B-12, B12, B Complex Vitamin, Bedumil, Cobalamin, Cobalamine, Cobamin, Cobamine, Complexe Vitaminique B, Cyanocobalamin, Cyanocobalamine, Cyanocobalaminum, Cycobemin, Hydroxocobalamin, Hydroxocobalamine, Hydroxocobalaminum, Hydroxocobemine, Hydroxocobémine, Idrossocobalamina, Methylcobalamin, Méthylcobalamine, Vitadurin, Vitadurine, Vitamina B12, Vitamine B12. <br/><br/>


Overview Information

Vitamin B12 is an essential vitamin. This means that the body requires vitamin B12 to work properly. Vitamin B12 can be found in foods such as meat, fish, and dairy products. It can also be made in a laboratory. It is often taken in combination with other B vitamins.

Vitamin B12 is taken by mouth to treat and prevent vitamin B12 deficiency, a condition in which vitamin B12 levels in the blood are too low.

Vitamin B12 is also taken by mouth for memory loss, Alzheimer's disease, to slow aging, and to boost mood, energy, concentration, mental function, and the immune system. It is also used for heart disease, clogged arteries and decreasing the risk of re-clogging arteries after surgery, high triglyceride levels, lowering high homocysteine levels (which may contribute to heart disease), male infertility, diabetes, diabetic nerve damage, nerve damage in the hands or feet, sleep disorders, depression, mental disorders, schizophrenia, weak bones (osteoporosis), swollen tendons, AIDS, inflammatory bowel disease, diarrhea, asthma, allergies, a skin disease called vitiligo, and skin infections.

Some people use vitamin B12 by mouth for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease), multiple sclerosis, preventing the eye disease age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a condition in which the body products too much thyroid hormone, Lyme disease and gum disease. It is also used by mouth for respiratory tract infections, maintaining fertility, ringing in the ears, bleeding, liver and kidney disease, canker sores, preventing fractures, preventing stroke, preventing blood clots, and for protection against the poisons and allergens in tobacco smoke. It is also taken by mouth to prevent cancer, including breast cancer, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, and lung cancer. Vitamin B12 is also used to prevent broken bones and falls, and cataracts. It is also used to help people with a lung disease called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exercise longer.

Vitamin B12 is applied to the skin either alone or in combination with avocado oil for psoriasis and eczema. Also, a vitamin B12 nasal gel is applied for pernicious anemia and preventing and treating vitamin B12 deficiency.

Vitamin B12 is injected into the body to prevent and treat vitamin B12 deficiency. It is also used for tremors, to treat Imerslund-Grasbeck disease, cyanide poisoning, nerve damage caused by shingles, diabetic nerve damage, ringing in the ears, tiredness or fatigue, chronic fatigue syndrome, hepatitis C, a condition in which the body products too much thyroid hormone, bleeding, cancer, psoriasis, and liver and kidney disease. It is also injected in the body to prevent arteries from re-clogging after surgery.

Vitamin B12 is breathed in for canker sores.

How does it work?

Vitamin B12 is required for the proper function and development of the brain, nerves, blood cells, and many other parts of the body.


Uses & Effectiveness?

Effective for

  • Inherited Vitamin B12 deficiency (Imerslund-Grasbeck disease). Injecting vitamin B12 as a shot for 10 days followed by monthly injections for the remainder of life is effective for treating people with an inherited disease that results in poor absorption of vitamin B12.
  • Pernicious anemia. Injecting vitamin B12 as a shot, as well as taking through the nose or by mouth, is effective for treating low red blood cell counts caused by poor absorption of vitamin B12.
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency. Taking vitamin B12 by mouth, through the nose, or as a shot is effective for treating vitamin B12 deficiency. Injecting vitamin B12 into the muscle is better than taking it by mouth if vitamin B12 deficiency is severe or nerve damage is present.

Likely Effective for

  • Cyanide poisoning. Administering hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit), a natural form of vitamin B12, as a shot for a total dose of up to 10 grams is likely an effective treatment for cyanide poisoning. Treatment of cyanide poising with hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
  • High level of homocysteine in the blood (Hyperhomocysteinemia). Taking vitamin B12 by mouth, along with folic acid and sometimes pyridoxine (vitamin B6), can lower blood levels of homocysteine.

Possibly Effective for

  • An eye disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Some research shows that taking vitamin B12 with other B vitamins, including folic acid and vitamin B6, might help prevent an eye disease called age-related macular degeneration. But the effects of vitamin B12 alone on AMD are not clear.
  • Canker sores. Using an ointment containing vitamin B12 helps to reduce pain of canker sores. Also, early research shows that taking vitamin B12 1000 mcg under the tongue (sublingually) might help to reduce the number of canker sore outbreaks, the duration of outbreaks, and pain caused by the canker sores.
  • Nerve damage from shingles. Some research shows that injecting vitamin B12 in the form of methylcobalamin under the skin six times weekly for up to 4 weeks reduces pain more than taking vitamin B12 by mouth or injecting lidocaine under the skin in people with nerve damage from shingles. Other research shows that it reduces pain and the need for painkillers. Adding thiamine or lidocaine to the treatment also seems to reduce itching.

Possibly Ineffective for

  • Cancer. Research suggests that taking vitamin B12 in the form of cyanocobalamin along with folate and vitamin B6, with or without eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) does not reduce the risk of developing cancer in older adults with heart disease. Some research actually suggests that taking vitamin B12 and folic acid daily for 2 years might increase the risk of cancer in older people.
  • Cataracts. Taking vitamin B12 along with vitamin B6 and folic acid doesn't seem to prevent cataracts in women. In fact, it might even increase the risk of having the cataracts removed in some women.
  • Sleep disorders. Taking vitamin B12 by mouth does not seem to help people with sleep disorders.
  • Mental function. Taking vitamin B12, alone or with folic acid and vitamin B6, doesn't seem to improve memory, language, or the ability to organize and plan in elderly people.
  • Preventing falls. Taking folic acid with vitamin B12 doesn't seem to prevent falls in older people taking vitamin D.
  • Fractures. Taking vitamin B12 and folic acid, with or without vitamin B6 daily for 2-3 years does not seem to reduce the risk of fractures in older people with osteoporosis.
  • Performance in older people. Taking folic acid with vitamin B12 doesn't seem to help older people who are already taking vitamin D walk better or have stronger hands.
  • Stroke. Research suggests that people who consume more vitamin B12 in their diet or those who take vitamin B12 supplements do not have a reduced risk of stroke or stroke reoccurrence.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Alzheimer's disease. Some early research suggests that higher vitamin B12 intake does not prevent Alzheimer's disease. However, other early research shows that taking vitamin B12 along with vitamin B6 and folic acid for 2 years might slow brain changes that are linked with mental decline and Alzheimer's disease.
  • Preventing re-blockage of blood vessels after heart artery dilation (balloon angioplasty). Research is inconsistent about the benefits of taking folic acid plus vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 following angioplasty. Some research suggests that it might decrease the risk of re-blockage of the blood vessels after balloon angioplasty. However, it does not seem to benefit people who had a tube (coronary stent) placed in the arteries.
  • Clogged arteries. Early research shows that taking vitamin B12, aged garlic extract, folic acid, vitamin B6, and L-arginine daily for 12 months slows the progression of clogged arteries and improves blood vessel function in people at risk for clogged arteries. The effect of vitamin B12 alone is not clear.
  • Eczema (atopic dermatitis). Early research shows that applying a vitamin B12 cream (Regividerm) to the affected area twice daily helps treat eczema.
  • Breast cancer. There is no evidence that dietary vitamin B12 alone reduces the risk of breast cancer. However, vitamin B12 may reduce the risk of breast cancer when taken with folate, vitamin B6, and methionine.
  • Cervical cancer. Early research suggests that different forms of vitamin B12 taken together with a thiamine derivative (benfotiamine) and vitamin B6 might improve some symptoms of nerve pain associated with diabetes.
  • Nerve pain due to cancer drugs. Early research shows that taking B vitamins that include vitamin B12 along with cancer drugs doesn't prevent nerve pain caused by cancer drugs.
  • A lung disease called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Taking vitamin B12 might improve endurance in people with COPD.
  • Colon and rectal cancer. Some population research suggests that people who consume more vitamin B12 in their diet have a lower risk of developing colon or rectal cancer. But early research shows that taking vitamin B12 with folic acid and vitamin B6 daily for up to 7.3 years does not reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer in women.
  • Depression. Eating more food that contains vitamin B12 has been linked with a lower risk of depression in older men.
  • Nerve damage caused by diabetes. Early research suggests that different forms of vitamin B12 taken together with a thiamine derivative (benfotiamine) and vitamin B6 might improve some symptoms of nerve damage associated with diabetes. Taking a specific medical food containing specific forms of vitamin B12, folic acid, and vitamin B6 also seems to have beneficial effects. Taking vitamin B12 alone by mouth or injected into the vein might help reduce pain but does not improve motor or sensory nerve function in people with nerve damage caused by diabetes.
  • Diarrhea. Early research suggests that taking twice the recommended daily allowance of vitamin B12, with or without folic acid, does not reduce the risk of diarrhea in children.
  • Fatigue. There is some evidence that receiving shots containing 5 mg of vitamin B12 in the form of hydroxocobalamin twice weekly might improve general well-being and happiness in people with fatigue.
  • Hepatitis C. Early research shows that giving an injection of vitamin B12 in the form of cyanocobalamin every 4 weeks along with standard care can improve hepatitis C treatment.
  • High triglyceride levels. Some research suggests that taking 7.5 mcg of vitamin B12 together with 5 grams of fish oil might be more effective then fish oil alone when used daily to reduce total cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
  • Infant development. Taking vitamin B12 during pregnancy doesn't seem to help infant brains develop faster.
  • Lower respiratory tract infections. Early research shows that taking twice the recommended daily allowance of vitamin B12, with or without folic acid, does not reduce the risk for lower respiratory tract infections in children.
  • Lung cancer. Early evidence suggests that there is no relationship between levels of vitamin B12 in the blood and the risk of lung cancer.
  • Nerve damage in the hands and feet (peripheral neuropathy). Early research shows that taking a specific product containing vitamin B12 (Keltican) daily for 60 days reduces pain by 44% and reduces the need for painkillers by over 75% in people with nerve damage in parts of the body such as the hands and feed.
  • Psoriasis. Early research shows that a specific cream containing vitamin B12 and avocado oil (Regividerm, Regeneratio Pharma AG) reduces symptoms of psoriasis as effectively as standard care and causes less irritation.
  • Schizophrenia. Early research shows that taking vitamin B12 with folic acid daily for 16 weeks can improve symptoms of schizophrenia related to abnormal emotions and behavior. But the treatment only seems to benefit some patients.
  • Shaky-leg syndrome. There are some reports that one form of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) can help reduce tremors due to shaky-leg syndrome.
  • Ringing in the ears (tinnitus). Early research shows receiving vitamin B12 shots might help improve ringing in the ears in people with low levels of vitamin B12. But it doesn't seem to help people who have normal levels of vitamin B12.
  • Blood clots in the veins. Population research suggests that having low levels of vitamin B12 might be linked to an increased risk for blood clots in the veins. But research evaluating the use of vitamin B12 to prevent blood clots in the veins is unclear.
  • Aging.
  • Allergies.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Diabetes.
  • Heart disease.
  • Immune system problems.
  • Lyme disease.
  • Memory problems.
  • Multiple sclerosis.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of vitamin B12 for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Vitamin B12 is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth, applied to the skin, taken through the nose, administered as a shot, or injected into the vein (by IV). Vitamin B12 is considered safe, even in large doses.

Mild itching has been reported in one person who used a specific avocado oil plus vitamin B12 cream for psoriasis.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Vitamin B12 is LIKELY SAFE for pregnant or breast-feeding women when taken by mouth in the amounts recommended. The recommended amount for pregnant women is 2.6 mcg per day. Breast-feeding women should take no more than 2.8 mcg per day. Don't take larger amounts. The safety of larger amounts is unknown.

Post-surgical stent placement: Avoid using a combination of vitamin B12, folate, and vitamin B6 after receiving a coronary stent. This combination may increase the risk of blood vessel narrowing.

Allergy or sensitivity to cobalt or cobalamin: Do not use vitamin B12 if you have this condition.

Leber's disease, a hereditary eye disease: Do not take vitamin B12 if you have this disease. It can seriously harm the optic nerve, which might lead to blindness.

Abnormal red blood cells (megaloblastic anemia): Megaloblastic anemia is sometimes corrected by treatment with vitamin B12. However, this can have very serious side effects. Don't attempt vitamin B12 therapy without close supervision by your healthcare provider.

High numbers of red blood cells (polycythemia vera): The treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency can unmask the symptoms of polycythemia vera.



Major Interaction

Do not take this combination

  • Chloramphenicol interacts with VITAMIN B12

    Vitamin B12 is important for producing new blood cells. Chloramphenicol might decrease new blood cells. Taking chloramphenicol for a long time might decrease the effects of vitamin B12 on new blood cells. But most people only take chloramphenicol for a short time so this interaction isn't a big problem.



The following doses have been studied in scientific research:



  • The typical general supplemental dose of vitamin B12 is 1-25 mcg per day: The recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) of vitamin B12 are: 1.8 mcg; older children and adults, 2.4 mcg; pregnant women, 2.6 mcg; and breast-feeding women, 2.8 mcg. Because 10% to 30% of older people do not absorb food-bound vitamin B12 efficiently, those over 50 years should meet the RDA by eating foods fortified with B12 or by taking a vitamin B12 supplement. Supplementation of 25-100 mcg per day has been used to maintain vitamin B12 levels in older people.
  • For vitamin B12 deficiency: Vitamin B12 doses of 300-10,000 mcg daily have been used. However, some evidence suggests that the most effective oral dose is between 647-1032 mcg daily.
  • For high blood levels of homocysteine: Vitamin B12 doses of 400-500 mcg in combination with 0.54-5 mg of folic acid and 16.5 mg of pyridoxine has been used.
  • For preventing age-related macular degeneration (AMD): A combination of 1 mg of vitamin B12, 2.5 mg of folic acid, and 50 mg of pyridoxine daily has been used for 7.3 years.
  • For atopic dermatitis (eczema): A specific vitamin B12 0.07% cream (Regividerm) applied twice daily has been used.
  • For canker sores: A topical ointment containing vitamin B12 500 mcg daily in four doses for 2 days has been used.
  • For psoriasis: A specific cream (Regividerm, Regeneratio Pharma AG, Wuppertal, Germany) containing avocado oil plus vitamin B12 0.7 mg/gram applied for 12 weeks twice daily has been used.
  • For vitamin B12 deficiency: The usual dose is 30 mcg as an injection into the muscle or under the skin daily for 5-10 days. For maintenance therapy, 100-200 mcg once monthly is commonly used. Both cyanocobalamin and hydroxocobalamin forms are used. The usual dose for pernicious anemia-associated vitamin B12 deficiency is 100 mcg given as an injection into the muscle or under the skin once daily for 6-7 days. Then the dose may be given every other day for 7 doses followed by every 3-4 days for around 3 weeks. Then, 100 mcg should be injected every month for life. Another dosing recommendation for injectable vitamin B12 includes 1000 mcg daily for 7-10 days followed by 1000 mcg weekly for 1 month followed by 1000 mcg monthly for life.
  • For a hereditary condition that causes vitamin B12 malabsorption (Imerslund-Grasbeck disease): Vitamin B12 in the form of hydroxocobalamin has been injected into the muscle at a dose of 1 mg daily for 10 days followed by once monthly for the remainder of the person's life.
  • For cyanide poisoning: Hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit) has been given intravenously (by IV) for a total dose of up to 10 grams.
  • For vitamin B12 deficiency: Doses of 500 mcg of vitamin B12 have been injected into one nostril weekly.
  • For nerve damage from shingles: As an injection under the skin, 1000 mcg of vitamin B12, with or without 100 mg of thiamine or 20 mg of lidocaine, has been given six times weekly for up to 4 weeks.
  • For canker sores: Vitamin B12 1000 mcg daily under the tongue for 6 months has been used.

