GUAR GUM

OTHER NAME(S):

Cyamopsis psoraloides, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, Dietary Fiber, Dolichos psoraloides, Farine de Guar, Fibre Alimentaire, Goma Guar, Gomme de Guar, Gomme de Jaguar, Guar Flour, Indian Cluster Bean, Indian Guar Plant, Jaguar Gum, Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum, PHGG, Psoralea tetragonoloba. <br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Guar gum is a fiber from the seed of the guar plant.

Guar gum is used as a laxative for treating constipation. It is also used for treating diarrhea, diarrhea due to cancer drugs, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), weight loss, diabetes, a liver disorder in pregnancy (intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy), and anal fissures. It is also used for high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and a condition known as "small intestinal bacterial overgrowth." It is also used for preventing drops in blood pressure after a meal (postprandial hypotension).

In foods and beverages, guar gum is used as a thickening, stabilizing, suspending, and binding agent.

In manufacturing, guar gum is used as a binding agent in tablets, and as a thickening agent in lotions and creams.

How does it work?

Guar gum is a fiber that normalizes the moisture content of the stool, absorbing excess liquid in diarrhea, and softening the stool in constipation. It also might help decrease the amount of cholesterol and glucose that is absorbed in the stomach and intestines.

There is some interest in using guar gum for weight loss because it expands in the intestine, causing a sense of fullness. This may decrease appetite.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Possibly Effective for

  • Constipation. Taking guar gum by mouth appears to relieve constipation in some adults and children.
  • Diarrhea. Adding guar gum to tube feeding formula given to critical care patients may shorten episodes of diarrhea. Guar gum also appears to shorten episodes of diarrhea in children with recent onset or persistent diarrhea. Guar gum does not seem to improve diarrhea in adults with cholera.
  • High cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia). Taking guar gum seems to lower cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol. Guar gum and pectin, taken with small amounts of insoluble fiber, also lower total and "bad" low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, but don't affect "good" high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol or other blood fats called triglycerides.
  • High blood pressure (hypertension). Taking guar gum with each meal might reduce blood pressure in people with high blood pressure. However, the effects of guar gum seem to be less than the effects of psyllium husk.
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Taking guar gum by mouth might reduce stomach pain and improve bowel function and quality of life in people with IBS.

Possibly Ineffective for

  • Weight loss. Taking guar gum by mouth does not seem to help people lose weight.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Anal fissures. Early research suggests that adding guar gum to the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG does not reduce diarrhea in people receiving cancer treatment with the medication 5-fluorouracil.
  • Preventing diarrhea due to cancer treatment (chemotherapy). Early research shows that adding guar gum to the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG does not reduce diarrhea in people receiving the cancer treatment called 5-fluorouracil.
  • Diabetes. Some early research shows that taking guar gum with meals might lower post-meal blood sugar levels in people with type 1 diabetes. The effect of guar gum in people with type 2 diabetes is conflicting.
  • Liver disorder in pregnancy (intrahepatic cholestasis). Early research shows that taking a specific granulated guar gum product (Guarem) does not reduce itching or improve liver function in pregnant women with a specific liver disorder called intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.
  • Decreases in blood pressure following a meal (postprandial hypotension). Early research shows that guar gum prevents decreases in blood pressure after eating a meal in people with type 2 diabetes or women who have a history of low blood pressure after eating.
  • Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Early research shows that taking guar gum with the drug rifaximin helps remove bacteria better than taking rifaximin alone in people with SIBO.
  • Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis).
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of guar gum for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Guar gum is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth with at least 8 ounces of liquid. The water is important because it reduces the chance of choking or developing a blockage in the intestine.

Side effects include increased gas production, diarrhea, and loose stools. These side effects usually decrease or disappear after several days of use. High doses of guar gum or not drinking enough fluid with the dose of guar gum can cause blockage of the esophagus and the intestines.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Children: Taking guar gum 3-5 grams daily is POSSIBLY SAFE in children 4-16 years of age.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Taking guar gum during pregnancy in typical amounts is POSSIBLY SAFE. But not enough is known about the safety of taking guar gum during breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Diabetes: Guar gum might lower blood sugar levels in some people. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use guar gum.

Gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction: Don't take guar gum if you have a condition that causes obstruction or narrowing of your esophagus or intestine.

Low blood pressure: Guar gum might lower blood pressure. In theory, taking guar gum might make blood pressure become too low in people with low blood pressure.

Surgery: Because guar gum might affect blood glucose levels and blood pressure, there is a concern that it might interfere with blood glucose and blood pressure control during and after surgery. Stop taking guar gum at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Interactions

Interactions?

