hosseinzadeh, H., Ziaee, T., and Sadeghi, A. The effect of saffron, Crocus sativus stigma, extract and its constituents, safranal and crocin on sexual behaviors in normal male rats. Phytomedicine. 2008;15(6-7):491-495. View abstract.
- Imenshahidi, M., Hosseinzadeh, H., and Javadpour, Y. Hypotensive effect of aqueous saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) and its constituents, safranal and crocin, in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Phytother.Res 12-9-2009; View abstract.
- Kanakis, C. D., Daferera, D. J., Tarantilis, P. A., and Polissiou, M. G. Qualitative determination of volatile compounds and quantitative evaluation of safranal and 4-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde (HTCC) in Greek saffron. J Agric.Food Chem. 7-14-2004;52(14):4515-4521. View abstract.
- Kanakis, C. D., Tarantilis, P. A., Tajmir-Riahi, H. A., and Polissiou, M. G. Crocetin, dimethylcrocetin, and safranal bind human serum albumin: stability and antioxidative properties. J Agric.Food Chem. 2-7-2007;55(3):970-977. View abstract.
- Laabich, A., Vissvesvaran, G. P., Lieu, K. L., Murata, K., McGinn, T. E., Manmoto, C. C., Sinclair, J. R., Karliga, I., Leung, D. W., Fawzi, A., and Kubota, R. Protective effect of crocin against blue light- and white light-mediated photoreceptor cell death in bovine and primate retinal primary cell culture. Invest Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 2006;47(7):3156-3163. View abstract.
- Li, C. Y. and Wu, T. S. Constituents of the stigmas of Crocus sativus and their tyrosinase inhibitory activity. J Nat.Prod. 2002;65(10):1452-1456. View abstract.
- Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, M. and Skubas, A. I. Characterization of the platelet aggregation inducer and inhibitor isolated from Crocus sativus. Biochem.Int. 1990;22(1):103-110. View abstract.
- Liu, T. Z. and Qian, Z. Y. [Pharmacokinetics of crocetin in rats]. Yao Xue.Xue.Bao. 2002;37(5):367-369. View abstract.
- Ma SP, Liu BL. Pharmacological studies of glycosides of saffron crocus (Crocus sativus): effects on blood coagulation, platelet aggregation, and thrombosis. Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs (China) 1999;30:196-198.
- Maccarone, R., Di Marco, S., and Bisti, S. Saffron supplement maintains morphology and function after exposure to damaging light in mammalian retina. Invest Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 2008;49(3):1254-1261. View abstract.
- Magesh, V., Singh, J. P., Selvendiran, K., Ekambaram, G., and Sakthisekaran, D. Antitumour activity of crocetin in accordance to tumor incidence, antioxidant status, drug metabolizing enzymes and histopathological studies. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2006;287(1-2):127-135. View abstract.
- Modaghegh, M. H., Shahabian, M., Esmaeili, H. A., Rajbai, O., and Hosseinzadeh, H. Safety evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus) tablets in healthy volunteers. Phytomedicine. 2008;15(12):1032-1037. View abstract.
- Moraga, A. R., Nohales, P. F., Perez, J. A., and Gomez-Gomez, L. Glucosylation of the saffron apocarotenoid crocetin by a glucosyltransferase isolated from Crocus sativus stigmas. Planta 2004;219(6):955-966. View abstract.
- Moraga, A. R., Rambla, J. L., Ahrazem, O., Granell, A., and Gomez-Gomez, L. Metabolite and target transcript analyses during Crocus sativus stigma development. Phytochemistry 2009;70(8):1009-1016. View abstract.
- Moshiri, E., Basti, A. A., Noorbala, A. A., Jamshidi, A. H., Hesameddin, Abbasi S., and Akhondzadeh, S. Crocus sativus L. (petal) in the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(9-10):607-611. View abstract.