  • The recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) of vitamin B12 are: Infants 0-6 months, 0.4 mcg; infants 7-12 months, 0.5 mcg; children 1-3 years, 0.9 mcg; children 4-8 years, 1.2 mcg; children 9-13 years, and 1.8 mcg; older children.
  • For vitamin B12 deficiency: Injecting 0.2 mcg/kg of vitamin B12 into the muscle or under the skin once daily for 2 days, followed by a 1000 mcg injection daily for 2-7 days and another 100 mcg injection weekly for 4 weeks thereafter has been used. Additional injections of 100 mcg monthly may be needed depending on level of symptom improvement and cause of vitamin B12 deficiency.

View References


  • Saltzman, E., Mason, J. B., Jacques, P. F., Selhub, J., Salem, D., and Schaefer, E. J. B vitamin supplementation lowers homocysteine levels in heart disease. Clin Res 1994;42:172.
  • Sato, Y., Honda, Y., Iwamoto, J., Kanoko, T., and Satoh, K. Homocysteine as a predictive factor for hip fracture in stroke patients. Bone 2005;36(4):721-726. View abstract.
  • Schiff, M. A., Patterson, R. E., Baumgartner, R. N., Masuk, M., van Asselt-King, L., Wheeler, C. M., and Becker, T. M. Serum carotenoids and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Southwestern American Indian women. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2001;10(11):1219-1222. View abstract.
  • Schorah, C. J., Devitt, H., Lucock, M., and Dowell, A. C. The responsiveness of plasma homocysteine to small increases in dietary folic acid: a primary care study. Eur.J Clin.Nutr 1998;52(6):407-411. View abstract.
  • Sedjo, R. L., Inserra, P., Abrahamsen, M., Harris, R. B., Roe, D. J., Baldwin, S., and Giuliano, A. R. Human papillomavirus persistence and nutrients involved in the methylation pathway among a cohort of young women. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11(4):353-359. View abstract.
  • Sedjo, R. L., Roe, D. J., Abrahamsen, M., Harris, R. B., Craft, N., Baldwin, S., and Giuliano, A. R. Vitamin A, carotenoids, and risk of persistent oncogenic human papillomavirus infection. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11(9):876-884. View abstract.
  • Semba, R. D. Impact of vitamin A supplementation on hematological indicators of iron metabolism and protein status in children. Nutr.Res. 1992;12:469-478.
  • Seshadri, S., Shah, A., and Bhade, S. Haematologic response of anaemic preschool children to ascorbic acid supplementation. Hum.Nutr Appl.Nutr 1985;39(2):151-154. View abstract.
  • Shannon, J., Thomas, D. B., Ray, R. M., Kestin, M., Koetsawang, A., Koetsawang, S., Chitnarong, K., Kiviat, N., and Kuypers, J. Dietary risk factors for invasive and in-situ cervical carcinomas in Bangkok, Thailand. Cancer Causes Control 2002;13(8):691-699. View abstract.
  • Shatrugna, V., Raman, L., Uma, K., and Sujatha, T. Interaction between vitamin A and iron: effects of supplements in pregnancy. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res. 1997;67(3):145-148. View abstract.
  • Shaw, D. M., Macsweeney, D. A., Johnson, A. L., O'Keeffe, R., Naidoo, D., Macleod, D. M., Jog, S., Preece, J. M., and Crowley, J. M. Folate and amine metabolites in senile dementia: a combined trial and biochemical study. Psychol.Med 1971;1(2):166-171. View abstract.
  • Shindo, H., Tawata, M., Inoue, M., Yokomori, N., Hosaka, Y., Ohtaka, M., and Onaya, T. The effect of prostaglandin E1.alpha CD on vibratory threshold determined with the SMV-5 vibrometer in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1994;24(3):173-180. View abstract.
  • Simeonov, S., Pavlova, M., Mitkov, M., Mincheva, L., and Troev, D. Therapeutic efficacy of "Milgamma" in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. Folia Med (Plovdiv.) 1997;39(4):5-10. View abstract.
  • Slattery, M. L., Abbott, T. M., Overall, J. C., Jr., Robison, L. M., French, T. K., Jolles, C., Gardner, J. W., and West, D. W. Dietary vitamins A, C, and E and selenium as risk factors for cervical cancer. Epidemiology 1990;1(1):8-15. View abstract.
  • Smith, J. C., Makdani, D., Hegar, A., Rao, D., and Douglass, L. W. Vitamin A and zinc supplementation of preschool children. J Am.Coll.Nutr 1999;18(3):213-222. View abstract.
  • Sommer, B. R., Hoff, A. L., and Costa, M. Folic acid supplementation in dementia: a preliminary report. J Geriatr.Psychiatry Neurol. 2003;16(3):156-159. View abstract.
  • Sood, S. K., Ramachandran, K., Mathur, M., Gupta, K., Ramalingaswamy, V., Swarnabai, C., Ponniah, J., Mathan, V. I., and Baker, S. J. W.H.O. sponsored collaborative studies on nutritional anaemia in India. 1. The effects of supplemental oral iron administration to pregnant women. Q.J.Med. 1975;44(174):241-258. View abstract.
  • Spence, J. D., Blake, C., Landry, A., and Fenster, A. Measurement of carotid plaque and effect of vitamin therapy for total homocysteine. Clin.Chem.Lab Med 2003;41(11):1498-1504. View abstract.
  • Srisupandit, S., Pootrakul, P., Areekul, S., Neungton, S., Mokkaves, J., Kiriwat, O., and Kanokpongsukdi, S. A prophylactic supplementation of iron and folate in pregnancy. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1983;14(3):317-323. View abstract.
  • Stevens, D., Burman, D., Strelling, M. K., and Morris, A. Folic acid supplementation in low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 1979;64(3):333-335. View abstract.
  • Stott, D. J., MacIntosh, G., Lowe, G. D., Rumley, A., McMahon, A. D., Langhorne, P., Tait, R. C., O'Reilly, D. S., Spilg, E. G., MacDonald, J. B., MacFarlane, P. W., and Westendorp, R. G. Randomized controlled trial of homocysteine-lowering vitamin treatment in elderly patients with vascular disease. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2005;82(6):1320-1326. View abstract.
  • Stracke, H., Lindemann, A., and Federlin, K. A benfotiamine-vitamin B combination in treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy. Exp Clin Endocrinol.Diabetes 1996;104(4):311-316. View abstract.
  • Suboticanec, K., Stavljenic, A., Schalch, W., and Buzina, R. Effects of pyridoxine and riboflavin supplementation on physical fitness in young adolescents. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res. 1990;60(1):81-88. View abstract.
  • Suboticanec-Buzina, K., Buzina, R., Brubacher, G., Sapunar, J., and Christeller, S. Vitamin C status and physical working capacity in adolescents. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res. 1984;54(1):55-60. View abstract.
  • Suharno, D., West, C. E., Muhilal, Karyadi, D., and Hautvast, J. G. Supplementation with vitamin A and iron for nutritional anaemia in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia. Lancet 11-27-1993;342(8883):1325-1328. View abstract.
  • Sun, Y., Lai, M. S., and Lu, C. J. Effectiveness of vitamin B12 on diabetic neuropathy: systematic review of clinical controlled trials. Acta Neurol.Taiwan. 2005;14(2):48-54. View abstract.
  • Tamai, H., Kim, H. S., Arai, H., Inoue, K., and Mino, M. Developmental changes in alpha-tocopherol, especially during infantile period. Zhonghua Min Guo.Xiao.Er.Ke.Yi.Xue.Hui.Za Zhi. 1997;38(6):429-431. View abstract.
  • Tee, E. S., Kandiah, M., Awin, N., Chong, S. M., Satgunasingam, N., Kamarudin, L., Milani, S., Dugdale, A. E., and Viteri, F. E. School-administered weekly iron-folate supplements improve hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations in Malaysian adolescent girls. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1999;69(6):1249-1256. View abstract.
  • Thomson, S. W., Heimburger, D. C., Cornwell, P. E., Turner, M. E., Sauberlich, H. E., Fox, L. M., and Butterworth, C. E. Effect of total plasma homocysteine on cervical dysplasia risk. Nutr Cancer 2000;37(2):128-133. View abstract.
  • Thu, B. D., Schultink, W., Dillon, D., Gross, R., Leswara, N. D., and Khoi, H. H. Effect of daily and weekly micronutrient supplementation on micronutrient deficiencies and growth in young Vietnamese children. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69(1):80-86. View abstract.
  • Till, U., Rohl, P., Jentsch, A., Till, H., Muller, A., Bellstedt, K., Plonne, D., Fink, H. S., Vollandt, R., Sliwka, U., Herrmann, F. H., Petermann, H., and Riezler, R. Decrease of carotid intima-media thickness in patients at risk to cerebral ischemia after supplementation with folic acid, Vitamins B6 and B12. Atherosclerosis 2005;181(1):131-135. View abstract.
  • Tolmunen, T., Hintikka, J., Voutilainen, S., Ruusunen, A., Alfthan, G., Nyyssonen, K., Viinamaki, H., Kaplan, G. A., and Salonen, J. T. Association between depressive symptoms and serum concentrations of homocysteine in men: a population study. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(6):1574-1578. View abstract.
  • Tomoda, H., Yoshitake, M., Morimoto, K., and Aoki, N. Possible prevention of postangioplasty restenosis by ascorbic acid. Am.J Cardiol. 12-1-1996;78(11):1284-1286. View abstract.
  • Ubbink, J. B., van der Merwe, A., Vermaak, W. J., and Delport, R. Hyperhomocysteinemia and the response to vitamin supplementation. Clin.Investig. 1993;71(12):993-998. View abstract.
  • Ubbink, J. B., Vermaak, W. J., van der Merwe, A., Becker, P. J., Delport, R., and Potgieter, H. C. Vitamin requirements for the treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in humans. J Nutr 1994;124(10):1927-1933. View abstract.
  • Uhl, W., Nolting, A., Golor, G., Rost, K. L., and Kovar, A. Safety of hydroxocobalamin in healthy volunteers in a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2006;44 Suppl 1:17-28. View abstract.
  • van den Berg, M., Franken, D. G., Boers, G. H., Blom, H. J., Jakobs, C., Stehouwer, C. D., and Rauwerda, J. A. Combined vitamin B6 plus folic acid therapy in young patients with arteriosclerosis and hyperhomocysteinemia. J Vasc.Surg. 1994;20(6):933-940. View abstract.
  • van der Dijs, F. P., Schnog, J. J., Brouwer, D. A., Velvis, H. J., van den Berg, G. A., Bakker, A. J., Duits, A. J., Muskiet, F. D., and Muskiet, F. A. Elevated homocysteine levels indicate suboptimal folate status in pediatric sickle cell patients. Am J Hematol. 1998;59(3):192-198. View abstract.
  • van Stuijvenberg, M. E., Kvalsvig, J. D., Faber, M., Kruger, M., Kenoyer, D. G., and Benade, A. J. Effect of iron-, iodine-, and beta-carotene-fortified biscuits on the micronutrient status of primary school children: a randomized controlled trial. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1999;69(3):497-503. View abstract.
  • Van, Dam F. and Van Gool, W. A. Hyperhomocysteinemia and Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review. Arch.Gerontol.Geriatr. 2009;48(3):425-430. View abstract.
  • VanEenwyk, J., Davis, F. G., and Colman, N. Folate, vitamin C, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 1992;1(2):119-124. View abstract.
  • Vermeulen, E. G., Rauwerda, J. A., Erix, P., de Jong, S. C., Twisk, J. W., Jakobs, C., Witjes, R. J., and Stehouwer, C. D. Normohomocysteinaemia and vitamin-treated hyperhomocysteinaemia are associated with similar risks of cardiovascular events in patients with premature atherothrombotic cerebrovascular disease. A prospective cohort study. Neth.J Med 2000;56(4):138-146. View abstract.
  • Vogel, T., Dali-Youcef, N., Kaltenbach, G., and Andres, E. Homocysteine, vitamin B12, folate and cognitive functions: a systematic and critical review of the literature. Int J Clin Pract 2009;63(7):1061-1067. View abstract.
  • Waikakul, W. and Waikakul, S. Methylcobalamin as an adjuvant medication in conservative treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. J Med.Assoc.Thai. 2000;83(8):825-831. View abstract.
  • Wang, L. C. 30 Cases of tennis elbow treated by moxibustion. Shanghai Journal of acupuncture and moxibustion 1997;16(6):20.
  • Wang, Q. P., Bai, M., and Lei, D. Effectiveness of acupuncture in treatment of facial spasm: a meta-analysis. Altern Ther.Health Med. 2012;18(3):45-52. View abstract.
  • Ward, M., McNulty, H., McPartlin, J., Strain, J. J., Weir, D. G., and Scott, J. M. Plasma homocysteine, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is lowered by physiological doses of folic acid. QJM. 1997;90(8):519-524. View abstract.
  • Watanabe, F. Vitamin B12 sources and bioavailability. Exp.Biol.Med.(Maywood.) 2007;232(10):1266-1274. View abstract.
  • Weinstein, S. J., Ziegler, R. G., Frongillo, E. A., Jr., Colman, N., Sauberlich, H. E., Brinton, L. A., Hamman, R. F., Levine, R. S., Mallin, K., Stolley, P. D., and Bisogni, C. A. Low serum and red blood cell folate are moderately, but nonsignificantly associated with increased risk of invasive cervical cancer in U.S. women. J Nutr 2001;131(7):2040-2048. View abstract.
  • Weinstein, S. J., Ziegler, R. G., Selhub, J., Fears, T. R., Strickler, H. D., Brinton, L. A., Hamman, R. F., Levine, R. S., Mallin, K., and Stolley, P. D. Elevated serum homocysteine levels and increased risk of invasive cervical cancer in US women. Cancer Causes Control 2001;12(4):317-324. View abstract.
  • Weir, D. G. and Scott, J. M. Homocysteine as a risk factor for cardiovascular and related disease: nutritional implications. Nutr Res.Rev 1998;11(2):311-338. View abstract.
  • Weiss, N., Pietrzik, K., and Keller, C. [Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for atherosclerosis: causes and effects]. Dtsch.Med Wochenschr. 9-24-1999;124(38):1107-1113. View abstract.
  • Wideroff, L., Potischman, N., Glass, A. G., Greer, C. E., Manos, M. M., Scott, D. R., Burk, R. D., Sherman, M. E., Wacholder, S., and Schiffman, M. A nested case-control study of dietary factors and the risk of incident cytological abnormalities of the cervix. Nutr Cancer 1998;30(2):130-136. View abstract.
  • Wilcken, D. E. and Wilcken, B. The natural history of vascular disease in homocystinuria and the effects of treatment. J Inherit.Metab Dis. 1997;20(2):295-300. View abstract.
  • Willis, C. D., Elshaug, A. G., Milverton, J. L., Watt, A. M., Metz, M. P., and Hiller, J. E. Diagnostic performance of serum cobalamin tests: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pathology 2011;43(5):472-481. View abstract.
  • Winkler, G., Pal, B., Nagybeganyi, E., Ory, I., Porochnavec, M., and Kempler, P. Effectiveness of different benfotiamine dosage regimens in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. Arzneimittelforschung. 1999;49(3):220-224. View abstract.
  • Woodside, J. V., Young, I. S., Yarnell, J. W., McMaster, D., and Evans, A. E. The effects of oral vitamin supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors. Proc Nutr Soc 1997;56(1B):479-488. View abstract.
  • Worthington-White, D. A., Behnke, M., and Gross, S. Premature infants require additional folate and vitamin B-12 to reduce the severity of the anemia of prematurity. Am.J Clin.Nutr 1994;60(6):930-935. View abstract.