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

!
  • Ethinyl estradiol interacts with GUAR GUM

    Ethinyl estradiol is a form of estrogen that's in some estrogen products and birth control pills. Guar gum can decrease how much ethinyl estradiol the body absorbs. Taking guar gum along with estrogen-containing medicines might decrease the effectiveness of estrogen.

  • Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs) interacts with GUAR GUM

    Guar gum might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking guar gum along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.<br/><br/> Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.

  • Metformin (Glucophage) interacts with GUAR GUM

    Guar gum can decrease how much metformin the body absorbs. Taking guar gum along with metformin can decrease the effectiveness of metformin.

  • Penicillin (Penicillin VK, Pen VK, Veetids) interacts with GUAR GUM

    Guar gum can decrease how much penicillin the body absorbs. Taking guar gum along with penicillin can decrease the ability of penicillin to fight infection.

Minor Interaction

Be watchful with this combination

!
  • Digoxin (Lanoxin) interacts with GUAR GUM

    Some people worry that guar gum can decrease how much digoxin the body absorbs. But it is unlikely that guar gum will significantly affect digoxin absorption.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

ADULTS

BY MOUTH:

  • For constipation: 4-22 grams of guar gum daily have been used. Start with a small dose of 4 grams per day and increase the dose slowly over time to limit unwanted gastrointestinal (GI) side effects.
  • For diarrhea: In critical care patients, adding 22 grams of guar gum to one liter of enteral feeding formula has been used. A 2% guar gum enteral feeding formula has also been used.
  • For high blood pressure: 7-10 grams of guar gum three times daily has been used.
  • For high cholesterol: 15-18 grams of guar gum daily in single or divided doses has been used.
  • For irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): 5-10 grams of guar gum daily has been used.
CHILDREN

