African Bird Pepper, African Chillies, African Pepper, Aji, Bird Pepper, Capsaicin, Capsaïcine, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum chinense, Capsicum Fruit, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum minimum, Capsicum Oleoresin, Capsicum pubescens, Cayenne, Cayenne Fruit, Cayenne Pepper, Chili, Chili Pepper, Chilli, Chillies, Cis-capsaicin, Civamide, Garden Pepper, Goat's Pod, Grains of Paradise, Green Chili Pepper, Green Pepper, Hot Pepper, Hungarian Pepper, Ici Fructus, Katuvira, Lal Mirchi, Louisiana Long Pepper, Louisiana Sport Pepper, Mexican Chilies, Mirchi, Oleoresin capsicum, Paprika, Paprika de Hongrie, Pili-pili, Piment de Cayenne, Piment Enragé, Piment Fort, Piment-oiseau, Pimento, Poivre de Cayenne, Poivre de Zanzibar, Poivre Rouge, Red Pepper, Sweet Pepper, Tabasco Pepper, Trans-capsaicin, Zanzibar Pepper, Zucapsaicin, Zucapsaïcine.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationCapsicum, also known as red pepper or chili pepper, is an herb. The fruit of the capsicum plant is used to make medicine.
Capsicum is most commonly used for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis, and other painful conditions. It is also used for digestion problems, conditions of the heart and blood vessels, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence for many of these uses.
A particular form of capsicum causes intense eye pain and other unpleasant effects when it comes in contact with the face. This form is used in self-defense pepper sprays.
How does it work?The fruit of the capsicum plant contains a chemical called capsaicin. Capsaicin seems to reduce pain sensations when applied to the skin.
Uses & Effectiveness
Likely Effective for
- Nerve pain in people with diabetes (diabetic neuropathy). Some research shows that applying a cream or using a skin patch containing capsaicin, the active chemical found in capsicum, reduces pain in people with nerve damage caused by diabetes. A specific cream containing 0.075% capsaicin (Zostrix-HP, Link Medical Products Pty Ltd.) is approved for treating this condition. Another patch containing 8% capsaicin (Qutenza, NeurogesX, Inc.) that is available by prescription only has also been studied. But this patch is not specifically approved for treating this type of nerve pain. Creams or gels that contain less capsaicin don't seem to work.
- Pain. Applying creams and lotions containing capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, can temporarily relieve chronic pain from several conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, back pain, jaw pain, psoriasis, and other conditions.
- Nerve damage caused by shingles (postherpetic neuralgia). Applying a patch containing 8% capsaicin (Qutenza, NeurogesX Inc.), the active chemical in capsicum reduces pain over 24 hours by 27% to 37% in people with nerve damage caused by shingles. This capsaicin patch is available by prescription only and must be applied by a health care provider.
Possibly Effective for
- Back pain. Some research shows that applying a plaster that contains capsicum to the back can reduce low back pain.
- Cluster headache. Some research shows that applying capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, inside the nose reduces the number and severity of cluster headaches. It's best to apply capsicum to the nostril that is on the same side of the head as the headache.
- Runny nose not caused by allergies or infection (perennial rhinitis). Research shows that applying capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, inside the nose can reduce runny nose in people without allergies or an infection. The benefits might last for 6-9 months.
- Nausea and vomiting after surgery. Research shows that applying a plaster containing capsicum to specific points on the hand and forearm 30 minutes before anesthesia and leaving it in place for 6-8 hour daily for up to 3 days after surgery reduces nausea and vomiting after surgery.
- Pain after surgery. Research shows that applying a plaster containing capsicum to specific points on the hand and forearm 30 minutes before anesthesia and leaving it in place for 6-8 hour daily for up to 3 days after surgery reduces the need for painkillers within the first 24 hours after surgery. Other research shows that applying a specific patch containing 8% capsaicin (Qutenza, NeurogesX, Inc.) one time can reduce pain for up to 12 weeks. However, it is not clear if this is due to a placebo effect. This product is available by prescription only.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Athletic performance. Research shows that taking a supplement containing capsicum and other ingredients before exercise does not improve exercise performance in men.
- Hay fever. Early research suggests that inserting cotton wads in the nose that have been soaked in the capsicum active chemical capsaicin for 15 minutes and repeated over two days might reduce hay fever symptoms. But there is conflicting evidence that this might not improve symptoms.
- Burning pain in the mouth. Early research shows that using a mouth rinse containing capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, daily for 7 days slightly decreases burning discomfort in people with burning mouth syndrome. Other early research shows that applying a gel to the tongue three times daily for 14 days might slightly decrease pain in people with burning mouth syndrome.
- Diabetes. Early research shows that taking capsicum daily for 1 month can lower blood sugar levels after eating in pregnant women with gestational diabetes. But taking capsicum does not lower fasting blood sugar levels.
- Indigestion (dyspepsia). Early research suggests that red pepper powder (containing capsicum) in capsules taken 3 times daily before meals reduces symptoms of heartburn. But in some people, symptoms get worse before they get better.
- Fibromyalgia. Applying a cream containing 0.025% to 0.075% capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, 4 times daily to tender points might reduce tenderness in people with fibromyalgia. However, it doesn't seem to reduce overall pain or improve physical function.
- Nerve damage in the hands and feet of people with HIV/AIDS. Some research suggest that applying a patch containing 8% capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, to the skin for 30-90 minutes reduce pain for up to 12 weeks in people with nerve damage caused by HIV. But other research suggests it might not provide any benefits. Applying cream containing 0.075% capsaicin does not seem to work.
- A long-term disorder of the large intestines that causes stomach pain (irritable bowel syndrome or IBS). Early research shows that capsicum fruit taken by mouth does not help symptoms of IBS.
- Joint pain. Early research shows that taking capsules of a specific combination product containing capsaicin, the active ingredient in capsicum, and many other ingredients (Instaflex Joint Support) daily for 8 weeks reduces joint pain by about 21% compared to placebo. The effects of capsicum alone cannot be determined from this study.
- Migraine. Some reports suggest that using the active chemical in capsicum in the nose might help migraine headaches.
- Morton's neuroma. Some research shows that injecting capsicum into the foot one time might slightly reduce pain and decrease how much that pain interferes with walking and a person's mood. But capsicum only relieves pain in the first and fourth week after injection.
- A condition that causes persistent muscle pain (myofascial pain syndrome). Early research shows that using a specific cream (Dipental Cream) that contains capsaicin, an active chemical in capsicum, in addition to a ketoprofen patch does not further relieve pain in people with muscular pain in the upper back.
- Obesity. Some research shows that taking capsules containing capsicum twice daily 30 minutes before eating for 12 weeks reduces stomach fat but not weight in overweight and obese people. But other research shows that taking a combination supplement containing capsicum extract twice daily for 8 weeks reduces body weight, fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference when used along with a diet.
- Stomach ulcers. People who eat capsicum fruit (chili) an average of 24 times per month appear to be less likely to have an ulcer than people who eat chili an average of 8 times per month. This applies to chili in the form of chili powder, chili sauce, curry powder, and other chili-containing foods. But there is other evidence that suggests eating chili peppers does not help heal ulcers.
- Nerve damage in the hands and feet (peripheral neuropathy). . Early clinical research shows that applying a specific patch containing 8% capsaicin one time can reduce pain for up to 12 weeks in people with nerve pain from cancer and nerve pain in the back. However, it is not clear if this is due to a placebo effect. This product is available by prescription only.
- A skin condition that causes extremely itchy, hard lumps to form on skin (prurigo nodularis). Applying a cream containing capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, 4-6 times daily seems to relieve burning sensations, itching and other symptoms. But it may take 22 weeks to 33 months of treatment to see a benefit, and symptoms may return after stopping use cream.
- Polyps in the nose and sinus (sinonasal polyposis). Early research shows that putting capsicum in the nose improves symptoms and airflow in people with polyps.
- Trouble swallowing. Some people, especially elderly people or those who have suffered a stroke, are more likely than other people to develop "aspiration pneumonia." This is a kind of pneumonia that develops after food or saliva is sucked into the airways because the person couldn't swallow properly. There is some evidence that dissolving a capsaicin-containing lozenge in the mouth of elderly people with swallowing problems before each meal can improve their ability to swallow.
