PANTOTHENIC ACID (VITAMIN B5)
Acide D-Pantothénique, Acide Pantothénique, Ácido Pantoténico, Alcool Pantothénylique, B Complex Vitamin, Calcii Pantothenas, Calcium D-Pantothenate, Calcium Pantothenate, Complexe de Vitamines B, D-Calcium Pantothenate, D-Panthenol, D-Panthénol, D-Pantothénate de Calcium, D-Pantothenic Acid, D-Pantothenyl Alcohol, Dexpanthenol, Dexpanthénol, Dexpanthenolum, Pantéthine, Panthenol, Panthénol, Pantothenate, Pantothénate, Pantothénate de Calcium, Pantothenol, Pantothenylol, Vitamin B5, Vitamin B-5, Vitamina B5, Vitamine B5.
Overview InformationPantothenic acid is a vitamin, also known as vitamin B5. It is widely found in both plants and animals including meat, vegetables, cereal grains, legumes, eggs, and milk.
Vitamin B5 is commercially available as D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which are chemicals made in the lab from D-pantothenic acid.
Pantothenic acid is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations. Vitamin B complex generally includes vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin/niacinamide), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), and folic acid. However, some products do not contain all of these ingredients and some may include others, such as biotin, para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), choline bitartrate, and inositol.
Pantothenic acid has a long list of uses, although there isn't enough scientific evidence to determine whether it is effective for most of these uses. People take pantothenic acid for treating dietary deficiencies, acne, alcoholism, allergies, baldness, asthma, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, burning feet syndrome, yeast infections, heart failure, carpal tunnel syndrome, respiratory disorders, celiac disease, colitis, conjunctivitis, convulsions, and cystitis. It is also taken by mouth for dandruff, depression, diabetic nerve pain, enhancing immune function, improving athletic performance, tongue infections, gray hair, headache, hyperactivity, low blood sugar, trouble sleeping (insomnia), irritability, low blood pressure, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, muscular cramps in the legs associated with pregnancy or alcoholism, neuralgia, and obesity.
Pantothenic acid is also used orally for osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinson's disease, nerve pain, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), enlarged prostate, protection against mental and physical stress and anxiety, reducing adverse effects of thyroid therapy in congenital hypothyroidism, reducing signs of aging, reducing susceptibility to colds and other infections, retarded growth, shingles, skin disorders, stimulating adrenal glands, chronic fatigue syndrome, salicylate toxicity, streptomycin neurotoxicity, dizziness, and wound healing.
People apply dexpanthenol, which is made from pantothenic acid, to the skin for itching, promoting healing of mild eczemas and other skin conditions, insect stings, bites, poison ivy, diaper rash, and acne. It is also applied topically for preventing and treating skin reactions to radiation therapy.
How does it work?Pantothenic acid is important for our bodies to properly use carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids and for healthy skin.
Uses & Effectiveness
- Pantothenic acid deficiency. Taking pantothenic acid by mouth prevents and treats pantothenic acid deficiency.
Possibly Ineffective for
- Skin reactions from radiation therapy. Applying dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, to areas of irritated skin does not seem to help treat skin reactions from radiation therapy.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Athletic performance. Some research suggests that taking pantothenic acid in combination with pantethine and thiamine does not improve muscular strength or endurance in well-trained athletes.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There is conflicting evidence regarding the usefulness of pantothenic acid in combination with large doses of other vitamins for the treatment of ADHD.
- Constipation. Early research suggests that taking dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, by mouth daily or receiving dexpanthenol shots can help treat constipation.
- Dry eyes. Early research suggests that using specific eye drops (Siccaprotect) containing dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, does not improve most symptoms of dry eyes.
- Eye trauma. Some evidence suggests that applying gel or drops containing dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, reduces some symptoms of eye trauma. However, not all research is consistent.
- Osteoarthritis. Early research suggests that pantothenic acid (given as calcium pantothenate) does not reduce symptoms of osteoarthritis.
- Recovery after surgery. There is inconsistent evidence on the potential benefits of taking pantothenic acid after surgery. Taking pantothenic acid or dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, does not seem to improve bowel function after stomach surgery. However, taking dexpanthenol by mouth might reduce other symptoms after surgery, such as sore throat.
- Rheumatoid arthritis. Developing research suggests that pantothenic acid (given as calcium pantothenate) does not reduce the symptoms of arthritis in people with rheumatoid arthritis.