  • Wu, K., Helzlsouer, K. J., Comstock, G. W., Hoffman, S. C., Nadeau, M. R., and Selhub, J. A prospective study on folate, B12, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (B6) and breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 1999;8(3):209-217. View abstract.
  • Yaqub, B. A., Siddique, A., and Sulimani, R. Effects of methylcobalamin on diabetic neuropathy. Clin Neurol.Neurosurg. 1992;94(2):105-111. View abstract.
  • Yeo, A. S., Schiff, M. A., Montoya, G., Masuk, M., van Asselt-King, L., and Becker, T. M. Serum micronutrients and cervical dysplasia in Southwestern American Indian women. Nutr Cancer 2000;38(2):141-150. View abstract.
  • Zureik, M., Galan, P., Bertrais, S., Mennen, L., Czernichow, S., Blacher, J., Ducimetiere, P., and Hercberg, S. Effects of long-term daily low-dose supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals on structure and function of large arteries. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 2004;24(8):1485-1491. View abstract.
  • Ahmadi N, Nabavi V, Hajsadeghi F, et al. Aged garlic extract with supplement is associated with increase in brown adipose, decrease in white adipose tissue and predict lack of progression in coronary atherosclerosis. Int J Cardiol 2013;168(3):2310-4. View abstract.
  • Allen LH, Casterline J. Vitamin B-12 deficiency in elderly individuals: diagnosis and requirements. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:12-14. View abstract.
  • Andreeva VA, Touvier M, Kesse-Guyot E, et al. B vitamin and/or ?-3 fatty acid supplementation and cancer: ancillary findings from the supplementation with folate, vitamins B6 and B12, and/or omega-3 fatty acids (SU.FOL.OM3) randomized trial. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(7):540-7. View abstract.
  • Andres E, Goichot B, Schlienger JL. Food cobalamin malabsorption: a usual cause of vitamin B12 deficiency. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:2061-2. View abstract.
  • Andres E, Kurtz JE, Perrin AE, et al. Oral cobalamin therapy for the treatment of patients with food-cobalamin malabsorption. Am J Med 2001;111:126-9. View abstract.
  • Andres E, Noel E, Goichot B. Metformin-associated vitamin B12 deficiency (letter). Arch Intern Med 2002;162:2251-2. View abstract.
  • Anon. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Soprawivenza nell'Infarto miocardico. Lancet 1999;354:447-55. View abstract.
  • Avilla J, Prasad D, Weisberg LS, Kasama R. Pseudo-blood leak? A hemodialysis mystery. Clin Nephrol 2013;79(4):323-5. View abstract.
  • Aymard JP, Aymard B, Netter P, et al. Haematological adverse effects of histamine H2-receptor antagonists. Med Toxicol Adverse Drug Exp 1988;3:430-48. View abstract.
  • Badner NH, Freeman D, Spence JD. Preoperative oral B vitamins prevent nitrous oxide-induced postoperative plasma homocysteine increases. Anesth Analg 2001;93:1507-10.. View abstract.
  • Barone C, Bartoloni C, Ghirlanda G, Gentiloni N. Megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency after oral contraceptives. Haematologica 1979;64:190-5. View abstract.
  • Bauman WA, Shaw S, Jayatilleke E, et al. Increased intake of calcium reverses vitamin B12 malabsorption induced by metformin. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1227-31. View abstract.
  • Bauman WA, Spungen AM, Shaw S, et al. Increased intake of calcium reverses vitamin B12 malabsorption induced by metformin. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1227-31. View abstract.
  • Beaulieu AJ, Gohh RY, Han H, et al. Enhanced reduction of fasting total homocysteine levels with supraphysiological versus standard multivitamin dose folic acid supplementation in renal transplant recipients. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:2918-21. View abstract.
  • Belaiche J, Zittoun J, Marquet J, et al. Effect of ranitidine on secretion of gastric intrinsic factor and absorption of vitamin B12. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 1983;7:381-4. View abstract.
  • Bellou A, Aimone-Gastin I, De Korwin JD, et al. Cobalamin deficiency with megaloblastic anaemia in one patient under long-term omeprazole therapy. J Intern Med 1996;240:161-4. View abstract.
  • Benito-Leon J, Porta-Etessam J. Shaky-leg syndrome and vitamin B12 deficiency. N Engl J Med 2000;342:981. View abstract.
  • Bonaa KH, Njolstad I, Ueland PM, et al. NORVIT: Homocysteine lowering and cardiovascular events after acute myocardial infarction. N Enlg J Med 2006;354:1578-88. View abstract.
  • Booth GL, Wang EE. Preventive health care, 2000 update: screening and management of hyperhomocysteinemia for the prevention of coronary artery disease events. The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. CMAJ 2000;163:21-9. View abstract.
  • Bostom A, Shemin D, Gohh R, et al. Treatment of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in renal transplant recipients versus hemodialysis patients. Transplantation 2000;69:2128-31. View abstract.
  • Bostom AG, Gohh RY, Beaulieu AJ, et al. Treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in renal transplant recipients. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1997;127:1089-92. View abstract.
  • Bostom AG, Shemin D, Gohh RY, et al. Treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in hemodialysis patients and renal transplant recipients. Kidney Int 2001;59:s246-s252. View abstract.
  • Bottiglieri T, Laundy M, Crellin R, et al. Homocysteine, folate, methylation, and monoamine metabolism in depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000;69:228-32.. View abstract.
  • Boushey CJ, Beresford SA, Omenn GS, Motulsky AG. A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes. JAMA 1995;274:1049-57. View abstract.
  • Brattstrom LE, Israelsson B, Jeppsson JO, et al. Folic acid-an innocuous means to reduce plasma homocysteine. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1988;48:215-21. View abstract.
  • Bronstrup A, Hages M, Prinz-Langenohl R, Pietrzik K. Effects of folic acid and combinations of folic acid and vitamin B12 on plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy young women. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:1104-10. View abstract.
  • Brown BG, Zhao XQ, Chait A, et al. Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1583-93. View abstract.
  • Callaghan TS, Hadden DR, Tomkin GH. Megaloblastic anemia due to vitamin B12 malabsorption associated with longterm metformin treatment. Br Med J 1980;280:1214-5. View abstract.
  • Carlsen SM, Folling I, Grill V, et al. Metformin increases total homocysteine levels in non-diabetic male patients with coronary heart disease. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1997;57:521-7. View abstract.
  • Carmel R, Green R, Jacobsen DW, et al. Serum cobalamin, homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid concentrations in a multiethnic elderly population: ethnic and sex differences in cobalamin and metabolite abnormalities. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:904-10. View abstract.
  • Carmel R. How I treat cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency. Blood. 2008;112(6):2214-2221. View abstract.
  • Carpentier JL, Bury J, Luyckx A, et al. Vitamin B12 and folic acid serum levels in diabetics under various therapeutic regimens. Diabete Metab 1976;2:187-90. View abstract.
  • Christen WG, Glynn RJ, Chew EY, et al. Folic acid, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin combination treatment and age-related macular degeneration in women. Arch Intern Med 2009;169:335-41. View abstract.
  • Christen WG, Glynn RJ, Chew EY, et al. Folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 in combination and age-related cataract in a randomized trial of women. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2016;23(1):32-9. View abstract.
  • Christensen B, Landaas S, Stensvold I, et al. Whole blood folate, homocysteine in serum, and risk of first acute myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis 1999;147:317-26. View abstract.
  • Clarke R, Armitage J. Vitamin supplements and cardiovascular risk: review of the randomized trials of homocysteine-lowering vitamin supplements. Semin Thromb Hemost 2000;26:341-8. View abstract.
  • Clarke R. Prevention of vitamin B-12 deficiency in old age. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73:151-152. View abstract.
  • Coppen A, Bailey J. Enhancement of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine by folic acid: a randomised, placebo controlled trial. J Affect Dis 2000;60:121-31. View abstract.
  • Coronato A, Glass GB. Depression of the intestinal uptake of radio-vitamin B12 by cholestyramine. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1973;142:1341-4. View abstract.
  • Cyanocobalamin, Vitamin B12. Clinical Pharmacology Web site. Available at: [subscription required]. Accessed March 10, 2016.
  • de Madeiros FC, de Albuquerque LA, de Souza RB, et al. Vitamin B12 extensive thoracic myopathy: Clinical, radiological and prognostic aspects. Two cases report and literature review. Neurol Sci 2013;34(10):1857-60. View abstract.
  • den Heijer M, Brouwer IA, Bos GMJ, et al. Vitamin supplementation reduces blood homocysteine levels. A controlled trial in patients with venous thrombosis and healthy volunteers. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998;18:356-61. View abstract.
  • Deng H, Yin J, Zhang J, et al. Meta-analysis of methylcobalamin alone and in combination with prostaglandin E1 in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Endocrine 2014;46(3):445-54. View abstract.
  • Deutch B, Jorgensen EB, Hansen JC. n-3 PUFA from fish or seal oil reduce atherogenic risk indicators in Danish women. Nutr Res 2000;20:1065-77.
  • Devalia V, Hamilton MS, Molloy AM; British Committee for Standards in Haematology. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of cobalamin and folate disorders. Br J Haematol 2014;166(4):496-513. View abstract.
  • Dierkes J, Domrose U, Bosselmann P, et al. Homocysteine lowering effect of different multivitamin preparations in patients with end-stage renal disease. J Renal Nutr 2001;11:67-72. View abstract.
  • Dong H, Pi F, Ding Z, Chen W, Pang S, Dong W, Zhang Q. Efficacy of supplementation with B Vitamins for stroke prevention: A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One. 2015;10(9):e0137533. View abstract.
  • Douaud G, Refsum H, de Jager CA, et al. Preventing Alzheimer's disease-related gray matter atrophy by B-vitamin treatment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013;110(23):9523-8. View abstract.
  • Duthie SJ, Whalley LJ, Collins AR, et al. Homocysteine, B vitamin status, and cognitive function in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:908-13.. View abstract.
  • Ebbing M, Bonaa KH, Nygard O, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality after treatment with folic acid and vitamin B12. JAMA 2009;302:2119-26. View abstract.
  • Ehrenfeld M, Levy M, Sharon P, et al. Gastrointestinal effects of long-term colchicine therapy in patients with recurrent polyserositis (Familial Mediterranean Fever). Dig Dis Sci 1982;27:723-7. View abstract.
  • Elia M. Oral or parenteral therapy for B12 deficiency. Lancet 1998;352:1721-2. View abstract.
  • Ellis FR, Nasser S. A pilot study of vitamin B12 in the treatment of tiredness. Br J Nutr 1973;30:277-83. View abstract.
  • Eussen SJ, de Groot LC, Clarke R, et al. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 deficiency: A dose-finding trial. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:1167-72. View abstract.
  • Falguera M, Perez-Mur J, Puig T, Cao G. Study of the role of vitamin B12 and folinic acid supplementation in preventing hematologic toxicity of zidovudine. Eur J Haematol 1995;55:97-102. View abstract.
  • Faloon WW, Chodos RB. Vitamin B12 absorption studies using cochicines, neomycin and continuous 57Co B12 administration. Gastroenterology 1969;56:1251.
  • Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 14th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1998.
  • Fishman SM, Christian P, West KP. The role of vitamins in the prevention and control of anaemia. Public Health Nutr 2000;3:125-50.. View abstract.
  • Fonseca VA, Lavery LA, Thethi TK, et al. Metanx in type 2 diabetes with peripheral neuropathy: A randomized trial. Am J Med 2013;126(2):141-9. View abstract.
  • Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (2000). Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. Available at:
  • Force RW, Meeker AD, Cady PS, et al. Increased vitamin B12 requirement associated with chronic acid suppression therapy. Ann Pharmacother 2003;37:490-3. View abstract.
  • Force RW, Nahata MC. Effect of histamine H2 receptor antagonists on vitamin B12 absorption. Ann Pharmacother 1992;26:1283-6. View abstract.
  • Freeman AG. Cyanocobalamin - a case for withdrawal: discussion paper. J Royal Soc Med. 1992;85(11):686-687. View abstract.
  • Frenkel EP, McCall MS, Sheehan RG. Cerebrospinal fluid folate and vitamin B12 in anticonvulsant-induced megaloblastosis. J Lab Clin Med 1973;81:105-15. View abstract.
  • Garcia A, Paris-Pombo A, Evans L, et al. Is low-dose oral cobalamin enough to normalize cobalamin function in older people? J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50:1401-4.. View abstract.
  • Gardyn J, Mittelman M, Zlotnik J, et al. Oral contraceptives can cause falsely low vitamin B12 levels. Acta Haematol 2000;104:22-4. View abstract.
  • Geraci MJ, McCoy SL, Aquino ME. Women with red urine: Hydroxocobalamin-induced chromaturia. J Emerg Med 2012;43(3):e207-9. View abstract.
  • Gharakhanian S, Navarette MS, Cardon B, Rozenbaum W. Vitamin B12 injections in patients treated with zidovudine. AIDS 1990;4:701-2. View abstract.
  • Gilligan MA. Metformin and vitamin B12 deficiency (letter). Arch Intern Med 2002;162:484-5. View abstract.
  • Godfrey PS, Toone BK, Carney MW, et al. Enhancement of recovery from psychiatric illness by methylfolate. Lancet 1990;336:392-5.. View abstract.
  • Goldin BR, Lichtenstein AH, Gorbach SL. Nutritional and metabolic roles of intestinal flora. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th ed. Malvern, PA: Lea & Febiger, 1994.
  • Gommans J, Yi Q, Eikelboom JW, et al. The effect of homocysteine-lowering and B-vitamins on osteoporotic fractures in patients with cerebrovascular disease: Substudy of VITATOPS, a randomised placebo-controlled trial. BMC Geriatr 2013;13:88. View abstract.
  • Gorbach SL. Bengt E. Gustafsson memorial lecture. Function of the normal human microflora. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 1986;49:17-30. View abstract.
  • Gougeon L, Payette H, Morais JA, Gaudreau P, Shatenstein B, Gray-Donald K. Intakes of folate, vitamin B6 and B12 and risk of depression in community-dwelling older adults: the Quebec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Aging. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016;70(3):380-5. View abstract.