- Alcohol use disorder.
- Gas (flatulence).
- Heart disease.
- High levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia).
- Motion sickness.
- Rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
- Swelling (inflammation) of the voice box (laryngitis).
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyWhen taken by mouth: Capsicum is LIKELY SAFE when consumed in amounts typically found in food. Capsicum is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth as medicine, short-term, Side effects can include stomach irritation and upset, sweating, flushing, and runny nose. Capsicum is POSSIBLY UNSAFE to take by mouth in large doses or for long periods of time. In rare cases, this can lead to more serious side effects like liver or kidney damage, as well as severe spikes in blood pressure.
When applied to the skin: Medicinal lotions and creams that contain capsicum extract are also LIKELY SAFE for most adults when applied to the skin. The active chemical in capsicum, capsaicin, is approved by the FDA as an over-the-counter medication. Side effects can include skin irritation, burning, and itching. Capsicum can also be extremely irritating to the eyes, nose, and throat. Don't use capsicum on sensitive skin or around the eyes.
When used in the nose: Capsicum is POSSIBLY SAFE when used in the nose. No serious side effects have been reported, but application in the nose can be very painful. Nasal application can cause burning pain, sneezing, watery eyes, and runny nose. These side effects tend to decrease and go away after 5 or more days of repeated use.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Capsicum is LIKELY SAFE when applied to the skin during pregnancy. Capsicum is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth as a medicine, short-term during the second half of the second trimester, as well as the third trimester.
If you are breast-feeding, using capsicum on your skin is LIKELY SAFE. But it is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for your baby if you take capsicum by mouth. Skin problems (dermatitis) have been reported in breast-fed infants when mothers eat foods heavily spiced with capsicum peppers.
Children: Applying capsicum to the skin of children under two years of age is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Not enough is known about the safety of giving capsicum to children by mouth. Don't do it.
Bleeding disorders: While conflicting results exist, capsicum might increase the risk of bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.
Damaged skin: Don't use capsicum on damaged or broken skin.
Diabetes: In theory, capsicum might affect blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Until more is known, monitor your blood sugar closely if you take capsicum. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
High blood pressure: Taking capsicum or eating a large amount of chili peppers might cause a spike in blood pressure. In theory, this might worsen the condition for people who already have high blood pressure.
Surgery: Capsicum might increase bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using capsicum at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Be cautious with this combination
Cocaine interacts with CAPSICUM
Cocaine has many dangerous side effects. Using capsicum along with cocaine might increase the side effects of cocaine including heart attack and death.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interacts with CAPSICUM
Capsicum might slow blood clotting. Taking capsicum along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.<br/><br/> Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Theophylline interacts with CAPSICUM
Capsicum can increase how much theophylline the body can absorb. Taking capsicum along with theophylline might increase the effects and side effects of theophylline.
Be watchful with this combination
Medications for high blood pressure (ACE inhibitors) interacts with CAPSICUM
Some medications for high blood pressure might cause a cough. There is one report of someone whose cough worsened when using a cream with capsicum along with these medications for high blood pressure. But is it not clear if this interaction is a big concern.<br/><br/> Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), ramipril (Altace), and others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
APPLIED TO THE SKIN:
- For nerve damage in the hands and feet (peripheral neuropathy): A specific cream (Zostrix-HP, Link Medical Products Pty Ltd.) containing 0.075% capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, has been used 4 times daily for 8 weeks. Also, a specific patch (Qutenza, NeurogesX Inc.) containing 8% capsaicin has been applied once for 60-90 minutes.
- For nerve damage caused by shingles (postherpetic neuralgia): A specific patch (Qutenza, NeurogesX Inc.) containing 8% capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, has been applied once for 60-90 minutes.
- For back pain: Capsicum-containing plasters providing 11 mg of capsaicin per plaster or 22 mcg of capsaicin per square centimeter of plaster have been used. The plaster is applied once daily in the morning and left in place for 4-8 hours.
- For nausea and vomiting after surgery: Capsicum-containing plasters have been used on acupoints on the hand and forearm for 30 minutes before anesthesia and left in place for 6-8 hours daily for up to 3 days.
- For pain after surgery: Capsicum-containing plasters have been used on acupoints on the hand and forearm for 30 minutes before anesthesia and left in place for 6-8 hours daily for up to 3 days. A specific patch (Qutenza, NeurogesX Inc.) containing 8% capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, has been applied once for 30-60 minutes.
INSIDE THE NOSE:
- For cluster headache: 0.1 mL of a 10 mM capsaicin suspension, providing 300 mcg/day of capsaicin, applied to the nostril on the painful side of the head. Apply the suspension once daily until the burning sensation disappears. A capsaicin 0.025% cream (Zostrix, Rodlen Laboratories) applied daily for 7 days has been used to treat acute cluster headache attacks.
- For runny nose not caused by allergies or infection (perennial rhinitis): Solutions containing capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, have been applied inside the nose 3 times per day for 3 days, every other day for 2 weeks, or once weekly for 5 weeks.
- Ziegler, D. Painful diabetic neuropathy: advantage of novel drugs over old drugs? Diabetes Care 2009;32 Suppl 2:S414-S419. View abstract.
- Bascom R, Kagey-Sobotka A, Proud D. Effect of intranasal capsaicin on symptoms and mediator release. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1991;259:1323-7. View abstract.
- Baudoin T, Kalogjera L, Hat J. Capsaicin significantly reduces sinonasal polyps. Acta Otolaryngol 2000;120:307-11. View abstract.
- Bleuel I, Zinkernagel M, Tschopp M, Tappeiner C. Association of bilateral acute anterior uveitis with a capsaicin patch. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2013;21(5):394-5. View abstract.
- Blom HM, Severijnen LA, Van Rijswijk JB, et al. The long-term effects of capsaicin aqueous spray on the nasal mucosa. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28:1351-8. View abstract.
- Blom HM, Van Rijswijk JB, Garrelds IM, et al. Intranasal capsaicin is efficacious in non-allergic, non-infectious perennial rhinitis. A placebo-controlled study. Clin Exp Allergy 1997;27:796-801. View abstract.
- Bortolotti M, Coccia G, Grossi G, Miglioli M. The treatment of functional dyspepsia with red pepper. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002;16:1075-82. View abstract.
- Bouraoui A, Brazier JL, Zouaghi H, Rousseau M. Theophylline pharmacokinetics and metabolism in rabbits following single and repeated administration of Capsicum fruit. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 1995;20:173-8. View abstract.
- Campbell CM, Diamond E, Schmidt WK, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of injected capsaicin for pain in Morton's neuroma. Pain. 2016 Jun;157(6):1297-304. View abstract.
- Casanueva B, Rodero B, Quintial C, Llorca J, González-Gay MA. Short-term efficacy of topical capsaicin therapy in severely affected fibromyalgia patients. Rheumatol Int 2013;33(10):2665-70. View abstract.
- Chrubasik S, Weiser W, Beime B. Effectiveness and safety of topical capsaicin cream in the treatment of chronic soft tissue pain. Phytother Res 2010;24:1877-85. View abstract.
- Cichewicz RH, Thorpe PA. The antimicrobial properties of chile peppers (Capsicum species) and their uses in Mayan medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 1996;52:61-70. View abstract.
- Cooper RL, Cooper MM. Red pepper-induced dermatitis in breast-fed infants. Dermatol 1996;93:61-2. View abstract.
- Copeland S, Nugent K. Persistent respiratory symptoms following prolonged capsaicin exposure. Int J Occup Environ Med. 2013;4(4):211-5. View abstract.
- Cordell GA, Araujo OE. Capsaicin: identification, nomenclature, and pharmacotherapy. Ann Pharmacother 1993;27:330-6. View abstract.
- Covington TR, et al. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs. 11th ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmaceutical Association, 1996.
- Cruccu G, Nurmikko TJ, Ernault E, Riaz FK, McBride WT, Haanpää M. Superiority of capsaicin 8% patch versus oral pregabalin on dynamic mechanical allodynia in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain. Eur J Pain 2018;22(4):700-6. doi: 10.1002/ejp.1155. View abstract.
- Cruz L, Castañeda-Hernández G, Navarrete A. Ingestion of chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) reduces salicylate bioavailability after oral asprin administration in the rat. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. View abstract.