BY MOUTH:
  • For constipation: Guar gum that is partially hydrolyzed, meaning the fibers are broken down into smaller fragments, has been used in children. Doses of 3 grams daily has been used in children 4-6 years of age, 4 grams daily has been used in children 6-12 years of age, and 5 grams daily has been used in children 12-16 years of age.
  • For diarrhea: Adding 15-20 grams of partially hydrolyzed guar gum per liter of rehydration solution has been used in children aged 4-36 months of age with acute or persistent diarrhea. For acute diarrhea, treatment should be continued until recovery or up to a maximum of 7 days. For persistent diarrhea, treatment may last for up to 7 days.
  • For irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): 5 grams of guar gum daily has been used.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Adam, T. C. and Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. Glucagon-like peptide-1 release and satiety after a nutrient challenge in normal-weight and obese subjects. Br.J.Nutr. 2005;93(6):845-851. View abstract.
  • Alam, N. H., Ashraf, H., Sarker, S. A., Olesen, M., Troup, J., Salam, M. A., Gyr, N., and Meier, R. Efficacy of partially hydrolyzed guar gum-added oral rehydration solution in the treatment of severe cholera in adults. Digestion 2008;78(1):24-29. View abstract.
  • Alam, N. H., Meier, R., Sarker, S. A., Bardhan, P. K., Schneider, H., and Gyr, N. Partially hydrolysed guar gum supplemented comminuted chicken diet in persistent diarrhoea: a randomised controlled trial. Arch.Dis.Child 2005;90(2):195-199. View abstract.
  • Alam, N. H., Meier, R., Schneider, H., Sarker, S. A., Bardhan, P. K., Mahalanabis, D., Fuchs, G. J., and Gyr, N. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum-supplemented oral rehydration solution in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children. J.Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr. 2000;31(5):503-507. View abstract.
  • Aro, A., Uusitupa, M., Voutilainen, E., and Korhonen, T. Effects of guar gum in male subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1984;39(6):911-916. View abstract.
  • Aro, A., Uusitupa, M., Voutilainen, E., Hersio, K., Korhonen, T., and Siitonen, O. Improved diabetic control and hypocholesterolaemic effect induced by long-term dietary supplementation with guar gum in type 2 (insulin-independent) diabetes. Diabetologia 1981;21(1):29-33. View abstract.
  • Arsenio, L., Cavalli Sforza, L. T., Magnati, G., and Strata, A. [Clinical study of the use of a deproteinized guar flour in the treatment of obesity]. Acta Biomed.Ateneo.Parmense. 1981;52(4):149-157. View abstract.
  • Beattie, V. A., Edwards, C. A., Hosker, J. P., Cullen, D. R., Ward, J. D., and Read, N. W. Does adding fibre to a low energy, high carbohydrate, low fat diet confer any benefit to the management of newly diagnosed overweight type II diabetics? Br.Med.J.(Clin.Res.Ed) 4-23-1988;296(6630):1147-1149. View abstract.
  • Behall, K. M. Effect of soluble fibers on plasma lipids, glucose tolerance and mineral balance. Adv.Exp.Med.Biol. 1990;270:7-16. View abstract.
  • Belo, G. M., Diniz, Ada S., and Pereira, A. P. [Effect of partially hidrolized guar-gum in the treatment of functional constipation among hospitalized patients]. Arq Gastroenterol. 2008;45(1):93-95. View abstract.
  • Bhardwaj, P. K., Dasgupta, D. J., Prashar, B. S., and Kaushal, S. S. Effective reduction of LDL cholesterol by indigenous plant product. J.Indian Med.Assoc. 1994;92(3):80-81. View abstract.
  • Birketvedt, G. S., Shimshi, M., Erling, T., and Florholmen, J. Experiences with three different fiber supplements in weight reduction. Med Sci Monit. 2005;11(1):I5-I8. View abstract.
  • Blake, D. E., Hamblett, C. J., Frost, P. G., Judd, P. A., and Ellis, P. R. Wheat bread supplemented with depolymerized guar gum reduces the plasma cholesterol concentration in hypercholesterolemic human subjects. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1997;65(1):107-113. View abstract.
  • Bruttomesso, D., Briani, G., Bilardo, G., Vitale, E., Lavagnini, T., Marescotti, C., Duner, E., Giorato, C., and Tiengo, A. The medium-term effect of natural or extractive dietary fibres on plasma amino acids and lipids in type 1 diabetics. Diabetes Res.Clin.Pract. 2-15-1989;6(2):149-155. View abstract.
  • Burrows, R. F., Clavisi, O., and Burrows, E. Interventions for treating cholestasis in pregnancy (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database.Syst Rev 2001;4:CD000493. View abstract.
  • Calvo-Rubio, Burgos M., Montero Perez, F. J., Campos, Sanchez L., Barco, Enriquez C., Ruiz, Aragon J., and Tapia, Berbel G. [Use of guar gum as a supplement to the usual diet in type 2 diabetes. A long-term study]. Aten.Primaria 1989;6 Spec No:20-5, 28. View abstract.
  • Castro, I. A., Monteiro, V. C., Barroso, L. P., and Bertolami, M. C. Effect of eicosapentaenoic/docosahexaenoic fatty acids and soluble fibers on blood lipids of individuals classified into different levels of lipidemia. Nutrition 2007;23(2):127-137. View abstract.
