CAPSICUM

OTHER NAME(S):

African Bird Pepper, African Chillies, African Pepper, Aji, Bird Pepper, Capsaicin, Capsaïcine, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum chinense, Capsicum Fruit, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum minimum, Capsicum Oleoresin, Capsicum pubescens, Cayenne, Cayenne Fruit, Cayenne Pepper, Chili, Chili Pepper, Chilli, Chillies, Cis-capsaicin, Civamide, Garden Pepper, Goat's Pod, Grains of Paradise, Green Chili Pepper, Green Pepper, Hot Pepper, Hungarian Pepper, Ici Fructus, Katuvira, Lal Mirchi, Louisiana Long Pepper, Louisiana Sport Pepper, Mexican Chilies, Mirchi, Oleoresin capsicum, Paprika, Paprika de Hongrie, Pili-pili, Piment de Cayenne, Piment Enragé, Piment Fort, Piment-oiseau, Pimento, Poivre de Cayenne, Poivre de Zanzibar, Poivre Rouge, Red Pepper, Sweet Pepper, Tabasco Pepper, Trans-capsaicin, Zanzibar Pepper, Zucapsaicin, Zucapsaïcine.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Capsicum, also known as red pepper or chili pepper, is an herb. The fruit of the capsicum plant is used to make medicine.

Capsicum is most commonly used for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis, and other painful conditions. It is also used for digestion problems, conditions of the heart and blood vessels, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence for many of these uses.

A particular form of capsicum causes intense eye pain and other unpleasant effects when it comes in contact with the face. This form is used in self-defense pepper sprays.

How does it work?

The fruit of the capsicum plant contains a chemical called capsaicin. Capsaicin seems to reduce pain sensations when applied to the skin.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Likely Effective for

  • Nerve pain in people with diabetes (diabetic neuropathy). Some research shows that applying a cream or using a skin patch containing capsaicin, the active chemical found in capsicum, reduces pain in people with nerve damage caused by diabetes. A specific cream containing 0.075% capsaicin (Zostrix-HP, Link Medical Products Pty Ltd.) is approved for treating this condition. Another patch containing 8% capsaicin (Qutenza, NeurogesX, Inc.) that is available by prescription only has also been studied. But this patch is not specifically approved for treating this type of nerve pain. Creams or gels that contain less capsaicin don't seem to work.
  • Pain. Applying creams and lotions containing capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, can temporarily relieve chronic pain from several conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, back pain, jaw pain, psoriasis, and other conditions.
  • Nerve damage caused by shingles (postherpetic neuralgia). Applying a patch containing 8% capsaicin (Qutenza, NeurogesX Inc.), the active chemical in capsicum reduces pain over 24 hours by 27% to 37% in people with nerve damage caused by shingles. This capsaicin patch is available by prescription only and must be applied by a health care provider.