- de Freitas MC, Cholewa JM, Freire RV, et al. Acute capsaicin supplementation improves resistance training performance in trained men. J Strength Cond Res 2018;32(8):2227-32. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002109. View abstract.
- de Freitas MC, Cholewa JM, Gobbo LA, de Oliveira JVNS, Lira FS, Rossi FE. Acute capsaicin supplementation improves 1,500-m running time-trial performance and rate of perceived exertion in physically active adults. J Strength Cond Res 2018;32(2):572-7. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002329. View abstract.
- Derry S, Rice AS, Cole P, Tan T, Moore RA. Topical capsaicin (high concentration) for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jan 13;1:CD007393. View abstract.
- Ebihara T, Takahashi H, Ebihara S, et al. Capsaicin troche for swallowing dysfunction in older people. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005;53:824-8. View abstract.
- Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
- Frerick H, Keitel W, Kuhn U, et al. Topical treatment of chronic low back pain with a capsicum plaster. Pain 2003;106:59-64. View abstract.
- Friese KH, Kruse S, Ludtke R, and et al. The homoeopathic treatment of otitis media in children--comparisons with conventional therapy. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997;35(7):296-301. View abstract.
- Fusco BM, Fiore G, Gallo F, et al. "Capsaicin-sensitive" sensory neurons in cluster headache: pathophysiological aspects and therapeutic indication. Headache 1994;34:132-7. View abstract.
- Fusco BM, Marabini S, Maggi CA, et al. Preventative effect of repeated nasal applications of capsaicin in cluster headache. Pain 1994;59:321-5. View abstract.
- Gagnier JJ, van Tulder MW, Berman B, Bombardier C. Herbal medicine for low back pain. A Cochrane review. Spine 2007;32:82-92. View abstract.
- García-Menaya JM, Cordobés -Durán C, Bobadilla-González P, et al. Anaphylactic reaction to bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) in a patient with a latex-fruit syndrome. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2014;42(3):263-5. View abstract.
- Geppetti P, Tramontana M, Del Bianco E, Fusco BM. Capsaicin-desensitization to the human nasal mucosa selectively reduces pain evoked by citric acid. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1993;35:178-83. View abstract.
- Gerth Van Wijk R, Terreehorst IT, Mulder PG, et al. Intranasal capsaicin is lacking therapeutic effect in perennial allergic rhinitis to house dust mite. A placebo-controlled study. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30:1792-8. View abstract.
- Graham DY, Anderson SY, Lang T. Garlic or jalapeno peppers for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol 1999;94:1200-2. View abstract.
- Hakas JF Jr. Topical capsaicin induces cough in patient receiving ACE inhibitor. Ann Allergy 1990;65:322-3.
- Hansson P, Jensen TS, Kvarstein G, Strömberg M. Pain-relieving effectiveness, quality of life and tolerability of repeated capsaicin 8% patch treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain in Scandinavian clinical practice. Eur J Pain 2018;22(5):941-50. doi: 10.1002/ejp.1180. View abstract.
- Hoeger WW, Harris C, Long EM, Hopkins DR. Four-week supplementation with a natural dietary compound produces favorable changes in body composition. Adv Ther 1998;15:305-14. View abstract.
- Hogaboam CM, Wallace JL. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by capsaicin. An effect unrelated to actions on sensory afferent neurons. Eur J Pharmacol 1991;202:129-31. View abstract.
- Jorgensen MR, Pedersen AM. Analgesic effect of topical oral capsaicin gel in burning mouth syndrome. Acta Odontol Scand. 2017 Mar;75(2):130-6. View abstract.
- Kang JY, Yeoh KG, Chia HP, et al. Chili - protective factor against peptic ulcer? Dig Dis Sciences 1995;40:576-9. View abstract.
- Katz NP, Mou J, Paillard FC, Turnbull B, Trudeau J, Stoker M. Predictors of response in patients with postherpetic neuralgia and HIV-associated neuropathy treated with the 8% capsaicin patch (Qutenza). Clin J Pain. 2015 Oct;31(10):859-66. View abstract.
- Keitel W, Frerick H, Kuhn U, et al. Capsicum pain plaster in chronic non-specific low back pain. Arzneimittelforschung 2001;51:896-903. View abstract.
- Kim DH, Yoon KB, Park S, et al. Comparison of NSAID patch given as monotherapy and NSAID patch in combination with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation, a heating pad, or topical capsaicin in the treatment of patients with myofascial pain syndrome of the upper trapezius: a pilot study. Pain Med. 2014;15(12):2128-38. View abstract.
- Kitajiri M, Kubo N, Ikeda H, et al. Effects of topical capsaicin on autonomic nerves in experimentally-induced nasal hypersensitivity. An immunocytochemical study. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 1993;500:88-91. View abstract.
- Komori Y, Aiba T, Nakai C, et al. Capsaicin-induced increase of intestinal cefazolin absorption in rats. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2007;22(6):445-9. View abstract.
- Kivisto, K. T., Lilja, J. J., Backman, J. T., and Neuvonen, P. J. Repeated consumption of grapefruit juice considerably increases plasma concentrations of cisapride. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999;66(5):448-453. View abstract.
- Ku, Y. M., Min, D. I., and Flanigan, M. Effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of microemulsion cyclosporine and its metabolite in healthy volunteers: does the formulation difference matter? J Clin Pharmacol 1998;38(10):959-965. View abstract.
- Kupferschmidt HH, Fattinger KE, Ha HR, et al. Grapefruit juice enhances the bioavailability of the HIV protease inhibitor saquinavir in man. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1998;45:355-9. View abstract.
- Kupferschmidt, H. H., Ha, H. R., Ziegler, W. H., Meier, P. J., and Krahenbuhl, S. Interaction between grapefruit juice and midazolam in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1995;58(1):20-28. View abstract.
- Lee YS, Lorenzo BJ, Koufis T, et al. Grapefruit juice and its flavonoids inhibit 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996;59:62-71. View abstract.
- Lee, A. J., Chan, W. K., Harralson, A. F., Buffum, J., and Bui, B. C. The effects of grapefruit juice on sertraline metabolism: an in vitro and in vivo study. Clin Ther 1999;21(11):1890-1899. View abstract.
- Lee, M., Min, D. I., Ku, Y. M., and Flanigan, M. Effect of grapefruit juice on pharmacokinetics of microemulsion cyclosporine in African American subjects compared with Caucasian subjects: does ethnic difference matter? J Clin Pharmacol 2001;41(3):317-323. View abstract.
- Libersa, C. C., Brique, S. A., Motte, K. B., Caron, J. F., Guedon-Moreau, L. M., Humbert, L., Vincent, A., Devos, P., and Lhermitte, M. A. Dramatic inhibition of amiodarone metabolism induced by grapefruit juice. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000;49(4):373-378. View abstract.
- Lilja JJ, Kivisto KT, Backman JT, et al. Grapefruit juice substantially increases plasma concentrations of buspirone. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998;64:655-60. View abstract.
- Lilja JJ, Kivisto KT, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ. Effect of grapefruit juice dose on grapefruit juice-triazolam interaction: repeated consumption prolongs triazolam half-life. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2000;56:411-5. View abstract.
- Lilja JJ, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ. Duration of effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A4 substrate simvastatin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000;68:384-90. View abstract.
- Lilja JJ, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ. Grapefruit juice increases serum concentrations of atorvastatin and has no effect on pravastatin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999;66:118-27. View abstract.
- Lilja JJ, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ. Grapefruit juice-simvastatin interaction: effect on serum concentrations of simvastatin, simvastatin acid, and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998;64:477-83. View abstract.
- Lilja JJ, Raaska K, Neuvonen PJ. Effects of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of acebutolol. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005;60:659-63. View abstract.
- Lilja, J. J., Laitinen, K., and Neuvonen, P. J. Effects of grapefruit juice on the absorption of levothyroxine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005;60(3):337-341. View abstract.
- Lilja, J. J., Neuvonen, M., and Neuvonen, P. J. Effects of regular consumption of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of simvastatin. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004;58(1):56-60. View abstract.
- Lundahl, J., Regardh, C. G., Edgar, B., and Johnsson, G. Effects of grapefruit juice ingestion--pharmacokinetics and haemodynamics of intravenously and orally administered felodipine in healthy men. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1997;52(2):139-145. View abstract.