  • Grace E, Emans SJ, Drum DE. Hematologic abnormalities in adolescents who take oral contraceptive pills. J Pediatrics 1982;101:771-4. View abstract.
  • Halsted CH, McIntyre PA. Intestinal malabsorption caused by aminosalicylic acid therapy. Arch Int Med 1972;130;935-9. View abstract.
  • Hankey GJ, Eikelboom JW, Yi Q, et al. Treatment with B vitamins and incidence of cancer in patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack: Results of a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Stroke 2012;43(6):1572-7. View abstract.
  • Hanley DF. The challenge of stroke prevention. JAMA 2004;291:621-2. View abstract.
  • Hansten PD, Horn JR. Drug Interactions Analysis and Management. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics Inc., 1997 and updates.
  • Hartman TJ, Woodson K, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, et al. Association of the B-vitamins pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (B6), B12, and folate with lung cancer risk in older men. Am J Epidemiol 2001;153:688-94.. View abstract.
  • Hathcock JN, Troendle GJ. Oral cobalamin for treatment of pernicious anemia? JAMA 1991;265:96-97. View abstract.
  • Herbert V, Jacob E, Wong KT, et al. Low serum vitamin B12 levels in patients receiving ascorbic acid in megadoses: studies concerning the effect of ascorbate on radioisotope vitamin B12 assay. Am J Clin Nutr. 1978 Feb;31(2):253-8. View abstract.
  • Herbert V, Jacob E. Destruction of vitamin B12 by ascorbic acid. JAMA 1974;230:241-2. View abstract.
  • Hernandez BY, McDuffie K, Wilkens LR, et al. Diet and premalignant lesions of the cervix: evidence of a protective role for folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin B12. Cancer Causes Control 2003;14:859-70. View abstract.
  • Herrmann H. Prevention of cardiovascular events after percutaneous coronary intervention. N Engl J Med 2004;350:2708-10. View abstract.
  • Hielt K, Brynskov J, Hippe E, et al. Oral contraceptives and the cobalamin (vitamin B12) metabolism. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1985;64:59-63. View abstract.
  • Hill MJ. Intestinal flora and endogenous vitamin synthesis. Eur J Cancer Prev 1997;6:S43-5. View abstract.
  • Holven KB, Holm T, Aukrust P, et al. Effect of folic acid treatment on endothelium-dependent vasodilation and nitric oxide-derived end products in hyperhomocysteinemic subjects. Am J Med 2001;110:536-42. View abstract.
  • Homocysteine Lowering Trialists' Collaboration. Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid based supplements: meta-analysis of randomized trials. BMJ 1998;316:894-8. View abstract.
  • Houston DK, Johnson MA, Nozza RJ, et al. Age-related hearing loss, vitamin B-12, and folate in elderly women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:564-71. View abstract.
  • Jacobson ED, Faloon WW. Malabsorptive effects of neomycin in commonly used doses. JAMA 1961;175:187-90. View abstract.
  • Jansen T, Romiti R, Kreuter A, Altmeyer P. Rosacea fulminans triggered by high-dose vitamins B6 and B12. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2001;15:484-5.. View abstract.
  • Kanai T, Takagi T, Masuhiro K, et al. Serum vitamin K level and bone mineral density in post-menopausal women. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1997;56:25-30. View abstract.
  • Kastrup EK. Drug Facts and Comparisons. 1998 ed. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, 1998.
  • Keebler ME, De Souza C, Fonesca V. Diagnosis and treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2001;3:54-63. View abstract.
  • Kinsella LJ, Green R. Anesthesia paresthetica: nitrous oxide-induced cobalamin deficiency. Neurology 1995;45:1608-10. View abstract.
  • Kuzminski AM, Del Giacco EJ, et al. Effective treatment of cobalamin deficiency with oral cobalamin. Blood 1998;92:1191-1198. View abstract.
  • Kwok T, Tang C, Woo J, et al. Randomized trial of the effect of supplementation on the cognitive function of older people with subnormal cobalamin levels. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1998;13:611-6.
  • Lam JR, Schneider JL, Zhao W, et al. Proton pump inhibitor and histamine 2 receptor antagonist use and vitamin B12 deficiency. JAMA 2013;310:2435-42. View abstract.
  • Landgren F, Israelsson B, Lindgren A, et al. Plasma homocysteine in acute myocardial infarction: homocysteine-lowering effect of folic acid. J Intern Med 1995;237:381-8. View abstract.
  • Lange H, Suryapranata H, De Luca G, et al. Folate therapy and in-stent restenosis after coronary stenting. N Engl J Med 2004;350:2673-81. View abstract.
  • Lederle FA. Oral cobalamin for pernicious anemia. Medicine's best kept secret? JAMA 1991;265:94-5. View abstract.
  • Lees F. Radioactive vitamin B12 absorption in the megaloblastic anemia caused by anticonvulsant drugs. Q J Med 1961;30:231-48. View abstract.
  • Leonard JP, Desager JP, Beckers C, Harvengt C. In vitro binding of various biological substances by two hypocholesterolemic resins. Arzneimittelforschung 1979;29:97-81. View abstract.
  • Liem A, Reynierse-Buitenwerf GH, Zwinderman AH, et al. Secondary prevention with folic acid: effects on clinical outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:2105-13. . View abstract.
  • Lindenbaum J, Healton EB, Savage DG, et al. Neuropsychiatric disorders caused by cobalamin deficiency in the absence of anemia or macrocytosis. N Engl J Med 1988;318:1720-8. View abstract.
  • Lindenbaum J, Rosenberg IH, Wilson PW, et al. Prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in the Framingham elderly population. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:2-11. View abstract.
  • Line DH, Seitanidis B, Morgan JO, Hoffbrand AV. The effects of chemotherapy on iron, folate, and vitamin B12 metabolism in tuberculosis. Q J Med 1971;40:331-40. View abstract.
  • Liu HL, Chiu SC. The effectiveness of vitamin B12 for relieving pain in aphthous ulcers: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pain Manag Nurs. 2015;16(3):182-7. View abstract.
  • Livshits Z, Lugassy DM, Shawn LK, Hoffman RS. Falsely low carboxyhemoglobin level after hydroxycobalamin therapy. N Engl J Med 2012;367(13):1270-1. View abstract.
  • Lonn E, Yusuf S, Dzavik V, et al. Effects of ramipril and vitamin E on atherosclerosis: the study to evaluate carotid ultrasound changes in patients treated with ramipril and vitamin E (SECURE). Circulation 2001;103:919-25. View abstract.
  • Louwman MW, van Dusseldorp M, van de Vijver FJ, et al. Signs of impaired cognitive function in adolescents with marginal cobalamin status. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:762-9. View abstract.
  • Luchsinger JA, Tang MX, Miller J, et al. Relation of higher folate intake to lower risk of Alzheimer disease in the elderly. Arch Neurol 2007;64:86-92. View abstract.
  • Manns B, Hyndman E, Burgess E, et al. Oral vitamin B(12) and high-dose folic acid in hemodialysis patients with hyper-homocyst(e)inemia. Kidney Int 2001;59:1103-9. View abstract.
  • Marcuard SP, Albernaz L, Khazaine PG. Omeprazole therapy causes malabsorption of cyanocobalamin. Ann Intern Med 1994;120:211-5. View abstract.
  • Marcus M, Prabhudesai M, Wassef S. Stability of vitamin B12 in the presence of ascorbic acid in food and serum: restoration by cyanide of apparent loss. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980 Jan;33(1):137-43. View abstract.
  • Marie RM, Le Biez E, Busson P, et al. Nitrous-oxide anesthesia-associated myelopathy. Arch Neurol 2000;57:380-2. View abstract.
  • Martí-Carvajal AJ, Solà I, Lathyris D, Dayer M. Homocysteine-lowering interventions for preventing cardiovascular events. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;8:CD006612. View abstract.
  • Mayer EL, Jacobsen DW, Robinson K. Homocysteine and coronary atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27:517-27. View abstract.
  • Mayer G, Kroger M, Meier-Ewert K. Effects of vitamin B12 on performance and circadian rhythm in normal subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology 1996;15:456-64. View abstract.
  • McMahon JA, Green TJ, Skeaff CM, Knight RG, Mann JI, Williams SM. A controlled trial of homocysteine lowering and cognitive performance. N Engl J Med 2006;354:2764-72. View abstract.
  • Mezzano D, Kosiel K, Martinez C, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors in vegetarians: normalization of hyperhomocysteinemia with vitamin B12 and reduction of platelet aggregation with n-3 fatty acids. Thromb Res 2000;100:153-60. View abstract.
  • Mills JL, Von Kohorn I, Conley MR, et al. Low vitamin B-12 concentrations in patients without anemia: the effect of folic acid fortification of grain. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jun;77(6):1474-7.View abstract.
  • Mooij PN, Thomas CM, Doesburg WH, Eskes TK. Multivitamin supplementation in oral contraceptive users. Contraception 1991;44:277-88. View abstract.
  • Morita M, Yin G, Yoshimitsu S, et al. Folate-related nutrients, genetic polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer risk: The Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013;14(11):6249-56. View abstract.
  • Nallamothu BK, Fendrick M, Rubenfire M, et al. Potential clinical and economic effects of homocyst(e)ine lowering. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:3406-12.. View abstract.
  • Negrao L, Almeida P, Alcino S, et al. Effect of the combination of uridine nucleotides, folic acid and vitamin B12 on the clinical expression of peripheral neuropathies. Pain Manag 2014;4(3):191-6. View abstract.
  • Nilsen DW, Albrektsen G, Landmark K, et al. Effects of a high-dose concentrate of n-3 fatty acids or corn oil introduced early after an acute myocardial infarction on serum triacylglycerol and HDL cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:50-6. View abstract.
  • Ohta T, Ando K, Iwata T, et al. Treatment of persistent sleep-wake schedule disorders in adolescents with methylcobalamin (vitamin B12). Sleep 1991;14:414-8. View abstract.
  • Okawa M, Takahashi K, Egashira K, et al. Vitamin B12 treatment for delayed sleep phase syndrome: a multi-center double-blind study. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1997;51:275-9. View abstract.
  • Okawa M, Uchiyama M, Ozaki S, et al. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders in adolescents: clinical trials of combined treatments based on chronobiology. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998;52:483-90. View abstract.
  • Package insert for Paser granules. Jacobus Pharmaceutical Co., Inc. Princeton, NJ. July 1996.
  • Paltiel O, Falutz J, Veilleux M, et al. Clinical correlates of subnormal vitamin B12 levels in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Hematol 1995;49:318-22. View abstract.
  • Palva IP, Salokannel SJ, Palva HLA, et al. Drug-induced malabsorption of vitamin B12. VII Malabsorption of B12 during treatment with potassium citrate. Acta Med Scand 1974;196:525-6. View abstract.
  • Palva IP, Salokannel SJ, Timonen T, et al. Drug-induced malabsorption of vitamin B12. IV. Malabsorption and deficiency of B12 during treatment with slow-release potassium chloride. Acta Med Scand 1972;191:355-7. View abstract.
  • Passeri M, Cucinotta D, Abate G, et al. Oral 5'-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in senile organic mental disorders with depression: results of a double-blind multicenter study. Aging (Milano) 1993;5:63-71.. View abstract.
  • Paulin FV, Zagatto AM, Chiappa GR, Müller PT. Addition of vitamin B12 to exercise training improves cycle ergometer endurance in advanced COPD patients: A randomized and controlled study. Respir Med. 2017;122:23-29. View abstract.
  • Penninx BW, Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, et al. Vitamin B(12) deficiency and depression in physically disabled older women: epidemiologic evidence from the Women's Health and Aging Study. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:715-21. View abstract.
  • Prasad AS, Lei KY, Moghissi KS, et al. Effect of oral contraceptives on nutrients. III. Vitamins B6, B12 and folic acid. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1976;125:1063-9. View abstract.
  • Race TF, Paes IC, Faloon WW. Intestinal malabsorption induced by oral colchicine. Comparison with neomycin and cathartic agents. Am J Med Sci 1970;259:32-41. View abstract.
  • Reynolds EH, Hallpike JF, Phillips BM, et al. Reversible absorptive defects in anticonvulsant megaloblastic anemia. J Clin Pathol 1965;18:593-8. View abstract.
  • Reynolds EH. Schizophrenia-like psychoses of epilepsy and disturbances of folate and vitamin B12 metabolism induced by anticonvulsant drugs. Br J Psychiatry 1967;113:911-9. View abstract.
  • Richman DD, Fischl MA, Grieco MH, et al. The toxicity of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. N Engl J Med 1987;317:192-7. View abstract.
  • Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB, et al. Folate and vitamin B6 from diet and supplements in relation to risk of coronary heart disease among women. JAMA 1998;279:359-64. View abstract.
  • Robinson K, Arheart K, Refsum H, et al. Low circulating folate and vitamin B6 concentrations: Risk factors for stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary artery disease. Circulation 1998;97:437-43. View abstract.
  • Rocco A, Compare D, Coccoli P, et al. Vitamin B12 supplementation improves rates of sustained vital response in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. Gut 2013;62(5):766-73. View abstract.
  • Roffman JL, Lamberti JS, Achtyes E, et al. Randomized multicenter investigation of folate plus vitamin B12 supplementation in schizophrenia. JAMA Psychiatry 2013;70(5):481-9. View abstract.
  • Ruscin JM, Page RL, Valuck RJ. Vitamin B12 deficiency associated with histamine-2-receptor antagonists and a proton-pump inhibitor. Ann Pharmacother 2002;36:812-6. View abstract.
  • Russell RM, Baik H, Kehayias JJ. Older men and women efficiently absorb vitamin B-12 from milk and fortified bread. J Nutr 2001;131:291-3. View abstract.
  • Salokannel SJ, Palva IP, Takkunen JT, et al. Malabsorption of vitamin B12 during treatment with slow-release potassium chloride. Preliminary report. Acta Med Scand 1970;187:431-2. View abstract.
  • Salom IL, Silvis SE, Doscherholmen A. Effect of cimetidine on the absorption of vitamin B12. Scand J Gastroenterol 1982;17:129-31. View abstract.
  • Salonen RM, Nyyssonen K, Kaikkonen J, et al. Six-year effect of combined vitamin C and E supplementation on atherosclerotic progression: the Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) Study. Circulation 2003;107:947-53.. View abstract.
