PANTOTHENIC ACID (VITAMIN B5)
Acide D-Pantothénique, Acide Pantothénique, Ácido Pantoténico, Alcool Pantothénylique, B Complex Vitamin, Calcii Pantothenas, Calcium D-Pantothenate, Calcium Pantothenate, Complexe de Vitamines B, D-Calcium Pantothenate, D-Panthenol, D-Panthénol, D-Pantothénate de Calcium, D-Pantothenic Acid, D-Pantothenyl Alcohol, Dexpanthenol, Dexpanthénol, Dexpanthenolum, Pantéthine, Panthenol, Panthénol, Pantothenate, Pantothénate, Pantothénate de Calcium, Pantothenol, Pantothenylol, Vitamin B5, Vitamin B-5, Vitamina B5, Vitamine B5.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationPantothenic acid is a vitamin, also known as vitamin B5. It is widely found in both plants and animals including meat, vegetables, cereal grains, legumes, eggs, and milk.
Vitamin B5 is commercially available as D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which are chemicals made in the lab from D-pantothenic acid.
Pantothenic acid is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations. Vitamin B complex generally includes vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin/niacinamide), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), and folic acid. However, some products do not contain all of these ingredients and some may include others, such as biotin, para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), choline bitartrate, and inositol.
Pantothenic acid has a long list of uses, although there isn't enough scientific evidence to determine whether it is effective for most of these uses. People take pantothenic acid for treating dietary deficiencies, acne, alcoholism, allergies, baldness, asthma, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, burning feet syndrome, yeast infections, heart failure, carpal tunnel syndrome, respiratory disorders, celiac disease, colitis, conjunctivitis, convulsions, and cystitis. It is also taken by mouth for dandruff, depression, diabetic nerve pain, enhancing immune function, improving athletic performance, tongue infections, gray hair, headache, hyperactivity, low blood sugar, trouble sleeping (insomnia), irritability, low blood pressure, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, muscular cramps in the legs associated with pregnancy or alcoholism, neuralgia, and obesity.
Pantothenic acid is also used orally for osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinson's disease, nerve pain, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), enlarged prostate, protection against mental and physical stress and anxiety, reducing adverse effects of thyroid therapy in congenital hypothyroidism, reducing signs of aging, reducing susceptibility to colds and other infections, retarded growth, shingles, skin disorders, stimulating adrenal glands, chronic fatigue syndrome, salicylate toxicity, streptomycin neurotoxicity, dizziness, and wound healing.
People apply dexpanthenol, which is made from pantothenic acid, to the skin for itching, promoting healing of mild eczemas and other skin conditions, insect stings, bites, poison ivy, diaper rash, and acne. It is also applied topically for preventing and treating skin reactions to radiation therapy.
How does it work?Pantothenic acid is important for our bodies to properly use carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids and for healthy skin.
Uses & Effectiveness
- Pantothenic acid deficiency. Taking pantothenic acid by mouth prevents and treats pantothenic acid deficiency.
Possibly Ineffective for
- Skin reactions from radiation therapy. Applying dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, to areas of irritated skin does not seem to help treat skin reactions from radiation therapy.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Athletic performance. Some research suggests that taking pantothenic acid in combination with pantethine and thiamine does not improve muscular strength or endurance in well-trained athletes.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There is conflicting evidence regarding the usefulness of pantothenic acid in combination with large doses of other vitamins for the treatment of ADHD.
- Constipation. Early research suggests that taking dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, by mouth daily or receiving dexpanthenol shots can help treat constipation.
- Dry eyes. Early research suggests that using specific eye drops (Siccaprotect) containing dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, does not improve most symptoms of dry eyes.
- Eye trauma. Some evidence suggests that applying gel or drops containing dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, reduces some symptoms of eye trauma. However, not all research is consistent.
- Osteoarthritis. Early research suggests that pantothenic acid (given as calcium pantothenate) does not reduce symptoms of osteoarthritis.
- Recovery after surgery. There is inconsistent evidence on the potential benefits of taking pantothenic acid after surgery. Taking pantothenic acid or dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, does not seem to improve bowel function after stomach surgery. However, taking dexpanthenol by mouth might reduce other symptoms after surgery, such as sore throat.
- Rheumatoid arthritis. Developing research suggests that pantothenic acid (given as calcium pantothenate) does not reduce the symptoms of arthritis in people with rheumatoid arthritis.
- Nasal dryness. Early research suggests that using a specific spray (Nasicur) that contains dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, helps relieve nasal dryness.
- Sinus infection. Early research suggests that using a nasal spray containing dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, after sinus surgery reduces discharge from the nose, but not other symptoms.
- Skin irritation. Research on the effects of pantothenic acid for preventing skin irritations is not consistent. Some early research suggests that a specific product (Bepanthol Handbalsam) containing dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, does not prevent skin irritation when applied to the skin. However, other research suggests that dexpanthenol ointment can prevent skin irritation.