- Lundahl, J., Regardh, C. G., Edgar, B., and Johnsson, G. Relationship between time of intake of grapefruit juice and its effect on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of felodipine in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1995;49(1-2):61-67. View abstract.
- Melough MM, Vance TM, Lee SG, et al. Furocoumarin kinetics in plasma and urine of healthy adults following consumption of grapefruit (citrus paradise Macf.) and grapefruit juice. J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Mar 29 [Epub ahead of print] View abstract.
- Min, D. I., Ku, Y. M., Geraets, D. R., and Lee, H. Effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of quinidine in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol 1996;36(5):469-476. View abstract.
- Misaka S, Miyazaki N, Yatabe MS, Ono T, Shikama Y, Fukushima T, Kimura J. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of nadolol with itraconazole, rifampicin and grapefruit juice in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Jul;53(7):738-45. View abstract.
- Monroe KR, Murphy SP, Kolonel LN, Pike MC. Prospective study of grapefruit intake and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: the Mutliethnic Cohort Study. Br J Cancer 2007;97:440-5. View abstract.
- Mouly S, Lloret-Linares C, Sellire PO, Sene D, Bergmann JF. Is the clinical relevance of drug-food and drug-herb interactions limited to grapefruit juice and Saint-John's Wort? Pharmacol Res. 2017 Apr;118:82-92. View abstract.
- Nieminen TH, Hagelberg NM, Saari TI, Neuvonen M, Neuvonen PJ, Laine K, Olkkola KT. Grapefruit juice enhances the exposure to oral oxycodone. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2010 Oct;107(4):782-8. View abstract.
- Odou, P., Ferrari, N., Barthelemy, C., Brique, S., Lhermitte, M., Vincent, A., Libersa, C., and Robert, H. Grapefruit juice-nifedipine interaction: possible involvement of several mechanisms. J Clin Pharm Ther 2005;30(2):153-158. View abstract.
- Oesterheld J, Kallepalli BR. Grapefruit juice and clomipramine: shifting metabolitic ratios. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1997;17:62-3.
- Offman EM, Freeman DJ, Dresser GK, et al. Cisapride interaction with grapefruit juice and red wine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000;67:110 (abstract PI-83).
- Ozdemir M, Aktan Y, Boydag BS. Interaction between grapefruit juice and diazepam in humans. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 1998;23:55-9. View abstract.
- Paine, M. F., Widmer, W. W., Hart, H. L., Pusek, S. N., Beavers, K. L., Criss, A. B., Brown, S. S., Thomas, B. F., and Watkins, P. B. A furanocoumarin-free grapefruit juice establishes furanocoumarins as the mediators of the grapefruit juice-felodipine interaction. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83(5):1097-1105. View abstract.
- Parker RB, Yates CR, Soberman JE, Laizure SC. Effects of grapefruit juice on intestinal P-glycoprotein: evaluation using digoxin in humans. Pharmacotherapy 2003;23:979-87. View abstract.
- Penzak SR, Acosta EP, Turner M, et al. Effect of Seville orange juice and grapefruit juice on indinavir pharmacokinetics. J Clin Pharmacol 2002;42:1165-70. View abstract.
- Penzak SR, Gubbins PO, Gurley BJ, et al. Grapefruit juice decreases the systemic availability of itraconazole capsules in healthy volunteers. Ther Drug Monit 1999;21:304-9. View abstract.
- Peterson JJ, Beecher GR, Bhagwat SA, et al. Flavanones in grapefruit, lemons, and limes: A compilation and review of the data from the analytical literature. J Food Comp Anal. 2006;19(2006):S74-S80.
- Piccirillo G, Magrì D, Matera S, Magnanti M, Pasquazzi E, Schifano E, Velitti S, Mitra M, Marigliano V, Paroli M, Ghiselli A. Effects of pink grapefruit juice on QT variability in patients with dilated or hypertensive cardiomyopathy and in healthy subjects. Transl Res. 2008 May;151(5):267-72. View abstract.
- Potential drug interactions with grapefruit. Pharmacist's Letter / Prescriber's Letter 2007;23(2):230204.
- Product information for Cordarone. Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Philadelphia, PA 19101. September 2006.
- Ranzani MR, Fonseca H. Mycological evaluation of chemically-treated unshelled peanuts. Food Addit Contam 1995;12:343-6. View abstract.
- Rashid, J., McKinstry, C., Renwick, A. G., Dirnhuber, M., Waller, D. G., and George, C. F. Quercetin, an in vitro inhibitor of CYP3A, does not contribute to the interaction between nifedipine and grapefruit juice. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1993;36(5):460-463. View abstract.
- Rashid, T. J., Martin, U., Clarke, H., Waller, D. G., Renwick, A. G., and George, C. F. Factors affecting the absolute bioavailability of nifedipine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1995;40(1):51-58. View abstract.
- Rau SE, Bend JR, Arnold MO, et al. Grapefruit juice-terfenadine single-dose interaction: magnitude, mechanism, and relevance. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997 61:401-9. View abstract.
- Reif S, Nicolson M, Bisset D, et al. Effect of grapefruit juice intake on etoposide bioavailability. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2002;58:491-4.. View abstract.
- Mankowski C, Poole CD, Ernault E, et al. Effectiveness of the capsaicin 8% patch in the management of peripheral neuropathic pain in European clinical practice: the ASCEND study. BMC Neurol. 2017 Apr 21;17(1):80. View abstract.
- Marabini S, Ciabatti PG, Polli G, et al. Beneficial effects of intranasal applications of capsaicin in patients with vasomotor rhinitis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1991;248:191-4. View abstract.
- Marks DR, Rapoport A, Padla D, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of intranasal capsaicin for cluster headache. Cephalalgia 1993;13:114-6. View abstract.
- Mason L, Moore RA, Derry S, et al. Systematic review of topical capsaicin for the treatment of chronic pain. BMJ 2004;328:991. View abstract.
- McCarty DJ, Csuka M, McCarthy G, et al. Treatment of pain due to fibromyalgia with topical capsaicin: A pilot study. Semin Arthr Rheum 1994;23:41-7.
- Mendelson J, Tolliver B, Delucchi K, Berger P. Capsaicin increases the lethality of cocaine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998;65:(abstract PII-27).
- Millqvist E. Cough provocation with capsaicin is an objective way to test sensory hyperreactivity in patients with asthma-like symptoms. Allergy 2000;55:546-50. View abstract.
- Mou J, Paillard F, Turnbull B, et al. Efficacy of Qutenza (capsaicin) 8% patch for neuropathic pain: a meta-analysis of the Qutenza Clinical Trials Database. Pain. 2013;154(9):1632-9. View abstract.
- Mou J, Paillard F, Turnbull B, et al. Qutenza (capsaicin) 8% patch onset and duration of response and effects of multiple treatments in neuropathic pain patients. Clin J Pain. 2014;30(4):286-94. View abstract.
- Nieman DC, Shanely RA, Luo B, Dew D, Meaney MP, Sha W. A commercialized dietary supplement alleviates joint pain in community adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled community trial. Nutr J 2013;12(1):154. View abstract.
- No Authors. Capsaicin patch (Qutenza) for postherpetic neuralgia. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2011;53(1365):42-3. View abstract.
- O'Connell F, Thomas VE, Pride NB, Fuller RW. Capsaicin cough sensitivity decreases with successful treatment of chronic cough. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;150:374-80. View abstract.
- Pabalan N, Jarjanazi H, Ozcelik H. The impact of capsaicin intake on risk of developing gastric cancers: a meta-analysis. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2014;45(3):334-41. View abstract.
- Paice JA, Ferrans CE, Lashley FR, et al. Topical capsaicin in the management of HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy. J Pain Symptom Manage 2000;19:45-52. View abstract.
- Rapoport AM, Bigal ME, Tepper SJ, Sheftell FD. Intranasal medications for the treatment of migraine and cluster headache. CNS Drugs 2004;18:671-85. View abstract.
- Sandor B, Papp J, Mozsik G, et al. Orally given gastroprotective capsaicin does not modify aspirin-induced platelet aggregation in healthy male volunteers (human phase I examination). Acta Physiol Hung. 2014 Dec;101(4):429-37. View abstract.
