Nonallergic rhinitis is a medical term that describes a set of symptoms that resemble nasal allergies and hayfever but that occurs without a known cause. It produces symptoms such as:
Usually, it develops in adulthood, and symptoms last year-round.
Nonallergic rhinitis can cause just as much misery as allergic rhinitis. It can also be associated with the same complications, such as:
- Sinusitis, which is inflammation or swelling of the tissue that lines the sinuses
- Eustachian tube dysfunction. Eustachian tubes connect the middle ears to the back of the throat
- Chronic ear infection, known as otitis media
- Loss of smell or anosmia
- Obstructive sleep apnea
Both types of rhinitis are associated with:
- Decreased production at work
- Increased doctor visits
- Side effects from treatment, such as drowsiness, nosebleed, and nasal dryness
Causes of Nonallergic Rhinitis
Often, what causes nonallergic rhinitis is unknown. And the condition is often confirmed only after other conditions such as allergic rhinitis or infection are ruled out.
Environmental irritants are common triggers of nonallergic rhinitis. Some are found in the home and others are more common in the workplace.
Examples of what can trigger symptoms include:
- Car exhaust
- Cigarette smoke
- Cleaning solutions
- Hair spray
- Laundry detergents
- Metal salts
- Wood dust
When such triggers cause nonallergic rhinitis, they also often cause asthma.
Some medications can trigger non-allergic rhinitis. Examples include:
- NSAIDs -- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen
- Oral contraceptives
- Blood pressure medicines such as ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers
- Drugs used to treat erectile dysfunction
Foods and beverages may also sometimes be triggers. Examples include:
- Hot foods, such as soup
- Spicy foods
- Alcoholic beverages, especially beer and wine
Other triggers include:
- Illegal drugs. Cocaine and other snorted street drugs often cause chronic nonallergic rhinitis.
- Weather changes. Sudden changes in weather or temperature can trigger nonallergic rhinitis. Skiers, for instance, often develop a runny nose. And some people are affected by any cold exposure. In some cases, people even start sneezing after leaving a cold, air-conditioned room.
- Hormone changes. Nonallergic rhinitis often occurs during periods of hormonal imbalance. For instance, it may occur during puberty, menstruation, or pregnancy. It usually starts during the second month of pregnancy and lasts until childbirth. Hormonal conditions such as hypothyroidism can also trigger symptoms.
Treatment of Nonallergic Rhinitis
Nonallergic rhinitis can't be cured. But it can be controlled by:
- Avoiding rhinitis triggers
- Using home remedies such as nasal irrigation
- Taking over-the-counter and prescription medications
Allergy shots -- immunotherapy -- are not used to treat nonallergic rhinitis.
If you have nonallergic rhinitis, it's important that you not smoke and not allow smoking in your home.
Other strategies to reduce exposure to triggers include:
- Avoid wood-burning stoves and fireplaces if they cause symptoms.
- Avoid cleaning agents, household sprays, perfumes, and scented products if they cause symptoms.
- Ask family, friends, and co-workers not to use scented products that cause symptoms.
- Avoid any chemical or material that tends to make you sneeze or have a runny nose.
- Talk to your doctor about the medications you now take. If your nonallergic rhinitis is triggered by a medicine you need, your doctor may suggest a substitute.
Many people with nonallergic rhinitis benefit from performing nasal irrigation. This refers to rinsing of the nostrils with a salt water -- saline -- solution one or more times a day. Over-the-counter products for doing this include bulb syringes, neti pots, and bottle sprayers.
During each irrigation, rinse each nostril with at least 200 mL (about 3/4 cup) of commercially or home-prepared solution.
It's important to note that, according to the CDC, if you are irrigating, flushing, or rinsing your sinuses, use distilled, sterile, or previously boiled water to make up the irrigation solution. It’s also important to rinse the irrigation device after each use and leave open to air dry.
When performed once or twice a day, nasal irrigation may especially help treat postnasal drip. It's also a helpful technique to clear the sinuses before using medicated nasal sprays.
Medications for nonallergic rhinitis include:
Nasal antihistamines. Prescription products such as azelastine (Astelin) and olopatadine (Patanase) can relieve symptoms of postnasal drip, congestion, and sneezing within minutes. They are most effective when used on a regular basis.
Nasal glucocorticoids. Daily use of medications such as budesonide (Rhinocort Allergy), fluticasone (Flonase), or triamcinolone (Nasacort Allergy 24HR) may help relieve symptoms. These nasal sprays are available over the counter. It may take days or weeks to notice the full effects. Sometimes, people benefit from using a combination of nasal antihistamines and nasal glucocorticoids.
Decongestants. Oral decongestant medications -- such as pseudoephedrine -- may help relieve congestion. But these are not generally recommended unless nasal antihistamines and nasal glucocorticoids do not help symptoms. Decongestant nasal sprays containing oxymetazoline (Afrin) and phenylephrine (Neo-synephrine) should not be used for more than two to three days at a time. Doing so can cause overuse (rebound) congestion.
In some cases, surgery to remove nasal polyps or correct a deviated septum can improve the way medications for nonallergic rhinitis work. Surgery is only considered as a treatment by itself, though, when other treatments have failed to reduce symptoms.