- Sprains. Early research suggests that using a specific ointment (Hepathrombin-50,000-Salbe Adenylchemie) containing dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, as well as heparin and allantoin reduces swelling related to ankle sprains.
- Hair loss.
- Heart problems.
- Carpal tunnel syndrome.
- Lung disorders.
- Eye infections (conjunctivitis).
- Kidney disorders.
- Diabetic problems.
- Enhancing immune function.
- Low blood pressure.
- Inability to sleep (insomnia).
- Multiple sclerosis.
- Muscular dystrophy.
- Muscle cramps.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyPantothenic acid is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth in appropriate amounts. The recommended amount for adults is 5 mg per day. Even larger amounts (up to 10 grams) seem to be safe for some people. But taking larger amounts increases the chance of having side effects such as diarrhea.
Dexpanthenol, a derivative of pantothenic acid, is POSSIBLY SAFE when applied to the skin, used as a nasal spray, or injected as a shot into the muscle appropriately, short-term.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Pantothenic acid is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in recommended amounts of 6 mg per day during pregnancy and 7 mg per day during breast-feeding. However, it is not known if taking more than this amount is safe. Avoid using larger amounts of pantothenic acid.
Children: Dexpanthenol, a derivative of pantothenic acid, is POSSIBLY SAFE for children when applied to the skin.
Hemophila: Do not take dexpanthenol, a derivative of pantothenic acid, if you have hemophila. It might increase the risk of bleeding.
Stomach blockage: Do not receive injections of dexpanthenol, a derivative of pantothenic acid, if you have a gastrointestinal blockage.
Ulcerative colitis: Use enemas containing dexpanthenol, a derivative of pantothenic acid, cautiously if you have ulcerative colitis.
We currently have no information for PANTOTHENIC ACID (VITAMIN B5) Interactions.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- As a dietary supplement: 5-10 mg of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5).
- Gehring, W. and Gloor, M. Effect of topically applied dexpanthenol on epidermal barrier function and stratum corneum hydration. Results of a human in vivo study. Arzneimittelforschung. 2000;50(7):659-663. View abstract.
- Gobbels, M. and Gross, D. [Clinical study of the effectiveness of a dexpanthenol containing artificial tears solution (Siccaprotect) in treatment of dry eyes]. Klin.Monbl.Augenheilkd. 1996;209(2-3):84-88. View abstract.
- Gulhas, N., Canpolat, H., Cicek, M., Yologlu, S., Togal, T., Durmus, M., and Ozcan, Ersoy M. Dexpanthenol pastille and benzydamine hydrochloride spray for the prevention of post-operative sore throat. Acta Anaesthesiol.Scand. 2007;51(2):239-243. View abstract.
- Haslock, D. I. and Wright, V. Pantothenic acid in the treatment of osteoarthrosis. Rheumatol.Phys.Med. 1971;11(1):10-13. View abstract.
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- Tantilipikorn, P., Tunsuriyawong, P., Jareoncharsri, P., Bedavanija, A., Assanasen, P., Bunnag, C., and Metheetrairut, C. A randomized, prospective, double-blind study of the efficacy of dexpanthenol nasal spray on the postoperative treatment of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis after endoscopic sinus surgery. J.Med.Assoc.Thai. 2012;95(1):58-63. View abstract.
- Vaxman, F., Olender, S., Lambert, A., Nisand, G., Aprahamian, M., Bruch, J. F., Didier, E., Volkmar, P., and Grenier, J. F. Effect of pantothenic acid and ascorbic acid supplementation on human skin wound healing process. A double-blind, prospective and randomized trial. Eur.Surg.Res. 1995;27(3):158-166. View abstract.
- Verse, T., Klocker, N., Riedel, F., Pirsig, W., and Scheithauer, M. O. [Dexpanthenol nasal spray in comparison to dexpanthenol nasal ointment. A prospective, randomised, open, cross-over study to compare nasal mucociliary clearance]. HNO 2004;52(7):611-615. View abstract.
- Wananukul, S., Limpongsanuruk, W., Singalavanija, S., and Wisuthsarewong, W. Comparison of dexpanthenol and zinc oxide ointment with ointment base in the treatment of irritant diaper dermatitis from diarrhea: a multicenter study. J.Med.Assoc.Thai. 2006;89(10):1654-1658. View abstract.
- Waterloh, E. and Groth, K. H. [Objectification of the efficacy of an ointment for joint injuries using a volumetric method]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1983;33(5):792-795. View abstract.
- Wolff, H. H. and Kieser, M. Hamamelis in children with skin disorders and skin injuries: results of an observational study. Eur.J.Pediatr. 2007;166(9):943-948. View abstract.