- Schmulson MJ, Valdovinos MA, Milke P. Chili pepper and rectal hyperalgesia in irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2003;98:1214-5.
- Shalansky S, Lynd L, Richardson K, et al. Risk of warfarin-related bleeding events and supratherapeutic international normalized ratios associated with complementary and alternative medicine: a longitudinal analysis. Pharmacotherapy. 2007;27:1237-47. View abstract.
- Sharma A, Gautam S, Jadhav SS. Spice extracts as dose-modifying factors in radiation inactivation of bacteria. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:1340-4. View abstract.
- Sicuteri F, Fusco BM, Marabini S, et al. Beneficial effect of capsaicin application to the nasal mucosa in cluster headache. Clin J Pain 1989;5:49-53. View abstract.
- Silvestre FJ, Silvestre-Rangil J, Tamarit-Santafé C, et al. Application of a capsaicin rinse in the treatment of burning mouth syndrome. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2012 Jan 1;17(1):e1-4. View abstract.
- Simpson DM, Brown S, Tobias J; NGX-4010 C107 Study Group. Controlled trial of high-concentration capsaicin patch for treatment of painful HIV neuropathy. Neurology 2008;70(24):2305-2313. View abstract.
- Simpson DM, Robinson-Papp J, Van J, et al. Capsaicin 8% patch in painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Pain. 2017 Jan;18(1):42-53. View abstract.
- Stam, C., Bonnet, M. S., and van Haselen, R. A. The efficacy and safety of a homeopathic gel in the treatment of acute low back pain: a multi-centre, randomised, double-blind comparative clinical trial. Br Homeopath J 2001;90(1):21-28. View abstract.
- Stander S, Luger T, Metze D. Treatment of prurigo nodularis with topical capsaicin. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001;44:471-8.. View abstract.
- Stjarne P, Rinder J, Heden-Blomquist E, et al. Capsaicin desensitization of the nasal mucosa reduces symptoms upon allergen challenge in patients with allergic rhinitis. Acta Otolaryngol 1998;118:235-9. View abstract.
- Sumano-López H, Gutiérrez-Olvera L, Aguilera-Jiménez R, et al. Administration of ciprofloxacin and capsaicin in rats to achieve higher maximal serum concentrations. Arzneimittelforschung. 2007;57(5):286-90. View abstract.
- Surh YJ, Lee SS. Capsaicin in hot chili pepper: carcinogen, co-carcinogen or anticarcinogen? Food Chem Toxicol 1996;34:313-6. View abstract.
- Surh YJ. Anti-tumor promoting potential of selected spice ingredients with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities: a short review. Food Chem Toxicol 2002;40:1091-7. View abstract.
- Tuntipopipat, S., Zeder, C., Siriprapa, P., and Charoenkiatkul, S. Inhibitory effects of spices and herbs on iron availability. Int.J Food Sci.Nutr. 2009;60 Suppl 1:43-55. View abstract.
- Van Avesaat M, Troost FJ, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, et al. Capsaicin-induced satiety is associated with gastrointestinal distress but not with the release of satiety hormones. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Feb;103(2):305-13. View abstract.
- Van Nooten F, Treur M, Pantiri K, Stoker M, Charokopou M. Capsaicin 8% patch versus oral neuropathic pain medications for the treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a systematic literature review and network meta-analysis. Clin Ther. 2017 Apr;39(4):787-803.e18. View abstract.
- Visudhiphan S, Poolsuppasit S, Piboonnukarintr O, Timliang S. The relationship between high fibrinolytic activity and daily capsicum ingestion in Thais. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;35:1452-8. View abstract.
- Wang JP, Hsu MF, Teng CM. Antiplatelet effect of capsaicin. Thromb Res 1984;36:497-507. View abstract.
- Wanwimolruk S, Nyika S, Kepple M, et al. Effects of capsaicin on the pharmacokinetics of antipyrine, theophylline and quinine in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1993;45(7):618-21. View abstract.
- Whiting S, Derbyshire EJ, Tiwari B. Could capsaicinoids help to support weight management? A systematic review and meta-analysis of energy intake data. Appetite. 2014;73:183-8. View abstract.
- Wiesenauer, M. Comparison of solid and liquid forms of homeopathic remedies for tonsillitis. Adv Ther 1998;15(6):362-371. View abstract.
- Williams SR, Clark RF, Dunford JV. Contact dermatitis associated with capsaicin: Hunan hand syndrome. Ann Emerg Med 1995;25:713-5. View abstract.
- Yeo WW, Chadwick IG, Kraskiewicz M, et al. Resolution of ACE inhibitor cough: changes in subjective cough and responses to inhaled capsaicin, intradermal bradykinin and substance-P. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1995;40:423-9. View abstract.
- Yeo WW, Higgins KS, Foster G et al. Effect of dose adjustment on enalapril-induced cough and the response to inhaled capsaicin. J Clin Pharmacol 1995;39:271-6. View abstract.
- Yuan LJ, Qin Y, Wang L, et al. Capsaicin-containing chili improved postprandial hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and fasting lipid disorders in women with gestational diabetes mellitus and lowered the incidence of large-for-gestational-age newborns. Clin Nutr. 2016 Apr;35(2):388-93. View abstract.
- Zollman TM, Bragg RM, Harrison DA. Clinical effects of oleoresin capsicum (pepper spray) on the human cornea and conjunctiva. Ophthalmology 2000;107:2186-9. View abstract.
- Ahuja, K. D. and Ball, M. J. Effects of daily ingestion of chilli on serum lipoprotein oxidation in adult men and women. Br.J Nutr. 2006;96(2):239-242. View abstract.
- Ahuja, K. D., Kunde, D. A., Ball, M. J., and Geraghty, D. P. Effects of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and curcumin on copper-induced oxidation of human serum lipids. J Agric.Food Chem. 8-23-2006;54(17):6436-6439. View abstract.
- Ahuja, K. D., Robertson, I. K., Geraghty, D. P., and Ball, M. J. Effects of chili consumption on postprandial glucose, insulin, and energy metabolism. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2006;84(1):63-69. View abstract.
- Ahuja, K. D., Robertson, I. K., Geraghty, D. P., and Ball, M. J. The effect of 4-week chilli supplementation on metabolic and arterial function in humans. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2007;61(3):326-333. View abstract.
- Akcay, A. B., Ozcan, T., Seyis, S., and Acele, A. Coronary vasospasm and acute myocardial infarction induced by a topical capsaicin patch. Turk.Kardiyol.Dern.Ars 2009;37(7):497-500. View abstract.
- Astrup, A., Kristensen, M., Gregersen, N. T., Belza, A., Lorenzen, J. K., Due, A., and Larsen, T. M. Can bioactive foods affect obesity? Ann N.Y.Acad.Sci 2010;1190:25-41. View abstract.
- Azevedo-Meleiro, C. H. and Rodriguez-Amaya, D. B. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the carotenoid composition of yellow and red peppers determined by HPLC-DAD-MS. J Sep.Sci. 2009;32(21):3652-3658. View abstract.
- Babakhanian, R. V., Binat, G. N., Isakov, V. D., and Mukovskii, L. A. [Forensic medical aspects of injuries inflicted with self-defense capsaicin aerosols]. Sud.Med.Ekspert. 2001;44(1):9-11. View abstract.
- Babbar, S., Marier, J. F., Mouksassi, M. S., Beliveau, M., Vanhove, G. F., Chanda, S., and Bley, K. Pharmacokinetic analysis of capsaicin after topical administration of a high-concentration capsaicin patch to patients with peripheral neuropathic pain. Ther Drug Monit. 2009;31(4):502-510. View abstract.
- Backonja, M. M., Malan, T. P., Vanhove, G. F., and Tobias, J. K. NGX-4010, a high-concentration capsaicin patch, for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study with an open-label extension. Pain Med. 2010;11(4):600-608. View abstract.
- Baraniuk, J. N. Sensory, parasympathetic, and sympathetic neural influences in the nasal mucosa. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1992;90(6 Pt 2):1045-1050. View abstract.
- Barkin, R. L., Barkin, S. J., Irving, G. A., and Gordon, A. Management of chronic noncancer pain in depressed patients. Postgrad.Med. 2011;123(5):143-154. View abstract.