- Mousavi, S. H., Tavakkol-Afshari, J., Brook, A., and Jafari-Anarkooli, I. Role of caspases and Bax protein in saffron-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Food Chem.Toxicol 2009;47(8):1909-1913. View abstract.
- Naghizadeh, B., Boroushaki, M. T., Vahdati, Mashhadian N., and Mansouri, M. T. Protective effects of crocin against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure and oxidative stress in rats. Iran Biomed.J 2008;12(2):93-100. View abstract.
- Nair, S. C., Panikkar, K. R., and Parthod, R. K. Protective effects of crocetin on the bladder toxicity induced by cyclophosphamide. Cancer Biother. 1993;8(4):339-343. View abstract.
- Nair, S. C., Salomi, M. J., Panikkar, B., and Panikkar, K. R. Modulatory effects of Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa extracts on cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 1991;31(1):75-83. View abstract.
- Ochiai, T., Shimeno, H., Mishima, K., Iwasaki, K., Fujiwara, M., Tanaka, H., Shoyama, Y., Toda, A., Eyanagi, R., and Soeda, S. Protective effects of carotenoids from saffron on neuronal injury in vitro and in vivo. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 2007;1770(4):578-584. View abstract.
- Papandreou, M. A., Kanakis, C. D., Polissiou, M. G., Efthimiopoulos, S., Cordopatis, P., Margarity, M., and Lamari, F. N. Inhibitory activity on amyloid-beta aggregation and antioxidant properties of Crocus sativus stigmas extract and its crocin constituents. J Agric.Food Chem. 11-15-2006;54(23):8762-8768. View abstract.
- Pitsikas, N. and Sakellaridis, N. Crocus sativus L. extracts antagonize memory impairments in different behavioural tasks in the rat. Behav.Brain Res 10-2-2006;173(1):112-115. View abstract.
- Pitsikas, N., Boultadakis, A., Georgiadou, G., Tarantilis, P. A., and Sakellaridis, N. Effects of the active constituents of Crocus sativus L., crocins, in an animal model of anxiety. Phytomedicine. 2008;15(12):1135-1139. View abstract.
- Pitsikas, N., Zisopoulou, S., Tarantilis, P. A., Kanakis, C. D., Polissiou, M. G., and Sakellaridis, N. Effects of the active constituents of Crocus sativus L., crocins on recognition and spatial rats' memory. Behav.Brain Res 11-2-2007;183(2):141-146. View abstract.
- Premkumar, K., Abraham, S. K., Santhiya, S. T., and Ramesh, A. Inhibitory effects of aqueous crude extract of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on chemical-induced genotoxicity in mice. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr. 2003;12(4):474-476. View abstract.
- Premkumar, K., Kavitha, S., Santhiya, S. T., Ramesh, A. R., and Suwanteerangkul, J. Interactive effects of saffron with garlic and curcumin against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity in mice. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr. 2004;13(3):292-294. View abstract.
- Rubio-Moraga, A., Castillo-Lopez, R., Gomez-Gomez, L., and Ahrazem, O. Saffron is a monomorphic species as revealed by RAPD, ISSR and microsatellite analyses. BMC.Res Notes 2009;2:189. View abstract.
- Sadeghnia, H. R., Cortez, M. A., Liu, D., Hosseinzadeh, H., and Snead, O. C., III. Antiabsence effects of safranal in acute experimental seizure models: EEG and autoradiography. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2008;11(3):1-14. View abstract.
- Saleem, S., Ahmad, M., Ahmad, A. S., Yousuf, S., Ansari, M. A., Khan, M. B., Ishrat, T., and Islam, F. Effect of Saffron (Crocus sativus) on neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in cerebral ischemia in rats. J Med.Food 2006;9(2):246-253. View abstract.
- Sarris, J. Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: a systematic review. Phytother.Res 2007;21(8):703-716. View abstract.