- Zollner, C., Mousa, S., Klinger, A., Forster, M., and Schafer, M. Topical fentanyl in a randomized, double-blind study in patients with corneal damage. Clin.J.Pain 2008;24(8):690-696. View abstract.
- Anon. Calcium pantothenate in arthritic conditions. A report from the General Practitioner Research Group. Practitioner 1980;224:208-11. View abstract.
- Arnold LE, Christopher J, Huestis RD, Smeltzer DJ. Megavitamins for minimal brain dysfunction. A placebo-controlled study. JAMA 1978;240:2642-43.. View abstract.
- Brenner A. The effects of megadoses of selected B complex vitamins on children with hyperkinesis: controlled studies with long-term follow-up. J Learn Disabil 1982;15:258-64. View abstract.
- Debourdeau PM, Djezzar S, Estival JL, et al. Life-threatening eosinophilic pleuropericardial effusion related to vitamins B5 and H. Ann Pharmacother 2001;35:424-6. View abstract.
- Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (2000). Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. Available at: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309065542/html/.
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- Ivy, J. L., Kammer, L., Ding, Z., Wang, B., Bernard, J. R., Liao, Y. H., and Hwang, J. Improved cycling time-trial performance after ingestion of a caffeine energy drink. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2009;19(1):61-78. View abstract.
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- Lokkevik E, Skovlund E, Reitan JB, et al. Skin treatment with bepanthen cream versus no cream during radiotherapy-a randomized, controlled trial. Acta Oncol 1996;35:1021-6. View abstract.
- Mets, M. A., Ketzer, S., Blom, C., van Gerven, M. H., van Willigenburg, G. M., Olivier, B., and Verster, J. C. Positive effects of Red Bull(R) Energy Drink on driving performance during prolonged driving. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2011;214(3):737-745. View abstract.
- Plesofsky-Vig N. Pantothenic acid. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th ed. Malvern, PA: Lea & Febiger, 1994.
- Rahn R, Adamietz IA, Boettcher HD, et al. Povidone-iodine to prevent mucositis in patients during antineoplastic radiochemotherapy. Dermatology 1997;195(Suppl 2):57-61. View abstract.
- Webster MJ. Physiological and performance responses to supplementation with thiamin and pantothenic acid derivatives. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1998;77:486-91. View abstract.
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- Yates AA, Schlicker SA, Suitor CW. Dietary reference intakes: The new basis for recommendations for calcium and related nutrients, B vitamins, and choline. J Am Diet Assoc 1998;98:699-706. View abstract.
- Adamietz, I. A., Rahn, R., Bottcher, H. D., Schafer, V., Reimer, K., and Fleischer, W. [Prevention of radiochemotherapy-induced mucositis. Value of the prophylactic mouth rinsing with PVP-iodine solution]. Strahlenther.Onkol. 1998;174(3):149-155. View abstract.
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- Becker-Schiebe, M., Mengs, U., Schaefer, M., Bulitta, M., and Hoffmann, W. Topical use of a silymarin-based preparation to prevent radiodermatitis : results of a prospective study in breast cancer patients. Strahlenther.Onkol. 2011;187(8):485-491. View abstract.
- Bergler, W., Sadick, H., Gotte, K., Riedel, F., and Hormann, K. Topical estrogens combined with argon plasma coagulation in the management of epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Ann.Otol.Rhinol.Laryngol. 2002;111(3 Pt 1):222-228. View abstract.
- Biro, K., Thaci, D., Ochsendorf, F. R., Kaufmann, R., and Boehncke, W. H. Efficacy of dexpanthenol in skin protection against irritation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Contact Dermatitis 2003;49(2):80-84. View abstract.
- Bonnet, Y. and Mercier, R. [Effect of bepanthene in visceral surgery]. Med.Chir Dig. 1980;9(1):79-81. View abstract.
- Brzezinska-Wcislo, L. [Evaluation of vitamin B6 and calcium pantothenate effectiveness on hair growth from clinical and trichographic aspects for treatment of diffuse alopecia in women]. Wiad.Lek. 2001;54(1-2):11-18. View abstract.
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- Camargo, F. B., Jr., Gaspar, L. R., and Maia Campos, P. M. Skin moisturizing effects of panthenol-based formulations. J.Cosmet.Sci. 2011;62(4):361-370. View abstract.
- Castello, M. and Milani, M. Efficacy of topical hydrating and emollient lotion containing 10% urea ISDIN(R) plus dexpanthenol (Ureadin Rx 10) in the treatment of skin xerosis and pruritus in hemodialyzed patients: an open prospective pilot trial. G.Ital.Dermatol.Venereol. 2011;146(5):321-325. View abstract.
- Champault, G. and Patel, J. C. [Treatment of constipation with Bepanthene]. Med.Chir Dig. 1977;6(1):57-59. View abstract.
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