- Barnouin, J., Verdura, Barrios T., Chassagne, M., Perez, Cristia R., Arnaud, J., Fleites, Mestre P., Montoya, M. E., and Favier, A. Nutritional and food protection against epidemic emerging neuropathy. Epidemiological findings in the unique disease-free urban area of Cuba. Int.J.Vitam.Nutr.Res. 2001;71(5):274-285. View abstract.
- Basha, K. M. and Whitehouse, F. W. Capsaicin: a therapeutic option for painful diabetic neuropathy. Henry.Ford.Hosp.Med.J. 1991;39(2):138-140. View abstract.
- Benzon, H. T., Chekka, K., Darnule, A., Chung, B., Wille, O., and Malik, K. Evidence-based case report: the prevention and management of postherpetic neuralgia with emphasis on interventional procedures. Reg Anesth.Pain Med. 2009;34(5):514-521. View abstract.
- Bernstein, J. A., Davis, B. P., Picard, J. K., Cooper, J. P., Zheng, S., and Levin, L. S. A randomized, double-blind, parallel trial comparing capsaicin nasal spray with placebo in subjects with a significant component of nonallergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011;107(2):171-178. View abstract.
- Blanc, P., Liu, D., Juarez, C., and Boushey, H. A. Cough in hot pepper workers. Chest 1991;99(1):27-32. View abstract.
- Bley, K., Boorman, G., Mohammad, B., McKenzie, D., and Babbar, S. A comprehensive review of the carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic potential of capsaicin. Toxicol.Pathol. 2012;40(6):847-873. View abstract.
- Bode, A. M. and Dong, Z. The two faces of capsaicin. Cancer Res 4-15-2011;71(8):2809-2814. View abstract.
- Bortolotti, M. and Porta, S. Effect of red pepper on symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: preliminary study. Dig.Dis.Sci 2011;56(11):3288-3295. View abstract.
- Brown, L., Takeuchi, D., and Challoner, K. Corneal abrasions associated with pepper spray exposure. Am.J.Emerg.Med. 2000;18(3):271-272. View abstract.
- Busker, R. W. and van Helden, H. P. Toxicologic evaluation of pepper spray as a possible weapon for the Dutch police force: risk assessment and efficacy. Am.J.Forensic Med.Pathol. 1998;19(4):309-316. View abstract.
- Calixto, J. B., Beirith, A., Ferreira, J., Santos, A. R., Filho, V. C., and Yunes, R. A. Naturally occurring antinociceptive substances from plants. Phytother.Res. 2000;14(6):401-418. View abstract.
- Calixto, J. B., Kassuya, C. A., Andre, E., and Ferreira, J. Contribution of natural products to the discovery of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels family and their functions. Pharmacol.Ther. 2005;106(2):179-208. View abstract.
- Campbell, C. M., Bounds, S. C., Simango, M. B., Witmer, K. R., Campbell, J. N., Edwards, R. R., Haythornthwaite, J. A., and Smith, M. T. Self-reported sleep duration associated with distraction analgesia, hyperemia, and secondary hyperalgesia in the heat-capsaicin nociceptive model. Eur J Pain 2011;15(6):561-567. View abstract.
- Canning, B. J. Functional implications of the multiple afferent pathways regulating cough. Pulm.Pharmacol.Ther 2011;24(3):295-299. View abstract.
- Caterina, M. J., Schumacher, M. A., Tominaga, M., Rosen, T. A., Levine, J. D., and Julius, D. The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway. Nature 10-23-1997;389(6653):816-824. View abstract.
- Chaiyasit, K., Khovidhunkit, W., and Wittayalertpanya, S. Pharmacokinetic and the effect of capsaicin in Capsicum frutescens on decreasing plasma glucose level. J Med.Assoc.Thai. 2009;92(1):108-113. View abstract.
- Chaiyata, P., Puttadechakum, S., and Komindr, S. Effect of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) ingestion on plasma glucose response and metabolic rate in Thai women. J.Med.Assoc.Thai. 2003;86(9):854-860. View abstract.
- Chanda, S., Mould, A., Esmail, A., and Bley, K. Toxicity studies with pure trans-capsaicin delivered to dogs via intravenous administration. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 2005;43(1):66-75. View abstract.
- Chanda, S., Sharper, V., Hoberman, A., and Bley, K. Developmental toxicity study of pure trans-capsaicin in rats and rabbits. Int.J.Toxicol. 2006;25(3):205-217. View abstract.
- Chen, H. C., Chang, M. D., and Chang, T. J. [Antibacterial properties of some spice plants before and after heat treatment]. Zhonghua Min Guo.Wei Sheng Wu Ji.Mian.Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 1985;18(3):190-195. View abstract.
- Cho, J. H., Brodsky, M., Kim, E. J., Cho, Y. J., Kim, K. W., Fang, J. Y., and Song, M. Y. Efficacy of a 0.1% capsaicin hydrogel patch for myofascial neck pain: a double-blinded randomized trial. Pain Med. 2012;13(7):965-970. View abstract.
- Ciabatti, P. G. and D'Ascanio, L. Intranasal Capsicum spray in idiopathic rhinitis: a randomized prospective application regimen trial. Acta Otolaryngol. 2009;129(4):367-371. View abstract.
- Clifford, D. B., Simpson, D. M., Brown, S., Moyle, G., Brew, B. J., Conway, B., Tobias, J. K., and Vanhove, G. F. A randomized, double-blind, controlled study of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, for the treatment of painful HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy. J Acquir.Immune.Defic.Syndr. 2-1-2012;59(2):126-133. View abstract.
- Crimi, N., Polosa, R., Maccarrone, C., Palermo, B., Palermo, F., and Mistretta, A. Effect of topical application with capsaicin on skin responses to bradykinin and histamine in man. Clin.Exp.Allergy 1992;22(10):933-939. View abstract.
- Dahl, J. B., Mathiesen, O., and Kehlet, H. An expert opinion on postoperative pain management, with special reference to new developments. Expert.Opin.Pharmacother. 2010;11(15):2459-2470. View abstract.
- de Jong, N. W., van der Steen, J. J., Smeekens, C. C., Blacquiere, T., Mulder, P. G., van Wijk, R. G., and de Groot, H. Honeybee interference as a novel aid to reduce pollen exposure and nasal symptoms among greenhouse workers allergic to sweet bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) pollen. Int.Arch.Allergy Immunol. 2006;141(4):390-395. View abstract.
- De Lucca, A. J., Bland, J. M., Vigo, C. B., Cushion, M., Selitrennikoff, C. P., Peter, J., and Walsh, T. J. CAY-I, a fungicidal saponin from Capsicum sp. fruit. Med.Mycol. 2002;40(2):131-137. View abstract.
- De Lucca, A. J., Boue, S., Palmgren, M. S., Maskos, K., and Cleveland, T. E. Fungicidal properties of two saponins from Capsicum frutescens and the relationship of structure and fungicidal activity. Can.J Microbiol. 2006;52(4):336-342. View abstract.
- De Marino, S., Borbone, N., Gala, F., Zollo, F., Fico, G., Pagiotti, R., and Iorizzi, M. New constituents of sweet Capsicum annuum L. fruits and evaluation of their biological activity. J Agric.Food Chem. 10-4-2006;54(20):7508-7516. View abstract.
- Derry, S. and Moore, R. A. Topical capsaicin (low concentration) for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;9:CD010111. View abstract.
- Derry, S., Lloyd, R., Moore, R. A., and McQuay, H. J. Topical capsaicin for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;(4):CD007393. View abstract.
- Derry, S., Sven-Rice, A., Cole, P., Tan, T., and Moore, R. A. Topical capsaicin (high concentration) for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2013;2:CD007393. View abstract.
- Diaz-Laviada, I. Effect of capsaicin on prostate cancer cells. Future.Oncol. 2010;6(10):1545-1550. View abstract.
- Dulloo, A. G. The search for compounds that stimulate thermogenesis in obesity management: from pharmaceuticals to functional food ingredients. Obes.Rev. 2011;12(10):866-883. View abstract.
- Fett, D. D. Botanical briefs: Capsicum peppers. Cutis 2003;72(1):21-23. View abstract.