- Schmidt, M., Betti, G., and Hensel, A. Saffron in phytotherapy: pharmacology and clinical uses. Wien.Med.Wochenschr. 2007;157(13-14):315-319. View abstract.
- Sheng, L., Qian, Z., Shi, Y., Yang, L., Xi, L., Zhao, B., Xu, X., and Ji, H. Crocetin improves the insulin resistance induced by high-fat diet in rats. Br.J Pharmacol 2008;154(5):1016-1024. View abstract.
- Singh, U. P., Singh, D. P., Maurya, S., Maheshwari, R., Singh, M., Dubey, R. S., and Singh, R. B. Investigation on the phenolics of some spices having pharmacotherapeuthic properties. J Herb.Pharmacother. 2004;4(4):27-42. View abstract.
- Tamaddonfard, E. and Hamzeh-Gooshchi, N. Effect of crocin on the morphine-induced antinociception in the formalin test in rats. Phytother.Res 2010;24(3):410-413. View abstract.
- Tarantilis, P. A., Morjani, H., Polissiou, M., and Manfait, M. Inhibition of growth and induction of differentiation of promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) by carotenoids from Crocus sativus L. Anticancer Res 1994;14(5A):1913-1918. View abstract.
- Tavakkol-Afshari, J., Brook, A., and Mousavi, S. H. Study of cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of saffron extract in human cancer cell lines. Food Chem.Toxicol 2008;46(11):3443-3447. View abstract.
- Thachil, A. F., Mohan, R., and Bhugra, D. The evidence base of complementary and alternative therapies in depression. J Affect.Disord. 2007;97(1-3):23-35. View abstract.
- Verma, S. K. and Bordia, A. Antioxidant property of Saffron in man. Indian J Med.Sci. 1998;52(5):205-207. View abstract.
- Wang, Y., Han, T., Zhu, Y., Zheng, C. J., Ming, Q. L., Rahman, K., and Qin, L. P. Antidepressant properties of bioactive fractions from the extract of Crocus sativus L. J Nat.Med. 2010;64(1):24-30. View abstract.
- Wuthrich, B., Schmid-Grendelmeyer, P., and Lundberg, M. Anaphylaxis to saffron. Allergy 1997;52(4):476-477. View abstract.
- Xi, L., Qian, Z., Xu, G., Zheng, S., Sun, S., Wen, N., Sheng, L., Shi, Y., and Zhang, Y. Beneficial impact of crocetin, a carotenoid from saffron, on insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats. J Nutr.Biochem. 2007;18(1):64-72. View abstract.
- Xu, G. L., Yu, S. Q., Gong, Z. N., and Zhang, S. Q. [Study of the effect of crocin on rat experimental hyperlipemia and the underlying mechanisms]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30(5):369-372. View abstract.
- Zhang, Y., Shoyama, Y., Sugiura, M., and Saito, H. Effects of Crocus sativus L. on the ethanol-induced impairment of passive avoidance performances in mice. Biol.Pharm Bull. 1994;17(2):217-221. View abstract.
- Zhao, P., Luo, C. L., Wu, X. H., Hu, H. B., Lv, C. F., and Ji, H. Y. [Proliferation apoptotic influence of crocin on human bladder cancer T24 cell line]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2008;33(15):1869-1873. View abstract.
- Zheng, S., Qian, Z., Sheng, L., and Wen, N. Crocetin attenuates atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic rabbits through inhibition of LDL oxidation. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2006;47(1):70-76. View abstract.
- Zheng, S., Qian, Z., Wen, N., and Xi, L. Crocetin suppresses angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth-muscle cell proliferation through inhibition of ERK1/2 activation and cell-cycle progression. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2007;50(5):519-525. View abstract.
- Zheng, Y. Q., Liu, J. X., Wang, J. N., and Xu, L. Effects of crocin on reperfusion-induced oxidative/nitrative injury to cerebral microvessels after global cerebral ischemia. Brain Res 3-23-2007;1138:86-94. View abstract.