  • Cicero, A. F., Derosa, G., Manca, M., Bove, M., Borghi, C., and Gaddi, A. V. Different effect of psyllium and guar dietary supplementation on blood pressure control in hypertensive overweight patients: a six-month, randomized clinical trial. Clin.Exp.Hypertens. 2007;29(6):383-394. View abstract.
  • Cohen, M., Leong, V. W., Salmon, E., and Martin, F. I. Role of guar and dietary fibre in the management of diabetes mellitus. Med.J.Aust. 1-26-1980;1(2):59-61. View abstract.
  • Diaferia, A., Nicastri, P. L., Tartagni, M., Loizzi, P., Iacovizzi, C., and Di, Leo A. Ursodeoxycholic acid therapy in pregnant women with cholestasis. Int.J.Gynaecol.Obstet. 1996;52(2):133-140. View abstract.
  • Dikeman, C. L., Murphy, M. R., and Fahey, G. C., Jr. Dietary fibers affect viscosity of solutions and simulated human gastric and small intestinal digesta. J Nutr 2006;136(4):913-919. View abstract.
  • Ellis, P. R., Dawoud, F. M., and Morris, E. R. Blood glucose, plasma insulin and sensory responses to guar-containing wheat breads: effects of molecular weight and particle size of guar gum. Br.J.Nutr. 1991;66(3):363-379. View abstract.
  • Ellis, P. R., Kamalanathan, T., Dawoud, F. M., Strange, R. N., and Coultate, T. P. Evaluation of guar biscuits for use in the management of diabetes: tests of physiological effects and palatability in non-diabetic volunteers. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 1988;42(5):425-435. View abstract.
  • Frezza, M., Pozzato, G., Chiesa, L., Stramentinoli, G., and Di Padova, C. Reversal of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy in women after high dose S-adenosyl-L-methionine administration. Hepatology 1984;4(2):274-278. View abstract.
  • Fuessl, H. S., Williams, G., Adrian, T. E., and Bloom, S. R. Guar sprinkled on food: effect on glycaemic control, plasma lipids and gut hormones in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Diabet.Med. 1987;4(5):463-468. View abstract.
  • Giannini, E. G., Mansi, C., Dulbecco, P., and Savarino, V. Role of partially hydrolyzed guar gum in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Nutrition 2006;22(3):334-342. View abstract.
  • Groop, P. H., Groop, L., Totterman, K. J., and Fyhrquist, F. Relationship between changes in GIP concentrations and changes in insulin and C-peptide concentrations after guar gum therapy. Scand.J.Clin.Lab Invest 1986;46(6):505-510. View abstract.
  • Gulliford, M. C., Pover, G. G., Bicknell, E. J., and Scarpello, J. H. Guar delays intestinal calcium absorption in man. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 1988;42(5):451-454. View abstract.
  • Gylling, H., Riikonen, S., Nikkila, K., Savonius, H., and Miettinen, T. A. Oral guar gum treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis and pruritus in pregnant women: effects on serum cholestanol and other non-cholesterol sterols. Eur.J.Clin.Invest 1998;28(5):359-363. View abstract.
  • Halama, W. H. and Mauldin, J. L. Distal esophageal obstruction due to a guar gum preparation (Cal-Ban 3000). South.Med.J. 1992;85(6):642-645. View abstract.
  • Haskell, W. L., Spiller, G. A., Jensen, C. D., Ellis, B. K., and Gates, J. E. Role of water-soluble dietary fiber in the management of elevated plasma cholesterol in healthy subjects. Am J Cardiol. 2-15-1992;69(5):433-439. View abstract.
  • Heijnen, M. L., van Amelsvoort, J. M., and Weststrate, J. A. Interaction between physical structure and amylose:amylopectin ratio of foods on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy subjects. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 1995;49(6):446-457. View abstract.
  • Heini, A. F., Lara-Castro, C., Schneider, H., Kirk, K. A., Considine, R. V., and Weinsier, R. L. Effect of hydrolyzed guar fiber on fasting and postprandial satiety and satiety hormones: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial during controlled weight loss. Int.J.Obes.Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22(9):906-909. View abstract.
  • Holman, R. R., Steemson, J., Darling, P., and Turner, R. C. No glycemic benefit from guar administration in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1987;10(1):68-71. View abstract.
  • Homann, H. H., Kemen, M., Fuessenich, C., Senkal, M., and Zumtobel, V. Reduction in diarrhea incidence by soluble fiber in patients receiving total or supplemental enteral nutrition. JPEN J.Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1994;18(6):486-490. View abstract.
  • Jenkins, D. J., Newton, C., Leeds, A. R., and Cummings, J. H. Effect of pectin, guar gum, and wheat fibre on serum-cholesterol. Lancet 5-17-1975;1(7916):1116-1117. View abstract.
  • Johansen, K. Decreased urinary glucose excretion and plasma cholesterol level in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients with guar. Diabete Metab 1981;7(2):87-90. View abstract.
  • Jones, K. L., MacIntosh, C., Su, Y. C., Wells, F., Chapman, I. M., Tonkin, A., and Horowitz, M. Guar gum reduces postprandial hypotension in older people. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 2001;49(2):162-167. View abstract.