- Nasal dryness. Early research suggests that using a specific spray (Nasicur) that contains dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, helps relieve nasal dryness.
- Sinus infection. Early research suggests that using a nasal spray containing dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, after sinus surgery reduces discharge from the nose, but not other symptoms.
- Skin irritation. Research on the effects of pantothenic acid for preventing skin irritations is not consistent. Some early research suggests that a specific product (Bepanthol Handbalsam) containing dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, does not prevent skin irritation when applied to the skin. However, other research suggests that dexpanthenol ointment can prevent skin irritation.
- Sprains. Early research suggests that using a specific ointment (Hepathrombin-50,000-Salbe Adenylchemie) containing dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, as well as heparin and allantoin reduces swelling related to ankle sprains.
- Hair loss.
- Heart problems.
- Carpal tunnel syndrome.
- Lung disorders.
- Eye infections (conjunctivitis).
- Kidney disorders.
- Diabetic problems.
- Enhancing immune function.
- Low blood pressure.
- Inability to sleep (insomnia).
- Multiple sclerosis.
- Muscular dystrophy.
- Muscle cramps.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyPantothenic acid is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth in appropriate amounts. The recommended amount for adults is 5 mg per day. Even larger amounts (up to 10 grams) seem to be safe for some people. But taking larger amounts increases the chance of having side effects such as diarrhea.
Dexpanthenol, a derivative of pantothenic acid, is POSSIBLY SAFE when applied to the skin, used as a nasal spray, or injected as a shot into the muscle appropriately, short-term.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Pantothenic acid is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in recommended amounts of 6 mg per day during pregnancy and 7 mg per day during breast-feeding. However, it is not known if taking more than this amount is safe. Avoid using larger amounts of pantothenic acid.
Children: Dexpanthenol, a derivative of pantothenic acid, is POSSIBLY SAFE for children when applied to the skin.
Hemophila: Do not take dexpanthenol, a derivative of pantothenic acid, if you have hemophila. It might increase the risk of bleeding.
Stomach blockage: Do not receive injections of dexpanthenol, a derivative of pantothenic acid, if you have a gastrointestinal blockage.
Ulcerative colitis: Use enemas containing dexpanthenol, a derivative of pantothenic acid, cautiously if you have ulcerative colitis.
We currently have no information for PANTOTHENIC ACID (VITAMIN B5) Interactions.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- As a dietary supplement: 5-10 mg of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5).
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- Ali, A., Njike, V. Y., Northrup, V., Sabina, A. B., Williams, A. L., Liberti, L. S., Perlman, A. I., Adelson, H., and Katz, D. L. Intravenous micronutrient therapy (Myers' Cocktail) for fibromyalgia: a placebo-controlled pilot study. J.Altern.Complement Med. 2009;15(3):247-257. View abstract.
- Baumeister, M., Buhren, J., Ohrloff, C., and Kohnen, T. Corneal re-epithelialization following phototherapeutic keratectomy for recurrent corneal erosion as in vivo model of epithelial wound healing. Ophthalmologica 2009;223(6):414-418. View abstract.
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- Loftus, E. V., Jr., Tremaine, W. J., Nelson, R. A., Shoemaker, J. D., Sandborn, W. J., Phillips, S. F., and Hasan, Y. Dexpanthenol enemas in ulcerative colitis: a pilot study. Mayo Clin.Proc. 1997;72(7):616-620. View abstract.
- Marquardt, R., Christ, T., and Bonfils, P. [Gelatinous tear substitutes and nonspecific eye ointments in the critical care unit and in perioperative use]. Anasth.Intensivther.Notfallmed. 1987;22(5):235-238. View abstract.
- Mieny, C. J. Does pantothenic acid accelerate the return of bowel motility in post-operative patients? S.Afr.J.Surg. 1972;10(2):103-105. View abstract.
- Patrizi, A., Neri, I., Varotti, E., and Raone, B. [Clinical evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of the ''NoAll Bimbi Pasta Trattante'' barrier cream in napkin dermatitis]. Minerva Pediatr. 2007;59(1):23-28. View abstract.
- Petri, H., Pierchalla, P., and Tronnier, H. [The efficacy of drug therapy in structural lesions of the hair and in diffuse effluvium--comparative double blind study]. Schweiz.Rundsch.Med Prax. 11-20-1990;79(47):1457-1462. View abstract.
- Proksch, E. and Nissen, H. P. Dexpanthenol enhances skin barrier repair and reduces inflammation after sodium lauryl sulphate-induced irritation. J.Dermatolog.Treat. 2002;13(4):173-178. View abstract.