  • Saltzman JR, Kemp JA, Golner BB, et al. Effect of hypochlorhydria due to omeprazole treatment or atrophic gastritis on protein-bound vitamin B12 absorption. J Am Coll Nutr 1994;13:584-91. View abstract.
  • Schloss JM, Colosimo M, Airey C, Masci P, Linnane AW, Vitetta L. A randomised, placebo-controlled trial assessing the efficacy of an oral B group vitamin in preventing the development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Support Care Cancer. 2017;25(1):195-204. View abstract.
  • Schnyder G, Roffi M, Flammer Y, et al. Effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 on clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention. The Swiss Heart Study: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;288:973-9. View abstract.
  • Schnyder G, Roffi M, Pin R, et al. Decreased rate of coronary restenosis after lowering of plasma homocysteine levels. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1593-600. View abstract.
  • Schnyder G, Roffi M, Pin R, et al. Decreased rate of coronary stenosis after lowering of plasma homocysteine levels. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1593-600. View abstract.
  • Seal EC, Metz J, Flicker L, Melny J. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral vitamin B12 supplementation in older patients with subnormal or borderline serum vitamin B12 concentrations. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50:146-51. View abstract.
  • Selhub J, Jacques PF, Bostom AG, et al. Relationship between plasma homocysteine and vitamin status in the Framingham study population. Impact of folic acid fortification. Publ Health Rev 2000;28:117-45. View abstract.
  • Shen CL, Song W, Pence BC. Interactions of selenium compounds with other antioxidants in DNA damage and apoptosis in human normal keratinocytes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001;10:385-90. View abstract.
  • Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
  • Shojania AM. Oral contraceptives: effect on folate and vitamin B12 metabolism. Can Med Assoc J 1982;126:244-7. View abstract.
  • Shrubsole MJ, Jin F, Dai Q, et al. Dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Cancer Res 2001;61:7136-41.. View abstract.
  • Singh C, Kawatra R, Gupta J, Awasthi V, Dungana H. Therapeutic role of vitamin B12 in patients of chronic tinnitus: A pilot study. Noise Health. 2016;18(81):93-7. View abstract.
  • Singh RB, Niaz MA, Sharma JP, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fish oil and mustard oil in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction: the Indian experiment of infarct survival-4. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1997;11:485-91. View abstract.
  • Smith AD. Homocysteine, B vitamins, and cognitive deficit in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:785-6. View abstract.
  • Song Y, Manson JE, Lee IM, et al. Effect of combined folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) on colorectal adenoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 2012;104(20):1562-75. View abstract.
  • Spence JD, Yi Q, Hankey GJ. B vitamins in stroke prevention: time to reconsider. Lancet Neurol. 2017;16(9):750-760. View abstract.
  • Srinivasan K, Thomas T, Kapanee AR, et al. Effects of maternal vitamin B12 supplementation on early infant neurocognitive outcomes: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Matern Child Nutr. 2017;13(2). View abstract.
  • Stabler SP, Allen RH, Fried LP, et al. Racial differences in prevalence of cobalamin and folate deficiencies in disabled elderly women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:911-9. View abstract.
  • Stehouwer CD. Clinical relevance of hyperhomocysteinaemia in atherothrombotic disease. Drugs and Aging 2000;16:251-60.. View abstract.
  • Stellpflug SJ, Gardner RL, Leroy JM, et al. Hydroxocobalamin hinders hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 2013;62(2):395. View abstract.
  • Stucker M, Memmel U, Hoffmann M, et al. Vitamin B(12) cream containing avocado oil in the therapy of plaque psoriasis. Dermatology 2001;203:141-7. View abstract.
  • Stucker M, Pieck C, Stoerb C, et al. Topical vitamin B12 - a new therapeutic approach in atopic dermatitis - evaluation of efficacy and tolerability in a randomized placebo-controlled multicentre clinical trial. Br J Dematol 2004;150:977-83. View abstract.
  • Sunder-Plassmann G, Winkelmayer WC, Fodinger M. Therapeutic potential of total homocysteine-lowering drugs on cardiovascular disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2000;9:2637-51. View abstract.
  • Swart KM, Ham AC, van Wijngaarden JP, et al. A randomized controlled trial to examine the effect of 2-year vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on physical performance, strength, and falling: additional findings from the B-PROOF study. Calcif Tissue Int. 2016;98(1):18-27. View abstract.
  • Taneja S, Strand TA, Kumar T, et al. Folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplementation and common infections in 6-30-mo-old children in India: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2013;98(3):731-7. View abstract.
  • Tardif JC. Probucol and multivitamins in the prevention of restenosis after coronary angioplasty. N Engl J Med 1997;337:365-372.. View abstract.
  • Tatro DS, ed. Drug Interactions Facts. Facts and Comparisons Inc., St. Louis, MO. 1999.
  • Termanini B, Gibril F, Sutliff VE, et al. Effect of long-term gastric acid suppressive therapy on serum vitamin B12 levels in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Am J Med 1998;104:422-30. View abstract.
  • Tiemeier H, van Tuijl HR, Hofman A, et al. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in depression: the Rotterdam Study. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159:2099-101.. View abstract.
  • Ting RZ, Szeto CC, Chan MH, et al. Risk factors of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients receiving metformin. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:1975-9. View abstract.
  • Toole JF, Malinow MR, Chambless LE, et al. Lowering homocysteine in patients with ischemic stroke to prevent recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and death: the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;291:565-75.. View abstract.
  • Toskes PP, Deren JJ. Selective inhibition of vitamin B12 absorption by para-aminosalicylic acid. Gastroenterology 1972;62:1232-7. View abstract.
  • Tremblay R, Bonnardeaux A, Geadah D, et al. Hyperhomocystinemia in hemodialysis patients: effects of 12-month supplementation with hydrosoluble vitamins. Kidney Int 2000;58:851-8. View abstract.
  • Tyrer LB. Nutrition and the pill. J Reprod Med 1984;29:547-50.. View abstract.
  • Ueland PM, Refsum H, Beresford SA, Vollset SE. The controversy over homocysteine and cardiovascular risk. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:324-32. View abstract.
  • van der Dijs FP, Fokkema MR, Dijck-Brouwer DA, et al. Optimization of folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 supplements in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease. Am J Hematol 2002;69:239-46.. View abstract.
  • van der Zwaluw NL, Dhonukshe-Rutten RA, van Wijngaarden JP, et al. Results of a 2-year vitamin B treatment on cognitive performance: secondary data from an RCT. Neurology 2014;83(23):2158-66. View abstract.
  • van Dijk SC, Enneman AW, Swart KM, et al. Effects of 2-year vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation in hyperhomocysteinemic elderly on arterial stiffness and cardiovascular outcomes within the B-PROOF trial. J Hypertens. 2015;33(9):1897-906. View abstract.
  • Van Guelpen B, Hultdin J, Johansson I, et al. Folate, vitamin B12, and risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke: a prospective, nested case-referent study of plasma concentrations and dietary intake. Stroke 2005;36:1426-31. View abstract.
  • van Oijen MG, Laheij RJ, Peters WH, et al. Association of aspirin use with vitamin B12 deficiency (results of the BACH study). Am J Cardiol. 2004 Oct 1;94(7):975-7. View abstract.
  • van Wijngaarden JP, Swart KM, Enneman AW, et al. Effect of daily vitamin B-12 and folic acid supplementation on fracture incidence in elderly individuals with an elevated plasma homocysteine concentration: B-PROOF, a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2014;100(6):1578-86. View abstract.
  • Verhaeverbeke I, Mets T, Mulkens K, Vandewoude M. Normalization of low vitamin B12 serum levels in older people by oral treatment. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45:124-5. View abstract.
  • Vermeulen EG, Stehouwer CD, Twisk JW, et al. Effect of homocysteine-lowering treatment with folic acid plus vitamin B6 on progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2000;355:517-22. View abstract.
  • Volkov I, Rudoy I, Freud T, et al. Effectiveness of vitamin B12 in treating recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Board Fam Med 2009;22:9-16. View abstract.
  • Voutilainen S, Lakka TA, Porkkala-Sarataho E, et al. Low serum folate concentrations are associated with an excess incidence of acute coronary events: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:424-8. View abstract.
  • Waters DD, Alderman EL, Hsia J, et al. Effects of hormone replacement therapy and antioxidant vitamin supplements on coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;288:2432-40.. View abstract.
  • Webb DI, Chodos RB, Mahar CQ, et al. Mechanism of vitamin B12 malabsorption in patients receiving colchicine. N Engl J Med 1968;279:845-50. View abstract.
  • Werbach MR. Nutritional strategies for treating chronic fatigue syndrome. Altern Med Rev 2000;5:93-108. View abstract.
  • West RJ, Lloyd JK. The effect of cholestyramine on intestinal absorption. Gut 1975;16:93-8. View abstract.
  • Woodside JV, Yarnell JW, McMaster D, et al. Effect of B-group vitamins and antioxidant vitamins on hyperhomocysteinemia: a double-blind, randomized, factorial-design, controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:858-66. View abstract.
  • Wyckoff KF, Ganji V. Proportion of individuals with low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations without macrocytosis is higher in the post folic acid fortification period than in the pre folic acid fortification period. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):1187-92. View abstract.
  • Xu G, Lv ZW, Feng Y, et al. A single-center randomized controlled trial of local methylcobalamin injection for subacute herpetic neuralgia. Pain Med 2013;14(6):884-94. View abstract.
  • Xu G, Lv ZW, Xu GX, Tang WZ. Thiamine, cobalamin, locally injected alone or combination for herpetic itching: a single-center randomized controlled trial. Clin J Pain 2014;30(3):269-78. View abstract.
  • Xu G, Xu S, Cheng C, Xú G, Tang WZ, Xu J. Local administration of methylcobalamin and lidocaine for acute ophthalmic herpetic neuralgia: A single-center randomized controlled trial. Pain Pract. 2016;16(7):869-81. View abstract.
  • Yalcin A, Percot A, Erdugan H, et al. Hordenine in the marine alga, Gelidium crinale (Hare ex Turner) Gaillon. Acta Pharm Sci 2007;49:213-8.
  • Yamada K, Shimodaira M, Chida S, et al. Degradation of vitamin B12 in dietary supplements. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2008 Jul-Sep;78(4-5):195-203. View abstract.
  • Yamadera H, Takahashi K, Okawa M. A multicenter study of sleep-wake rhythm disorders: therapeutic effects of vitamin B12, bright light therapy, chronotherapy and hypnotics. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1996;50:203-9. View abstract.
  • Yamadera W, Sasaki M, Itoh H, et al. Clinical features of circadian rhythm sleep disorders in outpatients. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998;52:311-6. View abstract.
  • Yates AA, Schlicker SA, Suitor CW. Dietary reference intakes: The new basis for recommendations for calcium and related nutrients, B vitamins, and choline. J Am Diet Assoc 1998;98:699-706. View abstract.
  • Zapletal C, Heyne S, Golling M, et al. Influence of selenium therapy on liver microcirculation after warm ischemia/reperfusion: an intravital microscopy study. Transplant Proc 2001;33:974-5. View abstract.
  • Zhou K, Zhao R, Geng Z, et al. Association between B-group vitamins and venous thrombosis: systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2012;34(4):459-67. View abstract.
  • Zipursky A, Brown EJ, Watts J, et al. Oral vitamin E supplementation for the prevention of anemia in premature infants: a controlled trial. Pediatrics 1987;79:61-8. View abstract.
  • Aisen, P. S., Schneider, L. S., Sano, M., Diaz-Arrastia, R., van Dyck, C. H., Weiner, M. F., Bottiglieri, T., Jin, S., Stokes, K. T., Thomas, R. G., and Thal, L. J. High-dose B vitamin supplementation and cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 10-15-2008;300(15):1774-1783. View abstract.
  • Ajayi, O. A. and Nnaji, U. R. Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on haematological response and ascorbic acid status of young female adults. Ann.Nutr Metab 1990;34(1):32-36. View abstract.
  • Ajayi, O. A., Okike, O. C., and Yusuf, Y. Haematological response to supplements of riboflavin and ascorbic acid in Nigerian young adults. Eur.J Haematol. 1990;44(4):209-212. View abstract.
  • Alberg, A. J., Selhub, J., Shah, K. V., Viscidi, R. P., Comstock, G. W., and Helzlsouer, K. J. The risk of cervical cancer in relation to serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2000;9(7):761-764. View abstract.
  • Albert, C. M., Cook, N. R., Gaziano, J. M., Zaharris, E., MacFadyen, J., Danielson, E., Buring, J. E., and Manson, J. E. Effect of folic acid and B vitamins on risk of cardiovascular events and total mortality among women at high risk for cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial. JAMA 5-7-2008;299(17):2027-2036. View abstract.
  • Almeida, O. P., Flicker, L., Lautenschlager, N. T., Leedman, P., Vasikaran, S., and van Bockxmeer, F. M. Contribution of the MTHFR gene to the causal pathway for depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment in later life. Neurobiol.Aging 2005;26(2):251-257. View abstract.
  • Almeida, O. P., McCaul, K., Hankey, G. J., Norman, P., Jamrozik, K., and Flicker, L. Homocysteine and depression in later life. Arch.Gen.Psychiatry 2008;65(11):1286-1294. View abstract.
  • Ammendolia, C., Stuber, K., de Bruin, L. K., Furlan, A. D., Kennedy, C. A., Rampersaud, Y. R., Steenstra, I. A., and Pennick, V. Nonoperative treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with neurogenic claudication: a systematic review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976.) 5-1-2012;37(10):E609-E616. View abstract.