- Zhou, S. D. and Zhong, H. J. HPLC determination of crocin-I, crocin-II and crocins in Crocus sativus extract and tablets. Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis (China) 1998;18:159-162.
- Abdullaev FI, Gonzalez de Mejia E. Antitumor activity of natural substances: lectins and saffron. Arch Latinoam Nutr 1997;47:195-202. View abstract.
- Abdullaev FI. Cancer chemopreventive and tumoricidal properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2002;227:20-5. View abstract.
- Agha-Hosseini M, Kashani L, Aleyaseen A, et al. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled trial. BJOG 2008;115:515-9. View abstract.
- Akhondzadeh Basti A, Moshiri E, Noorbala AA, et al. Comparison of petal of Crocus sativus L. and fluoxetine in the treatment of depressed outpatients: a pilot double-blind randomized trial. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2007;31:439-42. View abstract.
- Akhondzadeh S, Fallah-Pour H, Afkham K, et al. Comparison of Crocus sativus L. and imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: A pilot double-blind randomized trial [ISRCTN45683816]. BMC Complement Altern Med 2004;4:12. View abstract.
- Akhondzadeh S, Sabet MS, Harirchian MH, et al. A 22-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of Crocus sativus in the treatment of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. Psychopharmacology 2010;207:637-43. View abstract.
- Akhondzadeh S, Sabet MS, Harirchian MH, Togha M, Cheraghmakani H, Razeghi S, Hejazi SSh, Yousefi MH, Alimardani R, Jamshidi A, Zare F, Moradi A. Saffron in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a 16-week, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2010 Oct;35(5):581-8. View abstract.
- Akhondzadeh S, Tahmacebi-Pour N, Noorbala AA, et al. Crocus sativus L. in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. Phytother Res 2005;19:148-51. View abstract.
- Ayatollahi H, Javan AO, Khajedaluee M, Shahroodian M, Hosseinzadeh H. Effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on coagulation and anticoagulation systems in healthy volunteers. Phytother Res. 2014 Apr;28(4):539-43. View abstract.
- Azimi P, Ghiasvand R Feizi A, Hariri M, Abbasi B. Effects of cinnamon, cardamom, saffron, and ginger consumption on markers of glycemic control, lipid profile, oxidative stress, and inflammation in type 2 diabetes. Rev Diabet Stud. 2014 Fall-Winter;11(3-4):258-66. View abstract.
- Azimi P, Ghiasvand R, Feizi A, et al. Effect of cinnamon, cardamom, saffron and ginger consumption on blood pressure and a marker of endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Blood Press. 2016;25(3):133-40. View abstract.
- Begas E, Bounitsi M, Kilindris T, et al. Effects of short-term saffron (Crocus sativus L.) intake on the in vivo activities of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in healthy volunteers. Food Chem Toxicol. 2019;130:32-43. View abstract.
- Broadhead GK, Grigg JR, McCluskey P, Hong T, Schlub TE, Chang AA. Saffron therapy for the treatment of mild/moderate age-related macular degeneration: a randomised clinical trial. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2019;257(1):31-40. View abstract.
- Brown AC, Hairfield M, Richards DG, et al. Medical nutrition therapy as a potential complementary treatment for psoriasis - five case reports. Altern Med Rev 2004;9:297-307. View abstract.
- Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
- Fadai F, Mousavi B, Ashtari Z, Ali beigi N, Farhang S, Hashempour S, Shahhamzei N, Bathaie SZ. Saffron aqueous extract prevents metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia on olanzapine treatment: a randomized triple blind placebo controlled study. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2014 Jul;47(4-5):156-61. View abstract.
- Falsini B, Piccardi M, Minnella A, Savastano C, Capoluongo E, Fadda A, Balestrazzi E, Maccarone R, Bisti S. Influence of saffron supplementation on retinal flicker sensitivity in early age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Dec;51(12):6118-24. View abstract.