  • Khan, A. R., Khan, G. Y., Mitchel, A., and Qadeer, M. A. Effect of guar gum on blood lipids. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1981;34(11):2446-2449. View abstract.
  • Kovacs, E. M., Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S., Saris, W. H., Goossens, I., Geurten, P., and Brouns, F. The effect of addition of modified guar gum to a low-energy semisolid meal on appetite and body weight loss. Int.J.Obes.Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25(3):307-315. View abstract.
  • Kovacs, E. M., Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S., Saris, W. H., Melanson, K. J., Goossens, I., Geurten, P., and Brouns, F. Associations between spontaneous meal initiations and blood glucose dynamics in overweight men in negative energy balance. Br.J.Nutr. 2002;87(1):39-45. View abstract.
  • Kovacs, E. M., Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S., Saris, W. H., Melanson, K. J., Goossens, I., Geurten, P., and Brouns, F. The effect of guar gum addition to a semisolid meal on appetite related to blood glucose, in dieting men. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2002;56(8):771-778. View abstract.
  • Krarup, T. and Sestoft, L. [Lack of effect of guar gum (Slocose) on blood glucose in insulin-treated diabetes mellitus]. Ugeskr.Laeger 11-3-1980;142(45):2979-2981. View abstract.
  • Krotkiewski, M. Effect of guar gum on the arterial blood pressure. Acta Med.Scand. 1987;222(1):43-49. View abstract.
  • Lampe, J. W., Effertz, M. E., Larson, J. L., and Slavin, J. L. Gastrointestinal effects of modified guar gum and soy polysaccharide as part of an enteral formula diet. JPEN J.Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1992;16(6):538-544. View abstract.
  • Landin, K., Holm, G., Tengborn, L., and Smith, U. Guar gum improves insulin sensitivity, blood lipids, blood pressure, and fibrinolysis in healthy men. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1992;56(6):1061-1065. View abstract.
  • Makkonen, M., Simpanen, A. L., Saarikoski, S., Uusitupa, M., Penttila, I., Silvasti, M., and Korhonen, P. Endocrine and metabolic effects of guar gum in menopausal women. Gynecol.Endocrinol. 1993;7(2):135-141. View abstract.
  • McIvor, M. E., Cummings, C. C., Van Duyn, M. A., Leo, T. A., Margolis, S., Behall, K. M., Michnowski, J. E., and Mendeloff, A. I. Long-term effects of guar gum on blood lipids. Atherosclerosis 1986;60(1):7-13. View abstract.
  • Niemi, M. K., Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S. M., and Salmela, P. I. Long-term effects of guar gum and microcrystalline cellulose on glycaemic control and serum lipids in type 2 diabetes. Eur.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 1988;34(4):427-429. View abstract.
  • O'Donovan, D., Feinle-Bisset, C., Chong, C., Cameron, A., Tonkin, A., Wishart, J., Horowitz, M., and Jones, K. L. Intraduodenal guar attenuates the fall in blood pressure induced by glucose in healthy older adults. J.Gerontol.A Biol.Sci.Med.Sci. 2005;60(7):940-946. View abstract.
  • Palma, J., Reyes, H., Ribalta, J., Hernandez, I., Sandoval, L., Almuna, R., Liepins, J., Lira, F., Sedano, M., Silva, O., Toha, D., and Silva, J. J. Ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of cholestasis of pregnancy: a randomized, double-blind study controlled with placebo. J.Hepatol. 1997;27(6):1022-1028. View abstract.
  • Parisi, G., Bottona, E., Carrara, M., Cardin, F., Faedo, A., Goldin, D., Marino, M., Pantalena, M., Tafner, G., Verdianelli, G., Zilli, M., and Leandro, G. Treatment effects of partially hydrolyzed guar gum on symptoms and quality of life of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. A multicenter randomized open trial. Dig.Dis.Sci. 2005;50(6):1107-1112. View abstract.
  • Pasman, W. J., Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S., Muls, E., Vansant, G., van, Ree J., and Saris, W. H. The effectiveness of long-term fibre supplementation on weight maintenance in weight-reduced women. Int.J.Obes.Relat Metab Disord. 1997;21(7):548-555. View abstract.
  • Penagini, R., Velio, P., Vigorelli, R., Bozzani, A., Castagnone, D., Ranzi, T., and Bianchi, P. A. The effect of dietary guar on serum cholesterol, intestinal transit, and fecal output in man. Am.J.Gastroenterol. 1986;81(2):123-125. View abstract.
  • Pittler, M. H. and Ernst, E. Dietary supplements for body-weight reduction: a systematic review. Am.J.Clin Nutr. 2004;79(4):529-536. View abstract.
  • Rajala, S. A., Salminen, S. J., Seppanen, J. H., and Vapaatalo, H. Treatment of chronic constipation with lactitol sweetened yoghurt supplemented with guar gum and wheat bran in elderly hospital in-patients. Compr.Gerontol.A 1988;2(2):83-86. View abstract.
  • Requejo, F., Uttenthal, L. O., and Bloom, S. R. Effects of alpha-glucosidase inhibition and viscous fibre on diabetic control and postprandial gut hormone responses. Diabet.Med. 1990;7(6):515-520. View abstract.
  • Ribalta, J., Reyes, H., Gonzalez, M. C., Iglesias, J., Arrese, M., Poniachik, J., Molina, C., and Segovia, N. S-adenosyl-L-methionine in the treatment of patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled study with negative results. Hepatology 1991;13(6):1084-1089. View abstract.