Possibly Effective for

  • Back pain. Some research shows that applying a plaster that contains capsicum to the back can reduce low back pain.
  • Cluster headache. Some research shows that applying capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, inside the nose reduces the number and severity of cluster headaches. It's best to apply capsicum to the nostril that is on the same side of the head as the headache.
  • Runny nose not caused by allergies or infection (perennial rhinitis). Research shows that applying capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, inside the nose can reduce runny nose in people without allergies or an infection. The benefits might last for 6-9 months.
  • Nausea and vomiting after surgery. Research shows that applying a plaster containing capsicum to specific points on the hand and forearm 30 minutes before anesthesia and leaving it in place for 6-8 hour daily for up to 3 days after surgery reduces nausea and vomiting after surgery.
  • Pain after surgery. Research shows that applying a plaster containing capsicum to specific points on the hand and forearm 30 minutes before anesthesia and leaving it in place for 6-8 hour daily for up to 3 days after surgery reduces the need for painkillers within the first 24 hours after surgery. Other research shows that applying a specific patch containing 8% capsaicin (Qutenza, NeurogesX, Inc.) one time can reduce pain for up to 12 weeks. However, it is not clear if this is due to a placebo effect. This product is available by prescription only.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Athletic performance. Research shows that taking a supplement containing capsicum and other ingredients before exercise does not improve exercise performance in men.
  • Hay fever. Early research suggests that inserting cotton wads in the nose that have been soaked in the capsicum active chemical capsaicin for 15 minutes and repeated over two days might reduce hay fever symptoms. But there is conflicting evidence that this might not improve symptoms.
  • Burning pain in the mouth. Early research shows that using a mouth rinse containing capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, daily for 7 days slightly decreases burning discomfort in people with burning mouth syndrome. Other early research shows that applying a gel to the tongue three times daily for 14 days might slightly decrease pain in people with burning mouth syndrome.
  • Diabetes. Early research shows that taking capsicum daily for 1 month can lower blood sugar levels after eating in pregnant women with gestational diabetes. But taking capsicum does not lower fasting blood sugar levels.
  • Indigestion (dyspepsia). Early research suggests that red pepper powder (containing capsicum) in capsules taken 3 times daily before meals reduces symptoms of heartburn. But in some people, symptoms get worse before they get better.
  • Fibromyalgia. Applying a cream containing 0.025% to 0.075% capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, 4 times daily to tender points might reduce tenderness in people with fibromyalgia. However, it doesn't seem to reduce overall pain or improve physical function.
  • Nerve damage in the hands and feet of people with HIV/AIDS. Some research suggest that applying a patch containing 8% capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, to the skin for 30-90 minutes reduce pain for up to 12 weeks in people with nerve damage caused by HIV. But other research suggests it might not provide any benefits. Applying cream containing 0.075% capsaicin does not seem to work.
  • A long-term disorder of the large intestines that causes stomach pain (irritable bowel syndrome or IBS). Early research shows that capsicum fruit taken by mouth does not help symptoms of IBS.
  • Joint pain. Early research shows that taking capsules of a specific combination product containing capsaicin, the active ingredient in capsicum, and many other ingredients (Instaflex Joint Support) daily for 8 weeks reduces joint pain by about 21% compared to placebo. The effects of capsicum alone cannot be determined from this study.
  • Migraine. Some reports suggest that using the active chemical in capsicum in the nose might help migraine headaches.
  • Morton's neuroma. Some research shows that injecting capsicum into the foot one time might slightly reduce pain and decrease how much that pain interferes with walking and a person's mood. But capsicum only relieves pain in the first and fourth week after injection.
  • A condition that causes persistent muscle pain (myofascial pain syndrome). Early research shows that using a specific cream (Dipental Cream) that contains capsaicin, an active chemical in capsicum, in addition to a ketoprofen patch does not further relieve pain in people with muscular pain in the upper back.
  • Obesity. Some research shows that taking capsules containing capsicum twice daily 30 minutes before eating for 12 weeks reduces stomach fat but not weight in overweight and obese people. But other research shows that taking a combination supplement containing capsicum extract twice daily for 8 weeks reduces body weight, fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference when used along with a diet.
  • Stomach ulcers. People who eat capsicum fruit (chili) an average of 24 times per month appear to be less likely to have an ulcer than people who eat chili an average of 8 times per month. This applies to chili in the form of chili powder, chili sauce, curry powder, and other chili-containing foods. But there is other evidence that suggests eating chili peppers does not help heal ulcers.
  • Nerve damage in the hands and feet (peripheral neuropathy). . Early clinical research shows that applying a specific patch containing 8% capsaicin one time can reduce pain for up to 12 weeks in people with nerve pain from cancer and nerve pain in the back. However, it is not clear if this is due to a placebo effect. This product is available by prescription only.
  • A skin condition that causes extremely itchy, hard lumps to form on skin (prurigo nodularis). Applying a cream containing capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, 4-6 times daily seems to relieve burning sensations, itching and other symptoms. But it may take 22 weeks to 33 months of treatment to see a benefit, and symptoms may return after stopping use cream.
  • Polyps in the nose and sinus (sinonasal polyposis). Early research shows that putting capsicum in the nose improves symptoms and airflow in people with polyps.
  • Trouble swallowing. Some people, especially elderly people or those who have suffered a stroke, are more likely than other people to develop "aspiration pneumonia." This is a kind of pneumonia that develops after food or saliva is sucked into the airways because the person couldn't swallow properly. There is some evidence that dissolving a capsaicin-containing lozenge in the mouth of elderly people with swallowing problems before each meal can improve their ability to swallow.
  • Alcohol use disorder.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Gas (flatulence).
  • Heart disease.
  • High levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia).
  • Malaria.
  • Motion sickness.
  • Osteoarthritis.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
  • Swelling (inflammation) of the voice box (laryngitis).
  • Toothache.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of capsicum for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Capsicum is LIKELY SAFE when consumed in amounts typically found in food. Capsicum is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth as medicine, short-term, Side effects can include stomach irritation and upset, sweating, flushing, and runny nose. Capsicum is POSSIBLY UNSAFE to take by mouth in large doses or for long periods of time. In rare cases, this can lead to more serious side effects like liver or kidney damage, as well as severe spikes in blood pressure.