- Final report on the safety assessment of capsicum annuum extract, capsicum annuum fruit extract, capsicum annuum resin, capsicum annuum fruit powder, capsicum frutescens fruit, capsicum frutescens fruit extract, capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin. Int.J.Toxicol. 2007;26 Suppl 1:3-106. View abstract.
- Fragasso, G., Palloshi, A., Piatti, P. M., Monti, L., Rossetti, E., Setola, E., Montano, C., Bassanelli, G., Calori, G., and Margonato, A. Nitric-oxide mediated effects of transdermal capsaicin patches on the ischemic threshold in patients with stable coronary disease. J.Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 2004;44(3):340-347. View abstract.
- Gagnier, J. J., van Tulder, M., Berman, B., and Bombardier, C. Herbal medicine for low back pain. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;(2):CD004504. View abstract.
- Garroway, N., Chhabra, S., Landis, S., and Skolnik, D. C. Clinical inquiries: What measures relieve postherpetic neuralgia? J Fam.Pract. 2009;58(7):384d-384f. View abstract.
- Georgalas, C. and Jovancevic, L. Gustatory rhinitis. Curr Opin.Otolaryngol.Head Neck Surg. 2012;20(1):9-14. View abstract.
- Gerber, S., Frueh, B. E., and Tappeiner, C. Conjunctival proliferation after a mild pepper spray injury in a young child. Cornea 2011;30(9):1042-1044. View abstract.
- Ginsberg, F. and Famaey, J. P. A double-blind study of topical massage with Rado-Salil ointment in mechanical low-back pain. J.Int.Med.Res 1987;15(3):148-153. View abstract.
- Govindarajan, V. S. and Sathyanarayana, M. N. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part V. Impact on physiology, pharmacology, nutrition, and metabolism; structure, pungency, pain, and desensitization sequences. Crit Rev.Food Sci.Nutr. 1991;29(6):435-474. View abstract.
- Govindarajan, V. S. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality--Part II. Processed products, standards, world production and trade. Crit Rev.Food Sci.Nutr. 1986;23(3):207-288. View abstract.
- Greiner, A. N. and Meltzer, E. O. Overview of the treatment of allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinopathy. Proc.Am Thorac.Soc. 2011;8(1):121-131. View abstract.
- Grossi, L., Cappello, G., and Marzio, L. Effect of an acute intraluminal administration of capsaicin on oesophageal motor pattern in GORD patients with ineffective oesophageal motility. Neurogastroenterol.Motil. 2006;18(8):632-636. View abstract.
- Gupta, P. J. Consumption of red-hot chili pepper increases symptoms in patients with acute anal fissures. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover trial. Arq Gastroenterol. 2008;45(2):124-127. View abstract.
- Gupta, P. J. Consumption of red-hot chili pepper increases symptoms in patients with acute anal fissures. Ann.Ital.Chir 2008;79(5):347-351. View abstract.
- Gupta, P. J. Red hot chilli consumption is harmful in patients operated for anal fissure - a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Dig.Surg. 2007;24(5):354-357. View abstract.
- Hail, N., Jr. and Lotan, R. Examining the role of mitochondrial respiration in vanilloid-induced apoptosis. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 9-4-2002;94(17):1281-1292. View abstract.
- Han, S. S., Keum, Y. S., Chun, K. S., and Surh, Y. J. Suppression of phorbol ester-induced NF-kappaB activation by capsaicin in cultured human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Arch.Pharm.Res. 2002;25(4):475-479. View abstract.
- Hartrick, C. T., Pestano, C., Carlson, N., and Hartrick, S. Capsaicin instillation for postoperative pain following total knee arthroplasty: a preliminary report of a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Clin Drug Investig. 12-1-2011;31(12):877-882. View abstract.
- Hasegawa, G. R. Proposals for chemical weapons during the American Civil War. Mil.Med. 2008;173(5):499-506. View abstract.
- Hendrix, C. R., Housh, T. J., Mielke, M., Zuniga, J. M., Camic, C. L., Johnson, G. O., Schmidt, R. J., and Housh, D. J. Acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on bench press and leg extension strength and time to exhaustion during cycle ergometry. J Strength.Cond.Res 2010;24(3):859-865. View abstract.
- Henning, S. M., Zhang, Y., Seeram, N. P., Lee, R. P., Wang, P., Bowerman, S., and Heber, D. Antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content of herbs and spices in dry, fresh and blended herb paste form. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2011;62(3):219-225. View abstract.
- Herbert, M. K., Tafler, R., Schmidt, R. F., and Weis, K. H. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors acetylsalicylic acid and indomethacin do not affect capsaicin-induced neurogenic inflammation in human skin. Agents Actions 1993;38 Spec No:C25-C27. View abstract.
- Hiura, A., Lopez, Villalobos E., and Ishizuka, H. Age-dependent attenuation of the decrease of C fibers by capsaicin and its effects on responses to nociceptive stimuli. Somatosens.Mot.Res 1992;9(1):37-43. View abstract.
- Hursel, R. and Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. Thermogenic ingredients and body weight regulation. Int J Obes.(Lond) 2010;34(4):659-669. View abstract.
- Inoue, N., Matsunaga, Y., Satoh, H., and Takahashi, M. Enhanced energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans with high BMI scores by the ingestion of novel and non-pungent capsaicin analogues (capsinoids). Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2007;71(2):380-389. View abstract.
- Iorizzi, M., Lanzotti, V., Ranalli, G., De Marino, S., and Zollo, F. Antimicrobial furostanol saponins from the seeds of Capsicum annuum L. var. acuminatum. J.Agric.Food Chem. 7-17-2002;50(15):4310-4316. View abstract.
- Irving, G. A., Backonja, M. M., Dunteman, E., Blonsky, E. R., Vanhove, G. F., Lu, S. P., and Tobias, J. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled study of NGX-4010, a high-concentration capsaicin patch, for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Pain Med. 2011;12(1):99-109. View abstract.
- Irving, G., Backonja, M., Rauck, R., Webster, L. R., Tobias, J. K., and Vanhove, G. F. NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, administered alone or in combination with systemic neuropathic pain medications, reduces pain in patients with postherpetic neuralgia. Clin J Pain 2012;28(2):101-107. View abstract.
- Islam, M. S. and Choi, H. Dietary red chilli (Capsicum frutescens L.) is insulinotropic rather than hypoglycemic in type 2 diabetes model of rats. Phytother.Res. 2008;22(8):1025-1029. View abstract.
- Jamroz, D., Wertelecki, T., Houszka, M., and Kamel, C. Influence of diet type on the inclusion of plant origin active substances on morphological and histochemical characteristics of the stomach and jejunum walls in chicken. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr.(Berl) 2006;90(5-6):255-268. View abstract.
- Jancso, N., Jancso-Gabor, A., and Szolcsanyi, J. Direct evidence for neurogenic inflammation and its prevention by denervation and by pretreatment with capsaicin. Br.J.Pharmacol. 1967;31(1):138-151. View abstract.
- Jensen, T. S., Madsen, C. S., and Finnerup, N. B. Pharmacology and treatment of neuropathic pains. Curr Opin.Neurol. 2009;22(5):467-474. View abstract.
- Jones, N. L., Shabib, S., and Sherman, P. M. Capsaicin as an inhibitor of the growth of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. FEMS Microbiol.Lett. 1-15-1997;146(2):223-227. View abstract.
- Kahl, U. [TRP channels--sensitive for heat and cold, capsaicin and menthol]. Lakartidningen 5-16-2002;99(20):2302-2303. View abstract.
- Kang, J. Y., Teng, C. H., and Chen, F. C. Effect of capsaicin and cimetidine on the healing of acetic acid induced gastric ulceration in the rat. Gut 1996;38(6):832-836. View abstract.
- Kang, S., Kang, K., Chung, G. C., Choi, D., Ishihara, A., Lee, D. S., and Back, K. Functional analysis of the amine substrate specificity domain of pepper tyramine and serotonin N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferases. Plant Physiol 2006;140(2):704-715. View abstract.
- Katz, J. D. and Shah, T. Persistent pain in the older adult: what should we do now in light of the 2009 American geriatrics society clinical practice guideline? Pol.Arch.Med.Wewn. 2009;119(12):795-800. View abstract.