- Feo F, Martinez J, Martinez A, et al. Occupational allergy in saffron workers. Allergy 1997;52:633-41. View abstract.
- Ghajar A, Neishabouri SM, Velayati N, et al. Crocus sativus L. versus citalopram in the treatment of major depressive disorder with anxious distress: a double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2017 Jul;50(4):152-160. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-116159. View abstract.
- Giaccio M. Crocetin from saffron: an active component of an ancient spice. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2004;44:155-72. View abstract.
- Grainer JL, Jones JR. The Use of Crocetin in Experimental Atherosclerosis. Experientia 1975;31:548-9.
- Haqqaq EG, Abou-Moustafa MA, Boucher W, Theoharides TC. The effect of a herbal water-extract on histamine release from mast cells and on allergic asthma. J Herb Pharmacother 2003;3:41-54. View abstract.
- Hausenblas HA, Saha D, Dubyak PJ, Anton SD. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Integr Med. 2013 Nov;11(6):377-83. View abstract.
- Heidary M, Vahhabi S, Reza Nejadi J, et al. Effect of saffron on semen parameters of infertile men. Urol J 2008;5:255-9. View abstract.
- Hosseini A, Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh H. Pharmacokinetic properties of saffron and its active components. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2018;43(4):383-390. View abstract.
- Jabbarpoor Bonyadi MH, Yazdani S, Saadat S. The ocular hypotensive effect of saffron extract in primary open angle glaucoma: a pilot study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Oct 15;14:399. View abstract.
- Kashani L, Eslatmanesh S, Saedi N, Niroomand N, Ebrahimi M, Hosseinian M, Foroughifar T, Salimi S, Akhondzadeh S. Comparison of Saffron versus Fluoxetine in Treatment of Mild to Moderate Postpartum Depression: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2016 Sep 5. View abstract.
- Kashani L, Raisi F, Saroukhani S, Sohrabi H, Modabbernia A, Nasehi AA, Jamshidi A, Ashrafi M, Mansouri P, Ghaeli P, Akhondzadeh S. Saffron for treatment of fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2013 Jan;28(1):54-60. View abstract.
- Kell G, Rao A, Beccaria G, et al. Affron® a novel saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) improves mood in healthy adults over 4 weeks in a double-blind, parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Complement Ther Med. 2017 Aug;33:58-64. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2017.06.001. View abstract.
- Kianbakht S, Ghazavi A. Immunomodulatory effects of saffron: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2011 Dec;25(12):1801-5. View abstract.
- Kubo I, Kinst-Hori I. Flavonols from saffron flower: tyrosinase inhibitory activity and inhibition mechanism. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47:4121-5. View abstract.
- Lopresti AL, Drummond PD. Efficacy of curcumin, and a saffron/curcumin combination for the treatment of major depression: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Affect Disord. 2017 Jan 1;207:188-196. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.09.047. View abstract.
- Mazidi M, Shemshian M, Mousavi SH, Norouzy A, Kermani T, Moghiman T, Sadeghi A, Mokhber N, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Ferns GA. A double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in the treatment of anxiety and depression. J Complement Integr Med. 2016 Jun 1;13(2):195-9. View abstract.
- Meamarbashi A, Rajabi A. Potential Ergogenic Effects of Saffron. J Diet Suppl. 2016;13(5):522-9. View abstract.
- Meamarbashi A, Rajabi A. Preventive effects of 10-day supplementation with saffron and indomethacin on the delayed-onset muscle soreness. Clin J Sport Med. 2015 Mar;25(2):105-12. View abstract.
- Milajerdi A, Jazayeri S, Shirzadi E, et al. The effects of alcoholic extract of saffron (Crocus satious L.) on mild to moderate comorbid depression-anxiety, sleep quality, and life satisfaction in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Complement Ther Med. 2018;41:196-202. View abstract.