- Raczynska, K., Iwaszkiewicz-Bilikiewicz, B., and Stozkowska, W. [Gel with provitamin B5 applied during tests with the Goldmann triple-mirror]. Klin.Oczna 2003;105(3-4):179-181. View abstract.
- Raczynska, K., Iwaszkiewicz-Bilikiewicz, B., Stozkowska, W., and Sadlak-Nowicka, J. [Clinical evaluation of provitamin B5 drops and gel for postoperative treatment of corneal and conjuctival injuries]. Klin.Oczna 2003;105(3-4):175-178. View abstract.
- Riu, M., Flottes, L., Le, Den R., Lemouel, C., and Martin, J. C. [Clinical study of Thiopheol in oto-rhino-laryngology]. Rev.Laryngol.Otol.Rhinol.(Bord.) 1966;87(9):785-789. View abstract.
- Roper, B., Kaisig, D., Auer, F., Mergen, E., and Molls, M. Theta-Cream versus Bepanthol lotion in breast cancer patients under radiotherapy. A new prophylactic agent in skin care? Strahlenther.Onkol. 2004;180(5):315-322. View abstract.
- Schmuth, M., Wimmer, M. A., Hofer, S., Sztankay, A., Weinlich, G., Linder, D. M., Elias, P. M., Fritsch, P. O., and Fritsch, E. Topical corticosteroid therapy for acute radiation dermatitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Br.J.Dermatol. 2002;146(6):983-991. View abstract.
- Schreck, U., Paulsen, F., Bamberg, M., and Budach, W. Intraindividual comparison of two different skin care conceptions in patients undergoing radiotherapy of the head-and-neck region. Creme or powder? Strahlenther.Onkol. 2002;178(6):321-329. View abstract.
- Shibata, K., Fukuwatari, T., Watanabe, T., and Nishimuta, M. Intra- and inter-individual variations of blood and urinary water-soluble vitamins in Japanese young adults consuming a semi-purified diet for 7 days. J.Nutr.Sci.Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2009;55(6):459-470. View abstract.
- Smolle, M., Keller, C., Pinggera, G., Deibl, M., Rieder, J., and Lirk, P. Clear hydro-gel, compared to ointment, provides improved eye comfort after brief surgery. Can.J.Anaesth. 2004;51(2):126-129. View abstract.
- Tantilipikorn, P., Tunsuriyawong, P., Jareoncharsri, P., Bedavanija, A., Assanasen, P., Bunnag, C., and Metheetrairut, C. A randomized, prospective, double-blind study of the efficacy of dexpanthenol nasal spray on the postoperative treatment of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis after endoscopic sinus surgery. J.Med.Assoc.Thai. 2012;95(1):58-63. View abstract.
- Vaxman, F., Olender, S., Lambert, A., Nisand, G., Aprahamian, M., Bruch, J. F., Didier, E., Volkmar, P., and Grenier, J. F. Effect of pantothenic acid and ascorbic acid supplementation on human skin wound healing process. A double-blind, prospective and randomized trial. Eur.Surg.Res. 1995;27(3):158-166. View abstract.
- Verse, T., Klocker, N., Riedel, F., Pirsig, W., and Scheithauer, M. O. [Dexpanthenol nasal spray in comparison to dexpanthenol nasal ointment. A prospective, randomised, open, cross-over study to compare nasal mucociliary clearance]. HNO 2004;52(7):611-615. View abstract.
- Wananukul, S., Limpongsanuruk, W., Singalavanija, S., and Wisuthsarewong, W. Comparison of dexpanthenol and zinc oxide ointment with ointment base in the treatment of irritant diaper dermatitis from diarrhea: a multicenter study. J.Med.Assoc.Thai. 2006;89(10):1654-1658. View abstract.
- Waterloh, E. and Groth, K. H. [Objectification of the efficacy of an ointment for joint injuries using a volumetric method]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1983;33(5):792-795. View abstract.
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- Arnold LE, Christopher J, Huestis RD, Smeltzer DJ. Megavitamins for minimal brain dysfunction. A placebo-controlled study. JAMA 1978;240:2642-43.. View abstract.
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- Debourdeau PM, Djezzar S, Estival JL, et al. Life-threatening eosinophilic pleuropericardial effusion related to vitamins B5 and H. Ann Pharmacother 2001;35:424-6. View abstract.
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