- Kim, I. K., Abd El-Aty, A. M., Shin, H. C., Lee, H. B., Kim, I. S., and Shim, J. H. Analysis of volatile compounds in fresh healthy and diseased peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) using solvent free solid injection coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and confirmation with mass spectrometry. J Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 11-5-2007;45(3):487-494. View abstract.
- Kim, K. S. and Nam, Y. M. The analgesic effects of capsicum plaster at the Zusanli point after abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth.Analg. 2006;103(3):709-713. View abstract.
- Kim, K. S., Kim, D. W., and Yu, Y. K. The effect of capsicum plaster in pain after inguinal hernia repair in children. Paediatr.Anaesth. 2006;16(10):1036-1041. View abstract.
- Kim, K. S., Kim, K. N., Hwang, K. G., and Park, C. J. Capsicum plaster at the Hegu point reduces postoperative analgesic requirement after orthognathic surgery. Anesth.Analg. 2009;108(3):992-996. View abstract.
- Kim, K. S., Koo, M. S., Jeon, J. W., Park, H. S., and Seung, I. S. Capsicum plaster at the korean hand acupuncture point reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting after abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth.Analg. 2002;95(4):1103-7, table. View abstract.
- Knight, T. E. and Hayashi, T. Solar (brachioradial) pruritus--response to capsaicin cream. Int.J.Dermatol. 1994;33(3):206-209. View abstract.
- Kobata, K., Tate, H., Iwasaki, Y., Tanaka, Y., Ohtsu, K., Yazawa, S., and Watanabe, T. Isolation of coniferyl esters from Capsicum baccatum L., and their enzymatic preparation and agonist activity for TRPV1. Phytochemistry 2008;69(5):1179-1184. View abstract.
- Krogstad, A. L., Lonnroth, P., Larson, G., and Wallin, B. G. Capsaicin treatment induces histamine release and perfusion changes in psoriatic skin. Br.J.Dermatol. 1999;141(1):87-93. View abstract.
- Kuda, T., Iwai, A., and Yano, T. Effect of red pepper Capsicum annuum var. conoides and garlic Allium sativum on plasma lipid levels and cecal microflora in mice fed beef tallow. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2004;42(10):1695-1700. View abstract.
- Kumar, N., Vij, J. C., Sarin, S. K., and Anand, B. S. Do chillies influence healing of duodenal ulcer? Br.Med.J.(Clin.Res.Ed) 6-16-1984;288(6433):1803-1804. View abstract.
- Kushnir, N. M. The role of decongestants, cromolyn, guafenesin, saline washes, capsaicin, leukotriene antagonists, and other treatments on rhinitis. Immunol.Allergy Clin North Am 2011;31(3):601-617. View abstract.
- Lee, C. Y., Kim, M., Yoon, S. W., and Lee, C. H. Short-term control of capsaicin on blood and oxidative stress of rats in vivo. Phytother.Res. 2003;17(5):454-458. View abstract.
- Lee, Y. S., Kang, Y. S., Lee, J. S., Nicolova, S., and Kim, J. A. Involvement of NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species in the apototic cell death by capsaicin in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Free Radic.Res 2004;38(4):405-412. View abstract.
- Lejeune, M. P., Kovacs, E. M., and Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. Effect of capsaicin on substrate oxidation and weight maintenance after modest body-weight loss in human subjects. Br.J.Nutr. 2003;90(3):651-659. View abstract.
- Lim, L. G., Tay, H., and Ho, K. Y. Curry induces acid reflux and symptoms in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Dig.Dis.Sci 2011;56(12):3546-3550. View abstract.
- Lotti, T., Teofoli, P., and Tsampau, D. Treatment of aquagenic pruritus with topical capsaicin cream. J.Am.Acad.Dermatol. 1994;30(2 Pt 1):232-235. View abstract.
- Ludy, M. J. and Mattes, R. D. The effects of hedonically acceptable red pepper doses on thermogenesis and appetite. Physiol Behav. 3-1-2011;102(3-4):251-258. View abstract.
- Ludy, M. J., Moore, G. E., and Mattes, R. D. The effects of capsaicin and capsiate on energy balance: critical review and meta-analyses of studies in humans. Chem Senses 2012;37(2):103-121. View abstract.
- Lundblad, L., Lundberg, J. M., Anggard, A., and Zetterstrom, O. Capsaicin pretreatment inhibits the flare component of the cutaneous allergic reaction in man. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 7-31-1985;113(3):461-462. View abstract.
- Lundblad, L., Lundberg, J. M., Anggard, A., and Zetterstrom, O. Capsaicin-sensitive nerves and the cutaneous allergy reaction in man. Possible involvement of sensory neuropeptides in the flare reaction. Allergy 1987;42(1):20-25. View abstract.
- Maoka, T., Akimoto, N., Fujiwara, Y., and Hashimoto, K. Structure of new carotenoids with the 6-oxo-kappa end group from the fruits of paprika, Capsicum annuum. J.Nat.Prod. 2004;67(1):115-117. View abstract.
- Materska, M., Piacente, S., Stochmal, A., Pizza, C., Oleszek, W., and Perucka, I. Isolation and structure elucidation of flavonoid and phenolic acid glycosides from pericarp of hot pepper fruit Capsicum annuum L. Phytochemistry 2003;63(8):893-898. View abstract.
- McCarthy, G. M. and McCarty, D. J. Effect of topical capsaicin in the therapy of painful osteoarthritis of the hands. J.Rheumatol. 1992;19(4):604-607. View abstract.
- McCormack, P. L. Capsaicin dermal patch: in non-diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Drugs 10-1-2010;70(14):1831-1842. View abstract.
- Medvedeva, N. V., Andreenkov, V. A., Morozkin, A. D., Sergeeva, E. A., Prokof'ev, IuI, and Misharin, A. I. [Inhibition of oxidation of human blood low density lipoproteins by carotenoids from paprika]. Biomed.Khim. 2003;49(2):191-200. View abstract.
- Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. Pilot studies on stimulant effects of capsicum spices. Nutr.Metab 1972;14(4):245-254. View abstract.
- Milke, P., Diaz, A., Valdovinos, M. A., and Moran, S. Gastroesophageal reflux in healthy subjects induced by two different species of chilli (Capsicum annum). Dig.Dis. 2006;24(1-2):184-188. View abstract.
- Misra, M. N., Pullani, A. J., and Mohamed, Z. U. Prevention of PONV by acustimulation with capsicum plaster is comparable to ondansetron after middle ear surgery: [La prevention des NVPO par acustimulation avec un emplatre de Capsicum est comparable a celle de l'ondansetron apres une operation a l'oreille moyenne]. Can.J.Anaesth. 2005;52(5):485-489. View abstract.
- Molina-Torres, J., Garcia-Chavez, A., and Ramirez-Chavez, E. Antimicrobial properties of alkamides present in flavouring plants traditionally used in Mesoamerica: affinin and capsaicin. J.Ethnopharmacol. 1999;64(3):241-248. View abstract.
- Monsereenusorn, Y. and Glinsukon, T. Inhibitory effect of capsaicin on intestinal glucose absorption in vitro. Food Cosmet.Toxicol. 1978;16(5):469-473. View abstract.
- Mori, A., Lehmann, S., O'Kelly, J., Kumagai, T., Desmond, J. C., Pervan, M., McBride, W. H., Kizaki, M., and Koeffler, H. P. Capsaicin, a component of red peppers, inhibits the growth of androgen-independent, p53 mutant prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res 3-15-2006;66(6):3222-3229. View abstract.
- Naidu, K. A. and Thippeswamy, N. B. Inhibition of human low density lipoprotein oxidation by active principles from spices. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2002;229(1-2):19-23. View abstract.
- Nakamura, A. and Shiomi, H. Recent advances in neuropharmacology of cutaneous nociceptors. Jpn.J.Pharmacol. 1999;79(4):427-431. View abstract.
- Nalini, N., Manju, V., and Menon, V. P. Effect of spices on lipid metabolism in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. J Med.Food 2006;9(2):237-245. View abstract.
- Niemcunowicz-Janica, A., Ptaszynska-Sarosiek, I., and Wardaszka, Z. [Sudden death caused by an oleoresin capsicum spray]. Arch.Med.Sadowej.Kryminol. 2009;59(3):252-254. View abstract.
Have you ever purchased CAPSICUM?
Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Do you buy vitamins online or instore?
What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)