  • Andres, E., Kaltenbach, G., Noblet-Dick, M., Noel, E., Vinzio, S., Perrin, A. E., Berthel, M., and Blickle, J. F. Hematological response to short-term oral cyanocobalamin therapy for the treatment of cobalamin deficiencies in elderly patients. J Nutr Health Aging 2006;10(1):3-6. View abstract.
  • Andres, E., Serraj, K., Mecili, M., Ciobanu, E., Vogel, T., and Weitten, T. [Update of oral vitamin B12]. Ann Endocrinol.(Paris) 2009;70(6):455-461. View abstract.
  • Andres, E., Vidal-Alaball, J., Federici, L., Loukili, N. H., Zimmer, J., and Affenberger, S. B12 deficiency: a look beyond pernicious anemia. Journal of Family Practice 2007;56:537-542.
  • Angeles, I. T., Schultink, W. J., Matulessi, P., Gross, R., and Sastroamidjojo, S. Decreased rate of stunting among anemic Indonesian preschool children through iron supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;58(3):339-342. View abstract.
  • Angeles-Agdeppa, I., Schultink, W., Sastroamidjojo, S., Gross, R., and Karyadi, D. Weekly micronutrient supplementation to build iron stores in female Indonesian adolescents. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1997;66(1):177-183. View abstract.
  • Areekul, S., Subcharoen, A., Cheeramakara, C., Srisukawat, K., and Limsuwan, S. Studies on the effect of folic acid supplement on folate and vitamin B12 status in children. Southeast Asian J Trop.Med Public Health 1980;11(1):81-86. View abstract.
  • B vitamins in patients with recent transient ischaemic attack or stroke in the VITAmins TO Prevent Stroke (VITATOPS) trial: a randomised, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9(9):855-865. View abstract.
  • Baccaglini, L., Lalla, R. V., Bruce, A. J., Sartori-Valinotti, J. C., Latortue, M. C., Carrozzo, M., and Rogers, R. S., III. Urban legends: recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Oral Dis. 2011;17(8):755-770. View abstract.
  • Baker, F., Picton, D., Blackwood, S., Hunt, J., Erskine, M., and Dyas, M. Blinded comparison of folic acid and placebo in patients with ischaemic heart disease: an outcome trial. Circulation 2002;106(Suppl II):741.
  • Balk, E. M., Raman, G., Tatsioni, A., Chung, M., Lau, J., and Rosenberg, I. H. Vitamin B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation and cognitive function: a systematic review of randomized trials. Arch.Intern.Med 1-8-2007;167(1):21-30. View abstract.
  • Basu, R. N., Sood, S. K., Ramachandran, K., Mathur, M., and Ramalingaswami, V. Etiopathogenesis of nutritional anemia in pregnancy: a therapeutic approach. Am.J Clin.Nutr 1973;26(6):591-594. View abstract.
  • Batu, A. T., Toe, T., Pe, H., and Nyunt, K. K. A prophylactic trial of iron and folic acid supplements in pregnant Burmese women. Isr.J.Med.Sci. 1976;12(12):1410-1417. View abstract.
  • Biedowa, J. and Knychalska-Karwan, Z. [Submucous injections of vitamin B12 and hydrocortisone in cases of recurrent aphthae]. Czas.Stomatol. 1983;36(7):565-567. View abstract.
  • Bjelland, I., Tell, G. S., Vollset, S. E., Refsum, H., and Ueland, P. M. Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and the MTHFR 677C->T polymorphism in anxiety and depression: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study. Arch.Gen.Psychiatry 2003;60(6):618-626. View abstract.
  • Blanchette, V., Bell, E., Nahmias, C., Garnett, S., Milner, R., and Zipursky, A. A randomized control trial of vitamin E therapy in the prevention of anemia in low birth weight (LBW) infants. Pediatr.Res. 1980;14:591.
  • Bleys, J., Miller, E. R., III, Pastor-Barriuso, R., Appel, L. J., and Guallar, E. Vitamin-mineral supplementation and the progression of atherosclerosis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2006;84(4):880-887. View abstract.
  • Bloem, M. W., Wedel, M., Egger, R. J., Speek, A. J., Schrijver, J., Saowakontha, S., and Schreurs, W. H. Iron metabolism and vitamin A deficiency in children in northeast Thailand. Am.J Clin.Nutr 1989;50(2):332-338. View abstract.
  • Bloem, M. W., Wedel, M., van Agtmaal, E. J., Speek, A. J., Saowakontha, S., and Schreurs, W. H. Vitamin A intervention: short-term effects of a single, oral, massive dose on iron metabolism. Am.J Clin.Nutr 1990;51(1):76-79. View abstract.
  • Bolaman, Z., Kadikoylu, G., Yukselen, V., Yavasoglu, I., Barutca, S., and Senturk, T. Oral versus intramuscular cobalamin treatment in megaloblastic anemia: a single-center, prospective, randomized, open-label study. Clin Ther 2003;25(12):3124-3134. View abstract.
  • Borron, S. W., Baud, F. J., Barriot, P., Imbert, M., and Bismuth, C. Prospective study of hydroxocobalamin for acute cyanide poisoning in smoke inhalation. Ann Emerg.Med 2007;49(6):794-801, 801. View abstract.
  • Bradfield, R. B., Jensen, M. V., Gonzales, L., and Garrayar, C. Effect of low-level iron and vitamin supplementation on a tropical anemia. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1968;21(1):57-67. View abstract.
  • Brude, I. R., Finstad, H. S., Seljeflot, I., Drevon, C. A., Solvoll, K., Sandstad, B., Hjermann, I., Arnesen, H., and Nenseter, M. S. Plasma homocysteine concentration related to diet, endothelial function and mononuclear cell gene expression among male hyperlipidaemic smokers. Eur.J.Clin.Invest 1999;29(2):100-108. View abstract.
  • Bryan, J., Calvaresi, E., and Hughes, D. Short-term folate, vitamin B-12 or vitamin B-6 supplementation slightly affects memory performance but not mood in women of various ages. J Nutr 2002;132(6):1345-1356. View abstract.
  • Burland, W. L., Simpson, K., and Lord, J. Response of low birthweight infant to treatment with folic acid. Arch.Dis.Child 1971;46(246):189-194. View abstract.
  • Butler, C. C., Vidal-Alaball, J., Cannings-John, R., McCaddon, A., Hood, K., Papaioannou, A., Mcdowell, I., and Goringe, A. Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Fam.Pract 2006;23(3):279-285. View abstract.
  • Buzina, R., Grgic, Z., Jusic, M., Sapunar, J., Milanovic, N., and Brubacher, G. Nutritional status and physical working capacity. Hum.Nutr Clin.Nutr 1982;36(6):429-438. View abstract.
  • Buzina, R., Jusic, M., Milanovic, N., Sapunar, J., and Brubacher, G. The effects of riboflavin administration on iron metabolism parameters in a school-going population. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res. 1979;49(2):136-143. View abstract.
  • Carmel, R. Biomarkers of cobalamin (vitamin B-12) status in the epidemiologic setting: a critical overview of context, applications, and performance characteristics of cobalamin, methylmalonic acid, and holotranscobalamin II. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2011;94(1):348S-358S. View abstract.
  • Carrozzo, M. Vitamin B12 for the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Evid.Based.Dent. 2009;10(4):114-115. View abstract.
  • Charoenlarp, P., Dhanamitta, S., Kaewvichit, R., Silprasert, A., Suwanaradd, C., Na-Nakorn, S., Prawatmuang, P., Vatanavicharn, S., Nutcharas, U., Pootrakul, P., and . A WHO collaborative study on iron supplementation in Burma and in Thailand. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1988;47(2):280-297. View abstract.
  • Charoenlarp, P., Pholpothi, T., Chatpunyaporn, P., and Schelp, F. P. The effect of riboflavin on the hematologic changes in iron supplementation of schoolchildren. Southeast Asian J.Trop.Med.Public Health 1980;11(1):97-103. View abstract.
  • Chasan-Taber, L., Selhub, J., Rosenberg, I. H., Malinow, M. R., Terry, P., Tishler, P. V., Willett, W., Hennekens, C. H., and Stampfer, M. J. A prospective study of folate and vitamin B6 and risk of myocardial infarction in US physicians. J Am.Coll.Nutr 1996;15(2):136-143. View abstract.
  • Chawla, P. K. and Puri, R. Impact of nutritional supplements on hematological profile of pregnant women. Indian Pediatr. 1995;32(8):876-880. View abstract.
  • Chen, S. H., Hung, C. S., Yang, C. P., Lo, F. S., and Hsu, H. H. Coexistence of megaloblastic anemia and iron deficiency anemia in a young woman with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Int J Hematol. 2006;84(3):238-241. View abstract.
  • Clarke, R., Harrison, G., and Richards, S. Effect of vitamins and aspirin on markers of platelet activation, oxidative stress and homocysteine in people at high risk of dementia. J Intern.Med 2003;254(1):67-75. View abstract.
  • Clarke, R., Lewington, S., Sherliker, P., and Armitage, J. Effects of B-vitamins on plasma homocysteine concentrations and on risk of cardiovascular disease and dementia. Curr Opin.Clin Nutr Metab Care 2007;10(1):32-39. View abstract.
  • Collin, S. M., Metcalfe, C., Refsum, H., Lewis, S. J., Zuccolo, L., Smith, G. D., Chen, L., Harris, R., Davis, M., Marsden, G., Johnston, C., Lane, J. A., Ebbing, M., Bonaa, K. H., Nygard, O., Ueland, P. M., Grau, M. V., Baron, J. A., Donovan, J. L., Neal, D. E., Hamdy, F. C., Smith, A. D., and Martin, R. M. Circulating folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine, vitamin B12 transport proteins, and risk of prostate cancer: a case-control study, systematic review, and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19(6):1632-1642. View abstract.
  • Colman, N., Larsen, J. V., Barker, M., Barker, E. A., Green, R., and Metz, J. Prevention of folate deficiency by food fortification. III. Effect in pregnant subjects of varying amounts of added folic acid. Am.J Clin.Nutr 1975;28(5):465-470. View abstract.
  • Conway, S. P., Rawson, I., Dear, P. R., Shires, S. E., and Kelleher, J. The early anaemia of the premature infant: is there a place for vitamin E supplementation? Br J Nutr 1986;56(1):105-114. View abstract.
  • Coppen, A., Chaudhry, S., and Swade, C. Folic acid enhances lithium prophylaxis. J.Affect.Disord. 1986;10(1):9-13. View abstract.
  • Cuskelly, G. J., McNulty, H., McPartlin, J. M., Strain, J. J., and Scott, J. M. Plasma homocysteine response to folate intervention in young women. Ir.J.Med.Sci. 1995;(164):3.
  • Das, B. K., Bal, M. S., Tripathi, A. M., Singla, P. N., Agarwal, D. K., and Agarwal, K. N. Evaluation of frequency and dose of iron and other hematinics--an alternative strategy for anemia prophylaxis in rural preschoolers. Indian Pediatr. 1984;21(12):933-938. View abstract.
  • Dawson, E. B., Evans, D. R., Conway, M. E., and McGanity, W. J. Vitamin B12 and folate bioavailability from two prenatal multivitamin/multimineral supplements. Am.J.Perinatol. 2000;17(4):193-199. View abstract.
  • de Jager, C. A., Oulhaj, A., Jacoby, R., Refsum, H., and Smith, A. D. Cognitive and clinical outcomes of homocysteine-lowering B-vitamin treatment in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. Int.J.Geriatr.Psychiatry 2012;27(6):592-600. View abstract.
  • de Jong, S. C., Stehouwer, C. D., van den Berg, M., Geurts, T. W., Bouter, L. M., and Rauwerda, J. A. Normohomocysteinaemia and vitamin-treated hyperhomocysteinaemia are associated with similar risks of cardiovascular events in patients with premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease. A prospective cohort study. J Intern Med 1999;246(1):87-96. View abstract.
  • De La Fourniere, F., Ferry, M., Cnockaert, X., Chahwakilian, A., Hugonot-Diener, L., Baumann, F., Nedelec, C., Buronfosse, D., Meignan, S., Fauchier, C., Attar, C., Belmin, J., and Piette, F. Vitamin B12 deficiency and dementia a multicenter epidemiologic and therapeutic study preliminary therapeutic trial [Deficience en vitamine B12 et etat dementiel etude epidemiologique multicentrique et therapeutique essai preliminaire]. Semaine Des Hopitaux 1997;73(5-6):133-140.
  • de, Bree A., Mennen, L. I., Hercberg, S., and Galan, P. Evidence for a protective (synergistic?) effect of B-vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular diseases. Eur.J Clin.Nutr 2004;58(5):732-744. View abstract.
  • Decker, K., Dotis, B., Glatzle, D., and Hinselmann, M. Riboflavin status and anaemia in pregnant women. Nutr Metab 1977;21 Suppl 1:17-19. View abstract.
  • Deijen, J. B., van der Beek, E. J., Orlebeke, J. F., and van den Berg, H. Vitamin B-6 supplementation in elderly men: effects on mood, memory, performance and mental effort. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1992;109(4):489-496. View abstract.
  • DeMaio, S. J., King, S. B., III, Lembo, N. J., Roubin, G. S., Hearn, J. A., Bhagavan, H. N., and Sgoutas, D. S. Vitamin E supplementation, plasma lipids and incidence of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). J Am.Coll.Nutr 1992;11(1):68-73. View abstract.
  • den Elzen, W. P., van der Weele, G. M., Gussekloo, J., Westendorp, R. G., and Assendelft, W. J. Subnormal vitamin B12 concentrations and anaemia in older people: a systematic review. BMC.Geriatr. 2010;10:42. View abstract.
  • Devathasan, G., Teo, W. L., and Mylvaganam, A. Methylcobalamin in chronic diabetic neuropathy. A double-blind clinical and electrophysiological study. Clin Trials J 1986;23:130-140.
  • Dierkes, J. Vitamin requirements for the reduction of homocysteine blood levels in healthy young women. 1995;
  • Dierkes, J., Kroesen, M., and Pietrzik, K. Folic acid and Vitamin B6 supplementation and plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy young women. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res. 1998;68(2):98-103. View abstract.
  • Dimopoulos, N., Piperi, C., Salonicioti, A., Psarra, V., Gazi, F., Papadimitriou, A., Lea, R. W., and Kalofoutis, A. Correlation of folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine plasma levels with depression in an elderly Greek population. Clin Biochem 2007;40(9-10):604-608. View abstract.
  • Dose-dependent effects of folic acid on blood concentrations of homocysteine: a meta-analysis of the randomized trials. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2005;82(4):806-812. View abstract.
  • Ebbing, M., Bleie, O., Ueland, P. M., Nordrehaug, J. E., Nilsen, D. W., Vollset, S. E., Refsum, H., Pedersen, E. K., and Nygard, O. Mortality and cardiovascular events in patients treated with homocysteine-lowering B vitamins after coronary angiography: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 8-20-2008;300(7):795-804. View abstract.
  • Ebbing, M., Bonaa, K. H., Arnesen, E., Ueland, P. M., Nordrehaug, J. E., Rasmussen, K., Njolstad, I., Nilsen, D. W., Refsum, H., Tverdal, A., Vollset, S. E., Schirmer, H., Bleie, O., Steigen, T., Midttun, O., Fredriksen, A., Pedersen, E. R., and Nygard, O. Combined analyses and extended follow-up of two randomized controlled homocysteine-lowering B-vitamin trials. J Intern.Med 2010;268(4):367-382. View abstract.
  • Eikelboom, J. W., Lonn, E., Genest, J., Jr., Hankey, G., and Yusuf, S. Homocyst(e)ine and cardiovascular disease: a critical review of the epidemiologic evidence. Ann.Intern.Med 9-7-1999;131(5):363-375. View abstract.