  • Riikonen, S., Savonius, H., Gylling, H., Nikkila, K., Tuomi, A. M., and Miettinen, T. A. Oral guar gum, a gel-forming dietary fiber relieves pruritus in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Acta Obstet.Gynecol.Scand. 2000;79(4):260-264. View abstract.
  • Rushdi, T. A., Pichard, C., and Khater, Y. H. Control of diarrhea by fiber-enriched diet in ICU patients on enteral nutrition: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Clin.Nutr. 2004;23(6):1344-1352. View abstract.
  • Sadhukhan, B., Roychowdhury, U., Banerjee, P., and Sen, S. Clinical evaluation of a herbal antidiabetic product. J.Indian Med.Assoc. 1994;92(4):115-117. View abstract.
  • Stahl, M. and Berger, W. [Comparison of guar gum, wheat bran and placebo on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in type II diabetics]. Schweiz.Med.Wochenschr. 3-24-1990;120(12):402-408. View abstract.
  • Stokholm, K. H., Lauritsen, K. B., and Larsen, S. Reduced glycosuria during guar gum supplementation in non-insulin-dependent diabetics. A double-blind, randomised cross-over study. Dan.Med.Bull. 1981;28(1):41-42. View abstract.
  • Theuwissen, E. and Mensink, R. P. Water-soluble dietary fibers and cardiovascular disease. Physiol Behav. 5-23-2008;94(2):285-292. View abstract.
  • Tuomilehto, J., Silvasti, M., Aro, A., Koistinen, A., Karttunen, P., Gref, C. G., Ehnholm, C., and Uusitupa, M. Long term treatment of severe hypercholesterolaemia with guar gum. Atherosclerosis 1988;72(2-3):157-162. View abstract.
  • Tuomilehto, J., Silvasti, M., Manninen, V., Uusitupa, M., and Aro, A. Guar gum and gemfibrozil--an effective combination in the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia. Atherosclerosis 1989;76(1):71-77. View abstract.
  • Tuomilehto, J., Voutilainen, E., Huttunen, J., Vinni, S., and Homan, K. Effect of guar gum on body weight and serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic females. Acta Med.Scand. 1980;208(1-2):45-48. View abstract.
  • Turner, P. R., Tuomilehto, J., Happonen, P., La Ville, A. E., Shaikh, M., and Lewis, B. Metabolic studies on the hypolipidaemic effect of guar gum. Atherosclerosis 1990;81(2):145-150. View abstract.
  • Uusitupa, M., Siitonen, O., Savolainen, K., Silvasti, M., Penttila, I., and Parviainen, M. Metabolic and nutritional effects of long-term use of guar gum in the treatment of noninsulin-dependent diabetes of poor metabolic control. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1989;49(2):345-351. View abstract.
  • Uusitupa, M., Sodervik, H., Silvasti, M., and Karttunen, P. Effects of a gel forming dietary fiber, guar gum, on the absorption of glibenclamide and metabolic control and serum lipids in patients with non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes. Int.J.Clin.Pharmacol.Ther.Toxicol. 1990;28(4):153-157. View abstract.
  • Uusitupa, M., Tuomilehto, J., Karttunen, P., and Wolf, E. Long term effects of guar gum on metabolic control, serum cholesterol and blood pressure levels in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with high blood pressure. Ann.Clin.Res. 1984;16 Suppl 43:126-131. View abstract.
  • Vaaler, S., Hanssen, K. F., Dahl-Jorgensen, K., Frolich, W., Aaseth, J., Odegaard, B., and Aagenaes, O. Diabetic control is improved by guar gum and wheat bran supplementation. Diabet.Med. 1986;3(3):230-233. View abstract.
  • Vajifdar, B. U., Goyal, V. S., Lokhandwala, Y. Y., Mhamunkar, S. R., Mahadik, S. P., Gawad, A. K., Halankar, S. A., and Kulkarni, H. L. Is dietary fiber beneficial in chronic ischemic heart disease? J Assoc.Physicians India 2000;48(9):871-876. View abstract.
  • Van Duyn, M. A., Leo, T. A., McIvor, M. E., Behall, K. M., Michnowski, J. E., and Mendeloff, A. I. Nutritional risk of high-carbohydrate, guar gum dietary supplementation in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1986;9(5):497-503. View abstract.
  • Williams, J. A., Lai, C. S., Corwin, H., Ma, Y., Maki, K. C., Garleb, K. A., and Wolf, B. W. Inclusion of guar gum and alginate into a crispy bar improves postprandial glycemia in humans. J.Nutr. 2004;134(4):886-889. View abstract.
  • Wolf, B. W., Wolever, T. M., Lai, C. S., Bolognesi, C., Radmard, R., Maharry, K. S., Garleb, K. A., Hertzler, S. R., and Firkins, J. L. Effects of a beverage containing an enzymatically induced-viscosity dietary fiber, with or without fructose, on the postprandial glycemic response to a high glycemic index food in humans. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2003;57(9):1120-1127. View abstract.
  • Wolffenbuttel, B. H., Sels, J. P., Heesen, B. J., Menheere, P. P., and Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, A. C. [Effects of dietary fiber and insulin treatment on serum levels of lipids and lipoprotein (a) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus]. Ned.Tijdschr.Geneeskd. 4-11-1992;136(15):739-742. View abstract.