When applied to the skin: Medicinal lotions and creams that contain capsicum extract are also LIKELY SAFE for most adults when applied to the skin. The active chemical in capsicum, capsaicin, is approved by the FDA as an over-the-counter medication. Side effects can include skin irritation, burning, and itching. Capsicum can also be extremely irritating to the eyes, nose, and throat. Don't use capsicum on sensitive skin or around the eyes.

When used in the nose: Capsicum is POSSIBLY SAFE when used in the nose. No serious side effects have been reported, but application in the nose can be very painful. Nasal application can cause burning pain, sneezing, watery eyes, and runny nose. These side effects tend to decrease and go away after 5 or more days of repeated use.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Capsicum is LIKELY SAFE when applied to the skin during pregnancy. Capsicum is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth as a medicine, short-term during the second half of the second trimester, as well as the third trimester.

If you are breast-feeding, using capsicum on your skin is LIKELY SAFE. But it is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for your baby if you take capsicum by mouth. Skin problems (dermatitis) have been reported in breast-fed infants when mothers eat foods heavily spiced with capsicum peppers.

Children: Applying capsicum to the skin of children under two years of age is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Not enough is known about the safety of giving capsicum to children by mouth. Don't do it.

Bleeding disorders: While conflicting results exist, capsicum might increase the risk of bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.

Damaged skin: Don't use capsicum on damaged or broken skin.

Diabetes: In theory, capsicum might affect blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Until more is known, monitor your blood sugar closely if you take capsicum. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

High blood pressure: Taking capsicum or eating a large amount of chili peppers might cause a spike in blood pressure. In theory, this might worsen the condition for people who already have high blood pressure.

Surgery: Capsicum might increase bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using capsicum at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Interactions

Interactions?

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

!
  • Cocaine interacts with CAPSICUM

    Cocaine has many dangerous side effects. Using capsicum along with cocaine might increase the side effects of cocaine including heart attack and death.

  • Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interacts with CAPSICUM

    Capsicum might slow blood clotting. Taking capsicum along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.<br/><br/> Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

  • Theophylline interacts with CAPSICUM

    Capsicum can increase how much theophylline the body can absorb. Taking capsicum along with theophylline might increase the effects and side effects of theophylline.

Minor Interaction

Be watchful with this combination

!
  • Medications for high blood pressure (ACE inhibitors) interacts with CAPSICUM

    Some medications for high blood pressure might cause a cough. There is one report of someone whose cough worsened when using a cream with capsicum along with these medications for high blood pressure. But is it not clear if this interaction is a big concern.<br/><br/> Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), ramipril (Altace), and others.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

APPLIED TO THE SKIN:

  • For nerve damage in the hands and feet (peripheral neuropathy): A specific cream (Zostrix-HP, Link Medical Products Pty Ltd.) containing 0.075% capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, has been used 4 times daily for 8 weeks. Also, a specific patch (Qutenza, NeurogesX Inc.) containing 8% capsaicin has been applied once for 60-90 minutes.
  • For nerve damage caused by shingles (postherpetic neuralgia): A specific patch (Qutenza, NeurogesX Inc.) containing 8% capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, has been applied once for 60-90 minutes.
  • For back pain: Capsicum-containing plasters providing 11 mg of capsaicin per plaster or 22 mcg of capsaicin per square centimeter of plaster have been used. The plaster is applied once daily in the morning and left in place for 4-8 hours.
  • For nausea and vomiting after surgery: Capsicum-containing plasters have been used on acupoints on the hand and forearm for 30 minutes before anesthesia and left in place for 6-8 hours daily for up to 3 days.
  • For pain after surgery: Capsicum-containing plasters have been used on acupoints on the hand and forearm for 30 minutes before anesthesia and left in place for 6-8 hours daily for up to 3 days. A specific patch (Qutenza, NeurogesX Inc.) containing 8% capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, has been applied once for 30-60 minutes.
Be sure to wash your hands after applying capsaicin cream. A diluted vinegar solution works well. You won't be able to get the capsaicin off with just water. Don't use capsicum preparations near the eyes or on sensitive skin. It could cause burning.

INSIDE THE NOSE:
  • For cluster headache: 0.1 mL of a 10 mM capsaicin suspension, providing 300 mcg/day of capsaicin, applied to the nostril on the painful side of the head. Apply the suspension once daily until the burning sensation disappears. A capsaicin 0.025% cream (Zostrix, Rodlen Laboratories) applied daily for 7 days has been used to treat acute cluster headache attacks.
  • For runny nose not caused by allergies or infection (perennial rhinitis): Solutions containing capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, have been applied inside the nose 3 times per day for 3 days, every other day for 2 weeks, or once weekly for 5 weeks.
Putting capsaicin in the nose can be very painful, so a local painkilling medicine such as lidocaine is often put into the nose first.