  • Ellinson, M., Thomas, J., and Patterson, A. A critical evaluation of the relationship between serum vitamin B, folate and total homocysteine with cognitive impairment in the elderly. J Hum Nutr Diet 2004;17(4):371-383. View abstract.
  • Engels, A., Schroer, U., and Schremmer, D. [Efficacy of a combination therapy with vitamins B6, B12 and folic acid for general feeling of ill-health. Results of a non-interventional post-marketing surveillance study]. MMW.Fortschr.Med 1-17-2008;149 Suppl 4:162-166. View abstract.
  • Etgen, T., Sander, D., Bickel, H., and Forstl, H. Mild cognitive impairment and dementia: the importance of modifiable risk factors. Dtsch.Arztebl.Int 2011;108(44):743-750. View abstract.
  • Eussen, S. J., de Groot, L. C., Joosten, L. W., Bloo, R. J., Clarke, R., Ueland, P. M., Schneede, J., Blom, H. J., Hoefnagels, W. H., and van Staveren, W. A. Effect of oral vitamin B-12 with or without folic acid on cognitive function in older people with mild vitamin B-12 deficiency: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2006;84(2):361-370. View abstract.
  • Fang, J. C., Kinlay, S., Beltrame, J., Hikiti, H., Wainstein, M., Behrendt, D., Suh, J., Frei, B., Mudge, G. H., Selwyn, A. P., and Ganz, P. Effect of vitamins C and E on progression of transplant-associated arteriosclerosis: a randomised trial. Lancet 3-30-2002;359(9312):1108-1113. View abstract.
  • Fawzi, W. W., Msamanga, G. I., Spiegelman, D., Urassa, E. J., McGrath, N., Mwakagile, D., Antelman, G., Mbise, R., Herrera, G., Kapiga, S., Willett, W., and Hunter, D. J. Randomised trial of effects of vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcomes and T cell counts in HIV-1-infected women in Tanzania. Lancet 5-16-1998;351(9114):1477-1482. View abstract.
  • Ferguson, L. R. Meat and cancer. Meat.Sci 2010;84(2):308-313. View abstract.
  • Ferlin, M. L. S., Chuan, L. S., Jorge, S. M., and Vannucchi, H. Early anemia of prematurity. Nutr.Res. 1998;18:1161-1173.
  • Fioravanti, M., Ferrario, E., Massaia, M., Cappa, G., Rivolta, G., Grossi, E., and Buckley, A. E. Low folate levels in the cognitive decline of elderly patients and the efficacy of folate as a treatment for improving memory deficits. Arch.Gerontol.Geriatr. 1998;26(1):1-13. View abstract.
  • Fleming, A. F., Ghatoura, G. B., Harrison, K. A., Briggs, N. D., and Dunn, D. T. The prevention of anaemia in pregnancy in primigravidae in the guinea savanna of Nigeria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1986;80(2):211-233. View abstract.
  • Fleming, A. F., Martin, J. D., Hahnel, R., and Westlake, A. J. Effects of iron and folic acid antenatal supplements on maternal haematology and fetal wellbeing. Med.J.Aust. 9-21-1974;2(12):429-436. View abstract.
  • Ford, A. H. and Almeida, O. P. Effect of homocysteine lowering treatment on cognitive function: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J.Alzheimers.Dis. 2012;29(1):133-149. View abstract.
  • Ford, A. H., Flicker, L., Alfonso, H., Thomas, J., Clarnette, R., Martins, R., and Almeida, O. P. Vitamins B(12), B(6), and folic acid for cognition in older men. Neurology 10-26-2010;75(17):1540-1547. View abstract.
  • Ford, A. H., Flicker, L., Thomas, J., Norman, P., Jamrozik, K., and Almeida, O. P. Vitamins B12, B6, and folic acid for onset of depressive symptoms in older men: results from a 2-year placebo-controlled randomized trial. J Clin.Psychiatry 2008;69(8):1203-1209. View abstract.
  • Franken, D. G., Boers, G. H., Blom, H. J., and Trijbels, J. M. Effect of various regimens of vitamin B6 and folic acid on mild hyperhomocysteinaemia in vascular patients. J Inherit.Metab Dis. 1994;17(1):159-162. View abstract.
  • Franken, D. G., Boers, G. H., Blom, H. J., Trijbels, F. J., and Kloppenborg, P. W. Treatment of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in vascular disease patients. Arterioscler.Thromb. 1994;14(3):465-470. View abstract.
  • Garcia, A., Pulman, K., Zanibbi, K., Day, A., Galaraneau, L., and Freedman, M. Cobalamin reduces homocysteine in older adults on folic acid-fortified diet: a pilot, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004;52(8):1410-1412. View abstract.
  • Garcia, O. P., Diaz, M., Rosado, J. L., and Allen, L. H. Community trial of the efficacy of lime juice for improving iron status of iron deficient Mexican women. FASEB J. 1998;12:A647.
  • Garcia-Closas, R., Castellsague, X., Bosch, X., and Gonzalez, C. A. The role of diet and nutrition in cervical carcinogenesis: a review of recent evidence. Int.J.Cancer 11-20-2005;117(4):629-637. View abstract.
  • Ghosh, C., Baker, J. A., Moysich, K. B., Rivera, R., Brasure, J. R., and McCann, S. E. Dietary intakes of selected nutrients and food groups and risk of cervical cancer. Nutr Cancer 2008;60(3):331-341. View abstract.
  • Giuliano, A. R., Papenfuss, M., Nour, M., Canfield, L. M., Schneider, A., and Hatch, K. Antioxidant nutrients: associations with persistent human papillomavirus infection. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 1997;6(11):917-923. View abstract.
  • Giuliano, A. R., Siegel, E. M., Roe, D. J., Ferreira, S., Baggio, M. L., Galan, L., Duarte-Franco, E., Villa, L. L., Rohan, T. E., Marshall, J. R., and Franco, E. L. Dietary intake and risk of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection: the Ludwig-McGill HPV Natural History Study. J Infect.Dis. 11-15-2003;188(10):1508-1516. View abstract.
  • Goodman, J. E., Lavigne, J. A., Wu, K., Helzlsouer, K. J., Strickland, P. T., Selhub, J., and Yager, J. D. COMT genotype, micronutrients in the folate metabolic pathway and breast cancer risk. Carcinogenesis 2001;22(10):1661-1665. View abstract.
  • Goodman, M. T., Kiviat, N., McDuffie, K., Hankin, J. H., Hernandez, B., Wilkens, L. R., Franke, A., Kuypers, J., Kolonel, L. N., Nakamura, J., Ing, G., Branch, B., Bertram, C. C., Kamemoto, L., Sharma, S., and Killeen, J. The association of plasma micronutrients with the risk of cervical dysplasia in Hawaii. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 1998;7(6):537-544. View abstract.
  • Goodman, M. T., McDuffie, K., Hernandez, B., Wilkens, L. R., and Selhub, J. Case-control study of plasma folate, homocysteine, vitamin B(12), and cysteine as markers of cervical dysplasia. Cancer 7-15-2000;89(2):376-382. View abstract.
  • Goodman, M. T., McDuffie, K., Hernandez, B., Wilkens, L. R., Bertram, C. C., Killeen, J., Le, Marchand L., Selhub, J., Murphy, S., and Donlon, T. A. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism C677T and dietary folate with the risk of cervical dysplasia. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2001;10(12):1275-1280. View abstract.
  • Grasbeck, R. Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome (selective vitamin B(12) malabsorption with proteinuria). Orphanet.J Rare.Dis 2006;1:17. View abstract.
  • Green, R. Indicators for assessing folate and vitamin B-12 status and for monitoring the efficacy of intervention strategies. Am.J.Clin Nutr. 2011;94(2):666S-672S. View abstract.
  • Green, S., Buchbinder, R., Barnsley, L., Hall, S., White, M., Smidt, N., and Assendelft, W. Acupuncture for lateral elbow pain. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2002;(1):CD003527. View abstract.
  • Grundt, H., Nilsen, D. W., Hetland, O., Mansoor, M. A., Aarsland, T., and Woie, L. Atherothrombogenic risk modulation by n-3 fatty acids was not associated with changes in homocysteine in subjects with combined hyperlipidaemia. Thromb.Haemost. 1999;81(4):561-565. View abstract.
  • Guttormsen, A. B., Ueland, P. M., Nesthus, I., Nygard, O., Schneede, J., Vollset, S. E., and Refsum, H. Determinants and vitamin responsiveness of intermediate hyperhomocysteinemia (> or = 40 micromol/liter). The Hordaland Homocysteine Study. J Clin.Invest 11-1-1996;98(9):2174-2183. View abstract.
  • Hackam, D. G., Peterson, J. C., and Spence, J. D. What level of plasma homocyst(e)ine should be treated? Effects of vitamin therapy on progression of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with homocyst(e)ine levels above and below 14 micromol/L. Am J Hypertens. 2000;13(1 Pt 1):105-110. View abstract.
  • Haglund, O. Effects of fish oil on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Minireview based on a doctoral thesis. Ups.J Med Sci 1993;98(2):89-148. View abstract.
  • Haglund, O., Wallin, R., Wretling, S., Hultberg, B., and Saldeen, T. Effects of fish oil alone and combined with long chain (n-6) fatty acids on some coronary risk factors in male subjects. J.Nutr.Biochem. 1998;9:629-635.
  • Haker, E. and Lundeberg, T. Acupuncture treatment in epicondylalgia: a comparative study of two acupuncture techniques. Clin J Pain 1990;6(3):221-226. View abstract.
  • Haker, E. and Lundeberg, T. Laser treatment applied to acupuncture points in lateral humeral epicondylalgia. A double-blind study. Pain 1990;43(2):243-247. View abstract.
  • Heinz, J., Kropf, S., Luley, C., and Dierkes, J. Homocysteine as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients treated by dialysis: a meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;54(3):478-489. View abstract.
  • Herrero, R., Potischman, N., Brinton, L. A., Reeves, W. C., Brenes, M. M., Tenorio, F., de Britton, R. C., and Gaitan, E. A case-control study of nutrient status and invasive cervical cancer. I. Dietary indicators. Am.J Epidemiol. 12-1-1991;134(11):1335-1346. View abstract.
  • Herrmann, M., Peter, Schmidt J., Umanskaya, N., Wagner, A., Taban-Shomal, O., Widmann, T., Colaianni, G., Wildemann, B., and Herrmann, W. The role of hyperhomocysteinemia as well as folate, vitamin B(6) and B(12) deficiencies in osteoporosis: a systematic review. Clin.Chem.Lab Med 2007;45(12):1621-1632. View abstract.
  • Ho, G. Y., Palan, P. R., Basu, J., Romney, S. L., Kadish, A. S., Mikhail, M., Wassertheil-Smoller, S., Runowicz, C., and Burk, R. D. Viral characteristics of human papillomavirus infection and antioxidant levels as risk factors for cervical dysplasia. Int J Cancer 11-23-1998;78(5):594-599. View abstract.
  • HODGKIN, D. G., PICKWORTH, J., ROBERTSON, J. H., TRUEBLOOD, K. N., PROSEN, R. J., and WHITE, J. G. The crystal structure of the hexacarboxylic acid derived from B12 and the molecular structure of the vitamin. Nature 8-20-1955;176(4477):325-328. View abstract.
  • Hodis, H. N., Mack, W. J., LaBree, L., Mahrer, P. R., Sevanian, A., Liu, C. R., Liu, C. H., Hwang, J., Selzer, R. H., and Azen, S. P. Alpha-tocopherol supplementation in healthy individuals reduces low-density lipoprotein oxidation but not atherosclerosis: the Vitamin E Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (VEAPS). Circulation 9-17-2002;106(12):1453-1459. View abstract.
  • Holdt, B., Korten, G., Knippel, M., Lehmann, J. K., Claus, R., Holtz, M., and Hausmann, S. Increased serum level of total homocysteine in CAPD patients despite fish oil therapy. Perit.Dial.Int 1996;16 Suppl 1:S246-S249. View abstract.
  • Homocysteine-lowering trials for prevention of cardiovascular events: a review of the design and power of the large randomized trials. Am Heart J 2006;151(2):282-287. View abstract.
  • Hunt, J. R., Mullen, L. M., Lykken, G. I., Gallagher, S. K., and Nielsen, F. H. Ascorbic acid: effect on ongoing iron absorption and status in iron-depleted young women. Am.J Clin.Nutr 1990;51(4):649-655. View abstract.
  • Hvas, A. M., Juul, S., Lauritzen, L., Nexo, E., and Ellegaard, J. No effect of vitamin B-12 treatment on cognitive function and depression: a randomized placebo controlled study. J Affect.Disord. 2004;81(3):269-273. View abstract.
  • Iyengar, L. and Apte, S. V. Prophylaxis of anemia in pregnancy. Am.J Clin.Nutr 1970;23(6):725-730. View abstract.
  • Iyengar, L. and Rajalakshmi, K. Effect of folic acid supplement on birth weights of infants. Am.J Obstet.Gynecol. 6-1-1975;122(3):332-336. View abstract.
  • Jackson, R. T. and Latham, M. C. Anemia of pregnancy in Liberia, West Africa: a therapeutic trial. Am.J Clin.Nutr 1982;35(4):710-714. View abstract.
  • Jacob, R. A., Wu, M. M., Henning, S. M., and Swendseid, M. E. Homocysteine increases as folate decreases in plasma of healthy men during short-term dietary folate and methyl group restriction. J Nutr 1994;124(7):1072-1080. View abstract.
  • Jacques, P. F., Selhub, J., Bostom, A. G., Wilson, P. W., and Rosenberg, I. H. The effect of folic acid fortification on plasma folate and total homocysteine concentrations. N.Engl.J Med 5-13-1999;340(19):1449-1454. View abstract.
  • Jesse, S. and Ludolph, A. C. [Thiamine, pyridoxine and cobalamine. From myths to pharmacology and clinical practice]. Nervenarzt 2012;83(4):521-532. View abstract.
  • Jones, F. T. and Ricke, S. C. Observations on the history of the development of antimicrobials and their use in poultry feeds. Poult.Sci 2003;82(4):613-617. View abstract.
  • Kaltenbach, G., Noblet-Dick, M., Andres, E., Barnier-Figue, G., Noel, E., and Vogel, T. Reponse precoce au traitement oral par vitamine B12 chez des sujets ages hypovitaminiques. Annales de Medecine Interne (Paris) 2003;154:91-95.
  • Kaltenbach, G., Noblet-Dick, M., Andres, E., Barnier-Figue, G., Noel, E., Vogel, T., Perrin, A. E., Martin-Hunyadi, C., Berthel, M., and Kuntzmann, F. [Early response to oral cobalamin therapy in older patients with vitamin B12 deficiency]. Ann.Med.Interne (Paris) 2003;154(2):91-95. View abstract.
  • Kang, J. H., Cook, N., Manson, J., Buring, J. E., Albert, C. M., and Grodstein, F. A trial of B vitamins and cognitive function among women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2008;88(6):1602-1610. View abstract.
  • Kantesky, P. A., Gammon, M. D., Mandelblatt, J., Zhang, Z. F., Ramsey, E., Dnistrian, A., Norkus, E. P., and Wright, T. C., Jr. Dietary intake and blood levels of lycopene: association with cervical dysplasia among non-Hispanic, black women. Nutr.Cancer 1998;31(1):31-40. View abstract.
  • Kendall, A. C., Jones, E. E., Wilson, C. I., Shinton, N. K., and Elwood, P. C. Folic acid in low birthweight infants. Arch.Dis.Child 1974;49(9):736-738. View abstract.
  • Kjellberg, L., Hallmans, G., Ahren, A. M., Johansson, R., Bergman, F., Wadell, G., Angstrom, T., and Dillner, J. Smoking, diet, pregnancy and oral contraceptive use as risk factors for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia in relation to human papillomavirus infection. Br J Cancer 2000;82(7):1332-1338. View abstract.
  • Kolsteren, P., Rahman, S. R., Hilderbrand, K., and Diniz, A. Treatment for iron deficiency anaemia with a combined supplementation of iron, vitamin A and zinc in women of Dinajpur, Bangladesh. Eur.J Clin.Nutr 1999;53(2):102-106. View abstract.
  • Kral, V. A., Solyom, L., Enesco, H., and Ledwidge, B. Relationship of vitamin B12 and folic acid to memory function. Biol.Psychiatry 1970;2(1):19-26. View abstract.