  • Yamashita, S., Ishigami, M., Arai, T., Sakai, N., Hirano, K., Kameda-Takemura, K., Tokunaga, K., and Matsuzawa, Y. Very high density lipoproteins induced by plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) have a potent antiatherogenic function. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 1-17-1995;748:606-608. View abstract.
  • Alam NH, Ashraf H, Kamruzzaman M, et al. Efficacy of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) supplemented modified oral rehydration solution in the treatment of severely malnourished children with watery diarrhea: a randomised double-blind controlled trial. J Health Popul Nutr 2015;34:3. View abstract.
  • Brillantino A, Iacobellis F, Izzo G, et al. Maintenance therapy with partially hydrolyzed guar gum in the conservative treatment of chronic anal fissure: results of a prospective, randomized study. Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:964942. View abstract.
  • Brown L, Rosner B, Willett WW, Sacks FM. Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:30-42. View abstract.
  • Chuang LM, Jou TS, Yang WS, et al. Therapeutic effect of guar gum in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Formos Med Assoc 1992;91:15-9. View abstract.
  • Cummings, J. H., Branch, W., Jenkins, D. J., Southgate, D. A., Houston, H., and James, W. P. Colonic response to dietary fibre from carrot, cabbage, apple, bran. Lancet 1978;1(8054):5-9. View abstract.
  • Ebeling P, Yki-Jarvinen H, Aro A, et al. Glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in type 1 diabetes: the effect of guar gum. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;48:98-103. View abstract.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Floreani A., Paternoster D., Melis A., Grella P. V. S-adenosylmethionine versus ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: preliminary results of a controlled trial. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1996;67(2):109-113. View abstract.
  • Frezza M, Centini G, Cammareri G, et al. S-adenosylmethionine for the treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Results of a controlled clinical trial. Hepatogastroenterology 1990;37:122-5. View abstract.
  • Furnari M, Parodi A, Gemignani L, et al. Clinical trial: the combination of rifaximin with partially hydrolysed guar gum is more effective than rifaximin alone in eradicating small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010;32(8):1000-6. View abstract.
  • Garcia JJ, Fernandez N, Diez MJ, et al. Influence of two dietary fibers in the oral bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic parameters of ethinyloestradiol. Contraception 2000;62:253-7. View abstract.
  • Gatenby SJ, Ellis PR, Morgan LM, Judd PA. Effect of partially depolymerized guar gum on acute metabolic variables in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabet Med 1996;13:358-64. View abstract.
  • Gin H, Orgerie MB, Aubertin J. The influence of Guar gum on absorption of metformin from the gut in healthy volunteers. Horm Metab Res 1989;21:81-3. View abstract.
  • Groop PH, Aro A, Stenman S, Groop L. Long-term effects of guar gum in subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;58:513-8. View abstract.
  • Hunninghake DB, Miller VT, LaRosa JC, et al. R. Long-term treatment of hypercholesterolemia with dietary fiber. Am.J.Med. 1994;97:504-508. View abstract.
  • Huupponen R, Seppala P, Iisalo E. Effect of guar gum, a fibre preparation, on digoxin and penicillin absorption in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1984;26:279-81. View abstract.
  • Jang AL, Hwang SK, Kim DU. Effects of guar gum ingestion on postprandial blood pressure in older adults. J Nutr Health Aging. 2015;19(3):299-304. View abstract.
  • Jensen CD, Haskell W, Whittam JH. Long-term effects of water-soluble dietary fiber in the management of hypercholesterolemia in healthy men and women. Am J Cardiol 1997;79:34-7. View abstract.
  • Jensen CD, Spiller GA, Gates JE, et al. The effect of acacia gum and a water-soluble dietary fiber mixture on blood lipids in humans. J Am Coll Nutr 1993;12:147-54. View abstract.
  • Kaaja RJ, Kontula KK, Raiha A, Laatikainen T. Treatment of cholestasis of pregnancy with peroral activated charcoal. A preliminary study. Scand J Gastroenterol 1994;29:178-81. View abstract.
  • Knopp RH, Superko HR, Davidson M, et al. Long-term blood cholesterol-lowering effects of a dietary fiber supplement. Am J Prev Med 1999;17:18-23. View abstract.
  • Lagier F, Cartier A, Somer J, et al. Occupational asthma caused by guar gum. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990;85:785-90. View abstract.
  • Lalor BC, Bhatnagar D, Winocour PH, et al. Placebo-controlled trial of the effects of guar gum and metformin on fasting blood glucose and serum lipids in obese, type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 1990;7:242-5. View abstract.
  • Lembcke B, Hasler K, Kramer P, et al. Plasma digoxin concentrations during administration of dietary fibre (guar gum) in man. Z Gastroenterol 1982;20;164-7. View abstract.