View References

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  • Hartrick, C. T., Pestano, C., Carlson, N., and Hartrick, S. Capsaicin instillation for postoperative pain following total knee arthroplasty: a preliminary report of a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Clin Drug Investig. 12-1-2011;31(12):877-882. View abstract.
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  • Herbert, M. K., Tafler, R., Schmidt, R. F., and Weis, K. H. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors acetylsalicylic acid and indomethacin do not affect capsaicin-induced neurogenic inflammation in human skin. Agents Actions 1993;38 Spec No:C25-C27. View abstract.
  • Hiura, A., Lopez, Villalobos E., and Ishizuka, H. Age-dependent attenuation of the decrease of C fibers by capsaicin and its effects on responses to nociceptive stimuli. Somatosens.Mot.Res 1992;9(1):37-43. View abstract.
  • Hursel, R. and Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. Thermogenic ingredients and body weight regulation. Int J Obes.(Lond) 2010;34(4):659-669. View abstract.
  • Inoue, N., Matsunaga, Y., Satoh, H., and Takahashi, M. Enhanced energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans with high BMI scores by the ingestion of novel and non-pungent capsaicin analogues (capsinoids). Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2007;71(2):380-389. View abstract.
  • Iorizzi, M., Lanzotti, V., Ranalli, G., De Marino, S., and Zollo, F. Antimicrobial furostanol saponins from the seeds of Capsicum annuum L. var. acuminatum. J.Agric.Food Chem. 7-17-2002;50(15):4310-4316. View abstract.
  • Irving, G. A., Backonja, M. M., Dunteman, E., Blonsky, E. R., Vanhove, G. F., Lu, S. P., and Tobias, J. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled study of NGX-4010, a high-concentration capsaicin patch, for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Pain Med. 2011;12(1):99-109. View abstract.
  • Irving, G., Backonja, M., Rauck, R., Webster, L. R., Tobias, J. K., and Vanhove, G. F. NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, administered alone or in combination with systemic neuropathic pain medications, reduces pain in patients with postherpetic neuralgia. Clin J Pain 2012;28(2):101-107. View abstract.
  • Islam, M. S. and Choi, H. Dietary red chilli (Capsicum frutescens L.) is insulinotropic rather than hypoglycemic in type 2 diabetes model of rats. Phytother.Res. 2008;22(8):1025-1029. View abstract.
  • Jamroz, D., Wertelecki, T., Houszka, M., and Kamel, C. Influence of diet type on the inclusion of plant origin active substances on morphological and histochemical characteristics of the stomach and jejunum walls in chicken. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr.(Berl) 2006;90(5-6):255-268. View abstract.
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  • Jensen, T. S., Madsen, C. S., and Finnerup, N. B. Pharmacology and treatment of neuropathic pains. Curr Opin.Neurol. 2009;22(5):467-474. View abstract.
  • Jones, N. L., Shabib, S., and Sherman, P. M. Capsaicin as an inhibitor of the growth of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. FEMS Microbiol.Lett. 1-15-1997;146(2):223-227. View abstract.
  • Kahl, U. [TRP channels--sensitive for heat and cold, capsaicin and menthol]. Lakartidningen 5-16-2002;99(20):2302-2303. View abstract.
  • Kang, J. Y., Teng, C. H., and Chen, F. C. Effect of capsaicin and cimetidine on the healing of acetic acid induced gastric ulceration in the rat. Gut 1996;38(6):832-836. View abstract.
  • Kang, S., Kang, K., Chung, G. C., Choi, D., Ishihara, A., Lee, D. S., and Back, K. Functional analysis of the amine substrate specificity domain of pepper tyramine and serotonin N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferases. Plant Physiol 2006;140(2):704-715. View abstract.
  • Katz, J. D. and Shah, T. Persistent pain in the older adult: what should we do now in light of the 2009 American geriatrics society clinical practice guideline? Pol.Arch.Med.Wewn. 2009;119(12):795-800. View abstract.
  • Kim, I. K., Abd El-Aty, A. M., Shin, H. C., Lee, H. B., Kim, I. S., and Shim, J. H. Analysis of volatile compounds in fresh healthy and diseased peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) using solvent free solid injection coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and confirmation with mass spectrometry. J Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 11-5-2007;45(3):487-494. View abstract.