- Miller TL, Willett SL, Moss ME, et al. Binding of crocetin to plasma albumin. J Pharm Sci 1982;71:173-7. View abstract.
- Mizuma H, Tanaka M, Nozaki S, et al. Daily oral administration of crocetin attenuates physical fatigue in human subjects. Nutr Res 2009;29:145-50. View abstract.
- Modabbernia A, Sohrabi H, Nasehi AA, Raisi F, Saroukhani S, Jamshidi A, Tabrizi M, Ashrafi M, Akhondzadeh S. Effect of saffron on fluoxetine-induced sexual impairment in men: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Oct;223(4):381-8. View abstract.
- Mohammadzadeh-Moghadam H, Nazari SM, Shamsa A, Kamalinejad M, Esmaeeli H, Asadpour AA, Khajavi A. Effects of a Topical Saffron (Crocus sativus L) Gel on Erectile Dysfunction in Diabetics: A Randomized, Parallel-Group, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2015 Oct;20(4):283-6. View abstract.
- Moravej Aleali A, Amani R, Shahbazian H, Namjooyan F, Latifi SM, Cheraghian B. The effect of hydroalcoholic Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) extract on fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile, liver, and renal function tests in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized double-blind clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2019;33(6):1648-1657. View abstract.
- Nahid K, Fariborz M, Ataolah G, Solokian S. The effect of an Iranian herbal drug on primary dysmenorrhea: a clinical controlled trial. J Midwifery Womens Health 2009;54:401-4. View abstract.
- Nair SC, Pannikar B, Panikkar KR. Antitumor activity of Saffron (Crocus sativus). Cancer Lett 1991;57:109-14. View abstract.
- Noorbala AA, Akhondzadeh S, Tahmacebi-Pour N, Jamshidi AH. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Crocus sativus L. versus fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized pilot trial. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;97:281-4. View abstract.
- Pourmasoumi M, Hadi A, Najafgholizadeh A, Kafeshani M, Sahebkar A. Clinical evidence on the effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on cardiovascular risk factors: A systematic review meta-analysis. Pharmacol Res. 2019;139:348-359. View abstract.
- Safarinejad MR, Shafiei N, Safarinejad S. A prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study of the effect of saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) on semen parameters and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Phytother Res 2011;25:508-16. View abstract.
- Safarinejad MR, Shafiei N, Safarinejad S. An open label, randomized, fixed-dose, crossover study comparing efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate and saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) for treating erectile dysfunction in men naïve to treatment. Int J Impot Res. 2010 Jul-Aug;22(4):240-50. View abstract.
- Shamsa A, Hosseinzadeh H, Molaei M, et al. Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on male erectile dysfunction: a pilot study. Phytomedicine 2009;16:690-3. View abstract.
- Tóth B, Hegyi P, Lantos T, et al. The efficacy of saffron in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: A meta-analysis. Planta Med. 2019;85(1):24-31. View abstract.
- Tabeshpour J, Sobhani F, Sadjadi SA, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus L.) in mothers suffering from mild-to-moderate postpartum depression. Phytomedicine. 2017 Dec 1;36:145-152. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2017.10.005. View abstract.
- Talaei A, Hassanpour Moghadam M, Sajadi Tabassi SA, Mohajeri SA. Crocin, the main active saffron constituent, as an adjunctive treatment in major depressive disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot clinical trial. J Affect Disord. 2015 Mar 15;174:51-6. View abstract.
- Wuthrich B, Schmid-Grendelmeyer P, Lundberg M. Anaphylaxis to saffron. Allergy 1997;52:476-7.
- Zilaee M, Hosseini SA, Jafarirad S, et al. An evaluation of the effects of saffron supplementation on the asthma clinical symptoms and asthma severity in patients with mild and moderate persistent allergic asthma: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Respir Res. 2019;20(1):39. View abstract.
Have you ever purchased SAFFRON?
Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Do you buy vitamins online or instore?
What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)