  • Lewis JH. Esophageal and small bowel obstruction from guar gum-containing diet pills: analysis of 26 cases reported to the FDA. Am J Gastroenterol 1992;87:1424-8. View abstract.
  • Malo JL, Cartier A, L'Archeveque J, et al. Prevalence of occupational asthma and immunologic sensitization to guar gum among employees at a carpet-manufacturing plant. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990;86:562-9. View abstract.
  • Mudgil D, Barak S, Khatkar BS. Guar gum: processing, properties and food applications- a review. J Food Sci Technol 2014;51(3):409-18. View abstract.
  • Nicastri P. L., Diaferia A., Tartagni M., Loizzi P., Fanelli M. A randomised placebo-controlled trial of ursodeoxycholic acid and S-adenosylmethionine in the treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1998;105(11):1205-1207. View abstract.
  • O'Connor N, Tredger J, Morgan L. Viscosity differences between various guar gums. Diabetologia 1981;20(6):612-5. View abstract.
  • Osterlund P, Ruotsalainen T, Korpela R, et al. Lactobacillus supplementation for diarrhoea related to chemotherapy of colorectal cancer: a randomised study. Br J Cancer 2007;97:1028-34. View abstract.
  • Parisi GC, Zilli M, Miani MP, et al. High-fiber diet supplementation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): a multicenter, randomized, open trial comparison between wheat bran diet and partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG). Dig Dis Sci 2002;47:1697-704.. View abstract.
  • Patrick PG, Gohman SM, Marx SC, et al. Effect of supplements of partially hydrolyzed guar gum on the occurrence of constipation and use of laxative agents. J Am Diet Assoc 1998;98:912-4.
  • Paul SP, Barnard P, Edate S, Candy DC. Stool consistency and abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome may be improved by partially hydrolysed guar gum. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2011;53(5):582-3. View abstract.
  • Pittler MH, Ernst E. Guar gum for body weight reduction: Meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Med 2001;110:724-30. View abstract.
  • Polymeros D, Beintaris I, Gaglia A, et al. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum accelerates colonic transit time and improves symptoms in adults with chronic constipation. Dig Dis Sci 2014;59(9):2207-14. View abstract.
  • Romano C, Comito C, Famiani A, et al. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum in pediatric functional abdominal pain. World J Gastroenterol 2013;19(2):235-40. View abstract.
  • Russo A, Stevens JE, Wilson T, et al. Guar attenuates fall in postprandial blood pressure and slows gastric emptying of oral glucose in type 2 diabetes. Dig Dis Sci 2003;48:1221-9. View abstract.
  • Salenius JP, Harju E, Jokela H, et al. Long term effects of guar gum on lipid metabolism after carotid endarterectomy. BMJ 1-14-1995;310:95-96. View abstract.
  • Scheen AJ. Clinical pharmacokinetics of metformin. Clin Pharmacokinet 1996;30:359-71. View abstract.
  • Schneider DL, Barrett-Connor EL, Morton DJ. Thyroid hormone use and bone mineral density in elderly men. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:2005-7. View abstract.
  • Simons LA, Gayst S, Balasubramaniam S, Ruys J. Long-term treatment of hypercholesterolaemia with a new palatable formulation of guar gum. Atherosclerosis 1982;45:101-108. View abstract.
  • Spapen H, Diltoer M, Van Malderen C, et al. Soluble fiber reduces the incidence of diarrhea in septic patients receiving total enteral nutrition: a prospective, double-blind, randomized, and controlled trial. Clin Nutr 2001;20:301-5.. View abstract.
  • Superko HR, Haskell WL, Sawrey-Kubicek L, Farquhar JW. Effects of solid and liquid guar gum on plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in moderate hypercholesterolemia. Am J Cardiol 1988;62:51-5. View abstract.
  • Tai ES, Fok AC, Chu R, Tan CE. A study to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with soluble fibre (Minolest) on lipid levels in normal subjects with hypercholesterolaemia. Ann Acad.Med Singapore 1999;28:209-213. View abstract.
  • Takahashi H, Wako N, Okubo T, et al. Influence of partially hydrolyzed guar gum on constipation in women. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1994;40:251-9. View abstract.
  • Todd PA, Benfield P, Goa KL. Guar gum. A review of its pharmacological properties, and use as a dietary adjunct in hypercholesterolaemia. Drugs 1990;39:917-28.. View abstract.
  • Tuomilehto J, Karttunen P, Vinni S, et al. A double-blind evaluation of guar gum in patients with dyslipidaemia. Hum.Nutr.Clin.Nutr. 1983;37:109-116. View abstract.
  • Ustundag G, Kuloglu Z, Kirbas N, Kansu A. Can partially hydrolyzed guar gum be an alternative to lactulose in treatment of childhood constipation? Turk J Gastroenterol 2010;21(4):360-4. View abstract.
  • Vuorinen-Markkola H, Sinisalo M, Koivisto VA. Guar gum in insulin-dependent diabetes: effects on glycemic control and serum lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:1056-1060. View abstract.

More Resources for GUAR GUM

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version. © Therapeutic Research Faculty 2009.