  • Kuizon, M. D., Platon, T. P., Ancheta, L. P., Angeles, J. C., Nunez, C. B., and Macapinlac, M. P. Iron supplementation studies among pregnant women. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1979;10(4):520-527. View abstract.
  • Kulapongs, P. The effect of vitamin E on the anemia of protein-calorie malnutrition in northern Thai children. In: Olsen, R. F. Protien-calorie Malnutrition. New York: Academic Press;1975.
  • Kwasniewska, A., Tukendorf, A., and Semczuk, M. Folate deficiency and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Eur J Gynaecol.Oncol 1997;18(6):526-530. View abstract.
  • Kwasniewska, A., Tukendorf, A., Gozdzicka-Jozefiak, A., Semczuk-Sikora, A., and Korobowicz, E. Content of folic acid and free homocysteine in blood serum of human papillomavirus-infected women with cervical dysplasia. Eur J Gynaecol.Oncol 2002;23(4):311-316. View abstract.
  • Kwok, T., Lee, J., Law, C. B., Pan, P. C., Yung, C. Y., Choi, K. C., and Lam, L. C. A randomized placebo controlled trial of homocysteine lowering to reduce cognitive decline in older demented people. Clin Nutr. 2011;30(3):297-302. View abstract.
  • Kwok, T., Tang, C., Woo, J., Lai, W. K., Law, L. K., and Pang, C. P. Randomized trial of the effect of supplementation on the cognitive function of older people with subnormal cobalamin levels. Int J Geriatr.Psychiatry 1998;13(9):611-616. View abstract.
  • Lewerin, C., Matousek, M., Steen, G., Johansson, B., Steen, B., and Nilsson-Ehle, H. Significant correlations of plasma homocysteine and serum methylmalonic acid with movement and cognitive performance in elderly subjects but no improvement from short-term vitamin therapy: a placebo-controlled randomized study. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2005;81(5):1155-1162. View abstract.
  • Lewis, J. G. Gout, Steatorrhoea, and Megaloblastic Anaemia. Ann Rheum.Dis 1962;21(3):284-286. View abstract.
  • Li, G. [Effect of mecobalamin on diabetic neuropathies. Beijing Methycobal Clinical Trial Collaborative Group]. Zhonghua Nei Ke.Za Zhi. 1999;38(1):14-17. View abstract.
  • Liem, A. H., van Boven, A. J., Veeger, N. J., Withagen, A. J., Robles de Medina, R. M., Tijssen, J. G., and van Veldhuisen, D. J. Efficacy of folic acid when added to statin therapy in patients with hypercholesterolemia following acute myocardial infarction: a randomised pilot trial. Int J Cardiol 2004;93(2-3):175-179. View abstract.
  • Lin, C. Y., Kuo, C. S., Lu, C. L., Wu, M. Y., and Huang, R. F. Elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels in association with tumor markers as the prognostic factors predictive for poor survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Nutr Cancer 2010;62(2):190-197. View abstract.
  • Liu, D. S., Bates, C. J., Yin, T. A., Wang, X. B., and Lu, C. Q. Nutritional efficacy of a fortified weaning rusk in a rural area near Beijing. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57(4):506-511. View abstract.
  • Liu, T., Soong, S. J., Alvarez, R. D., and Butterworth, C. E., Jr. A longitudinal analysis of human papillomavirus 16 infection, nutritional status, and cervical dysplasia progression. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 1995;4(4):373-380. View abstract.
  • Lonn, E., Yusuf, S., Arnold, M. J., Sheridan, P., Pogue, J., Micks, M., McQueen, M. J., Probstfield, J., Fodor, G., Held, C., and Genest, J., Jr. Homocysteine lowering with folic acid and B vitamins in vascular disease. N.Engl.J Med 4-13-2006;354(15):1567-1577. View abstract.
  • Looker, H. C., Fagot-Campagna, A., Gunter, E. W., Pfeiffer, C. M., Sievers, M. L., Bennett, P. H., Nelson, R. G., Hanson, R. L., and Knowler, W. C. Homocysteine and vitamin B(12) concentrations and mortality rates in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2007;23(3):193-201. View abstract.
  • Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid-based supplements: meta-analysis of randomised trials. Indian Heart J 2000;52(7 Suppl):S59-S64. View abstract.
  • Ma, E., Iwasaki, M., Kobayashi, M., Kasuga, Y., Yokoyama, S., Onuma, H., Nishimura, H., Kusama, R., and Tsugane, S. Dietary intake of folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, genetic polymorphism of related enzymes, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Japan. Nutr Cancer 2009;61(4):447-456. View abstract.
  • Mackey, A. D. and Picciano, M. F. Maternal folate status during extended lactation and the effect of supplemental folic acid. Am.J Clin.Nutr 1999;69(2):285-292. View abstract.
  • Malinow, M. R., Duell, P. B., Hess, D. L., Anderson, P. H., Kruger, W. D., Phillipson, B. E., Gluckman, R. A., Block, P. C., and Upson, B. M. Reduction of plasma homocyst(e)ine levels by breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid in patients with coronary heart disease. N.Engl.J Med 4-9-1998;338(15):1009-1015. View abstract.
  • Malinow, M. R., Nieto, F. J., Kruger, W. D., Duell, P. B., Hess, D. L., Gluckman, R. A., Block, P. C., Holzgang, C. R., Anderson, P. H., Seltzer, D., Upson, B., and Lin, Q. R. The effects of folic acid supplementation on plasma total homocysteine are modulated by multivitamin use and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 1997;17(6):1157-1162. View abstract.
  • Malouf, R. and Areosa, Sastre A. Vitamin B12 for cognition. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2003;(3):CD004326. View abstract.
  • Malouf, R. and Grimley, Evans J. Folic acid with or without vitamin B12 for the prevention and treatment of healthy elderly and demented people. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2008;(4):CD004514. View abstract.
  • Mao, X. and Yao, G. Effect of vitamin C supplementations on iron deficiency anemia in Chinese children. Biomed.Environ Sci. 1992;5(2):125-129. View abstract.
  • Marcucci, R., Zanazzi, M., Bertoni, E., Rosati, A., Fedi, S., Lenti, M., Prisco, D., Castellani, S., Abbate, R., and Salvadori, M. Vitamin supplementation reduces the progression of atherosclerosis in hyperhomocysteinemic renal-transplant recipients. Transplantation 5-15-2003;75(9):1551-1555. View abstract.
  • Marti-Carvajal, A. J., Sola, I., Lathyris, D., and Salanti, G. Homocysteine lowering interventions for preventing cardiovascular events. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2009;(4):CD006612. View abstract.
  • McNulty, H., Pentieva, K., Hoey, L., and Ward, M. Homocysteine, B-vitamins and CVD. Proc.Nutr Soc. 2008;67(2):232-237. View abstract.
  • Mejia, L. A. and Chew, F. Hematological effect of supplementing anemic children with vitamin A alone and in combination with iron. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1988;48(3):595-600. View abstract.
  • Meleady, R. and Graham, I. Plasma homocysteine as a cardiovascular risk factor: causal, consequential, or of no consequence? Nutr Rev 1999;57(10):299-305. View abstract.
  • Molsberger, A. and Hille, E. The analgesic effect of acupuncture in chronic tennis elbow pain. Br J Rheumatol. 1994;33(12):1162-1165. View abstract.
  • Morris, M. C. Nutritional determinants of cognitive aging and dementia. Proc.Nutr.Soc. 2012;71(1):1-13. View abstract.
  • Morrison, H. I., Schaubel, D., Desmeules, M., and Wigle, D. T. Serum folate and risk of fatal coronary heart disease. JAMA 6-26-1996;275(24):1893-1896. View abstract.
  • Muhilal, Murdiana, A., Azis, I., Saidin, S., Jahari, A. B., and Karyadi, D. Vitamin A-fortified monosodium glutamate and vitamin A status: a controlled field trial. Am.J Clin.Nutr 1988;48(5):1265-1270. View abstract.
  • Murate, T., Suzuki, T., and Hotta, T. [Megaloblastic anemia followed by polycythemia vera after vitamin B12 therapy]. Rinsho Ketsueki 1988;29(7):1073-1077. View abstract.
  • Myung, S. K., Ju, W., Kim, S. C., and Kim, H. Vitamin or antioxidant intake (or serum level) and risk of cervical neoplasm: a meta-analysis. BJOG. 2011;118(11):1285-1291. View abstract.
  • Nagata, C., Shimizu, H., Yoshikawa, H., Noda, K., Nozawa, S., Yajima, A., Sekiya, S., Sugimori, H., Hirai, Y., Kanazawa, K., Sugase, M., and Kawana, T. Serum carotenoids and vitamins and risk of cervical dysplasia from a case-control study in Japan. Br J Cancer 1999;81(7):1234-1237. View abstract.
  • Naurath, H. J., Joosten, E., Riezler, R., Stabler, S. P., Allen, R. H., and Lindenbaum, J. Effects of vitamin B12, folate, and vitamin B6 supplements in elderly people with normal serum vitamin concentrations. Lancet 7-8-1995;346(8967):85-89. View abstract.
  • Nenseter, M. S., Osterud, B., Larsen, T., Strom, E., Bergei, C., Hewitt, S., Holven, K. B., Hagve, T. A., Mjos, S. A., Solvang, M., Pettersen, J., Opstvedt, J., and Ose, L. Effect of Norwegian fish powder on risk factors for coronary heart disease among hypercholesterolemic individuals. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc.Dis 2000;10(6):323-330. View abstract.
  • Nygard, O., Nordrehaug, J. E., Refsum, H., Ueland, P. M., Farstad, M., and Vollset, S. E. Plasma homocysteine levels and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl.J Med 7-24-1997;337(4):230-236. View abstract.
  • O'Brien, D. J., Walsh, D. W., Terriff, C. M., and Hall, A. H. Empiric management of cyanide toxicity associated with smoke inhalation. Prehosp.Disaster.Med. 2011;26(5):374-382. View abstract.
  • Okuda, K. Discovery of vitamin B12 in the liver and its absorption factor in the stomach: a historical review. J.Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 1999;14(4):301-308. View abstract.
  • Olszewski, A. J. and McCully, K. S. Fish oil decreases serum homocysteine in hyperlipemic men. Coron.Artery Dis 1993;4(1):53-60. View abstract.
  • Omboni, E., Checchini, M., and Longoni, F. [Hypopotassemia and megaloblastic anemia. Presentation of a case]. Minerva Med 8-31-1987;78(16):1255-1257. View abstract.
  • Ortiz-Hidalgo, C. [George H. Whipple. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1934. Whipple's disease, pernicious anemia, and other contributions to medicine]. Gac.Med Mex. 2002;138(4):371-376. View abstract.
  • Osifo, B. O. The effect of folic acid and iron in the prevention of nutritional anaemias in pregnancy in Nigeria. Br J Nutr 1970;24(3):689-694. View abstract.
  • Palan, P. R., Chang, C. J., Mikhail, M. S., Ho, G. Y., Basu, J., and Romney, S. L. Plasma concentrations of micronutrients during a nine-month clinical trial of beta-carotene in women with precursor cervical cancer lesions. Nutr Cancer 1998;30(1):46-52. View abstract.
  • Panth, M., Shatrugna, V., Yasodhara, P., and Sivakumar, B. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on haemoglobin and vitamin A levels during pregnancy. Br J Nutr 1990;64(2):351-358. View abstract.
  • Patra, R., Chattopadhyay, A., Vijaykumar, Nagendhar, M. Y., and Rao, P. L. Pyriform sinus fistula. Indian J Pediatr 2002;69(10):903-904. View abstract.
  • Peterson, J. C. and Spence, J. D. Vitamins and progression of atherosclerosis in hyper-homocyst(e)inaemia. Lancet 1-24-1998;351(9098):263. View abstract.
  • Piolot, A., Blache, D., Boulet, L., Fortin, L. J., Dubreuil, D., Marcoux, C., Davignon, J., and Lussier-Cacan, S. Effect of fish oil on LDL oxidation and plasma homocysteine concentrations in health. J.Lab Clin.Med. 2003;141(1):41-49. View abstract.
  • Potena, L., Grigioni, F., Magnani, G., Ortolani, P., Coccolo, F., Sassi, S., Kessels, K., Marrozzini, C., Marzocchi, A., Carigi, S., Musuraca, A. C., Russo, A., Magelli, C., and Branzi, A. Homocysteine-lowering therapy and early progression of transplant vasculopathy: a prospective, randomized, IVUS-based study. Am.J Transplant. 2005;5(9):2258-2264. View abstract.
  • Potter, K., Hankey, G. J., Green, D. J., Eikelboom, J., Jamrozik, K., and Arnolda, L. F. The effect of long-term homocysteine-lowering on carotid intima-media thickness and flow-mediated vasodilation in stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial and meta-analysis. BMC.Cardiovasc.Disord. 2008;8:24. View abstract.
  • Powers, H. J., Bates, C. J., and Lamb, W. H. Haematological response to supplements of iron and riboflavin to pregnant and lactating women in rural Gambia. Hum.Nutr.Clin.Nutr. 1985;39(2):117-129. View abstract.
  • Powers, H. J., Bates, C. J., Lamb, W. H., Singh, J., Gelman, W., and Webb, E. Effects of a multivitamin and iron supplement on running performance in Gambian children. Hum.Nutr Clin.Nutr 1985;39(6):427-437. View abstract.
  • Powers, H. J., Bates, C. J., Prentice, A. M., Lamb, W. H., Jepson, M., and Bowman, H. The relative effectiveness of iron and iron with riboflavin in correcting a microcytic anaemia in men and children in rural Gambia. Hum.Nutr.Clin.Nutr. 1983;37(6):413-425. View abstract.
  • Rajan, S., Wallace, J. I., Brodkin, K. I., Beresford, S. A., Allen, R. H., and Stabler, S. P. Response of elevated methylmalonic acid to three dose levels of oral cobalamin in older adults. J Am Geriatr.Soc 2002;50(11):1789-1795. View abstract.
  • Raman, G., Tatsioni, A., Chung, M., Rosenberg, I. H., Lau, J., Lichtenstein, A. H., and Balk, E. M. Heterogeneity and lack of good quality studies limit association between folate, vitamins B-6 and B-12, and cognitive function. J Nutr 2007;137(7):1789-1794. View abstract.
  • Ramos, M. I., Allen, L. H., Haan, M. N., Green, R., and Miller, J. W. Plasma folate concentrations are associated with depressive symptoms in elderly Latina women despite folic acid fortification. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(4):1024-1028. View abstract.
  • Reade, M. C., Davies, S. R., Morley, P. T., Dennett, J., and Jacobs, I. C. Review article: management of cyanide poisoning. Emerg.Med.Australas. 2012;24(3):225-238. View abstract.
  • Reinken, L. and Kurz, R. [Activity studies of an iron-vitamin B6 preparation for euteral treatment of iron deficiency anemia]. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res. 1975;45(4):411-418. View abstract.
  • Reinken, L. and Kurz, R. [The treatment of anemia due to iron-deficiency with iron combined with vitamins (author's transl)]. Klin.Padiatr. 1978;190(2):163-167. View abstract.
  • Roberts, P. M., Arrowsmith, D. E., Lloyd, A. V., and Monk-Jones, M. E. Effect of folic acid treatment on premature infants. Arch.Dis.Child 1972;47(254):631-634. View abstract.
  • Roderique, E. J., Gebre-Giorgis, A. A., Stewart, D. H., Feldman, M. J., and Pozez, A. L. Smoke inhalation injury in a pregnant patient: a literature review of the evidence and current best practices in the setting of a classic case. J Burn Care Res 2012;33(5):624-633. View abstract.

Vitamins Survey

Have you ever purchased VITAMIN B12?

Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)

Vitamins Survey

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

Do you buy vitamins online or instore?

What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)

More Resources for VITAMIN B12

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.