  • Kim, K. S. and Nam, Y. M. The analgesic effects of capsicum plaster at the Zusanli point after abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth.Analg. 2006;103(3):709-713. View abstract.
  • Kim, K. S., Kim, D. W., and Yu, Y. K. The effect of capsicum plaster in pain after inguinal hernia repair in children. Paediatr.Anaesth. 2006;16(10):1036-1041. View abstract.
  • Kim, K. S., Kim, K. N., Hwang, K. G., and Park, C. J. Capsicum plaster at the Hegu point reduces postoperative analgesic requirement after orthognathic surgery. Anesth.Analg. 2009;108(3):992-996. View abstract.
  • Kim, K. S., Koo, M. S., Jeon, J. W., Park, H. S., and Seung, I. S. Capsicum plaster at the korean hand acupuncture point reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting after abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth.Analg. 2002;95(4):1103-7, table. View abstract.
  • Knight, T. E. and Hayashi, T. Solar (brachioradial) pruritus--response to capsaicin cream. Int.J.Dermatol. 1994;33(3):206-209. View abstract.
  • Kobata, K., Tate, H., Iwasaki, Y., Tanaka, Y., Ohtsu, K., Yazawa, S., and Watanabe, T. Isolation of coniferyl esters from Capsicum baccatum L., and their enzymatic preparation and agonist activity for TRPV1. Phytochemistry 2008;69(5):1179-1184. View abstract.
  • Krogstad, A. L., Lonnroth, P., Larson, G., and Wallin, B. G. Capsaicin treatment induces histamine release and perfusion changes in psoriatic skin. Br.J.Dermatol. 1999;141(1):87-93. View abstract.
  • Kuda, T., Iwai, A., and Yano, T. Effect of red pepper Capsicum annuum var. conoides and garlic Allium sativum on plasma lipid levels and cecal microflora in mice fed beef tallow. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2004;42(10):1695-1700. View abstract.
  • Kumar, N., Vij, J. C., Sarin, S. K., and Anand, B. S. Do chillies influence healing of duodenal ulcer? Br.Med.J.(Clin.Res.Ed) 6-16-1984;288(6433):1803-1804. View abstract.
  • Kushnir, N. M. The role of decongestants, cromolyn, guafenesin, saline washes, capsaicin, leukotriene antagonists, and other treatments on rhinitis. Immunol.Allergy Clin North Am 2011;31(3):601-617. View abstract.
  • Lee, C. Y., Kim, M., Yoon, S. W., and Lee, C. H. Short-term control of capsaicin on blood and oxidative stress of rats in vivo. Phytother.Res. 2003;17(5):454-458. View abstract.
  • Lee, Y. S., Kang, Y. S., Lee, J. S., Nicolova, S., and Kim, J. A. Involvement of NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species in the apototic cell death by capsaicin in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Free Radic.Res 2004;38(4):405-412. View abstract.
  • Lejeune, M. P., Kovacs, E. M., and Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. Effect of capsaicin on substrate oxidation and weight maintenance after modest body-weight loss in human subjects. Br.J.Nutr. 2003;90(3):651-659. View abstract.
  • Lim, L. G., Tay, H., and Ho, K. Y. Curry induces acid reflux and symptoms in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Dig.Dis.Sci 2011;56(12):3546-3550. View abstract.
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  • Maoka, T., Akimoto, N., Fujiwara, Y., and Hashimoto, K. Structure of new carotenoids with the 6-oxo-kappa end group from the fruits of paprika, Capsicum annuum. J.Nat.Prod. 2004;67(1):115-117. View abstract.
  • Materska, M., Piacente, S., Stochmal, A., Pizza, C., Oleszek, W., and Perucka, I. Isolation and structure elucidation of flavonoid and phenolic acid glycosides from pericarp of hot pepper fruit Capsicum annuum L. Phytochemistry 2003;63(8):893-898. View abstract.
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  • Misra, M. N., Pullani, A. J., and Mohamed, Z. U. Prevention of PONV by acustimulation with capsicum plaster is comparable to ondansetron after middle ear surgery: [La prevention des NVPO par acustimulation avec un emplatre de Capsicum est comparable a celle de l'ondansetron apres une operation a l'oreille moyenne]. Can.J.Anaesth. 2005;52(5):485-489. View abstract.
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  • Mori, A., Lehmann, S., O'Kelly, J., Kumagai, T., Desmond, J. C., Pervan, M., McBride, W. H., Kizaki, M., and Koeffler, H. P. Capsaicin, a component of red peppers, inhibits the growth of androgen-independent, p53 mutant prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res 3-15-2006;66(6):3222-3229. View abstract.
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