Some people take riboflavin by mouth to prevent low levels of riboflavin (riboflavin deficiency) in the body, for various types of cancer, and for migraine headaches. It is also taken by mouth for acne, muscle cramps, burning feet syndrome, carpal tunnel syndrome, and blood disorders such as congenital methemoglobinemia and red blood cell aplasia. Some people use riboflavin for eye conditions including eye fatigue, cataracts, and glaucoma.
Some people also take riboflavin by mouth to maintain healthy hair, skin, and nails, to slow aging, for canker sores, multiple sclerosis, memory loss including Alzheimer's disease, high blood pressure, burns, liver disease, and sickle cell anemia.
How does it work ?
Uses & Effectiveness ?
- Preventing and treating low riboflavin levels (riboflavin deficiency). In adults and children who have too little riboflavin in their body, taking riboflavin by mouth can increase levels of riboflavin in the body.
Possibly Effective for
- Cataracts.People who eat more riboflavin as part of their diet seem to have a lower risk of developing cataracts. Also, taking supplements containing riboflavin plus niacin seems to help prevent cataracts.
- High amounts of homocysteine in the blood (hyperhomocysteinemia). Taking riboflavin by mouth for 12 weeks decreases levels of homocysteine by up to 40% in some people. Also, taking riboflavin along with folic acid and pyridoxine seems to lower homocysteine levels by 26% in people with high homocysteine levels caused by drugs that are used to prevent seizures.
- Migraine headaches. Taking high-dose riboflavin by mouth seems to reduce the number of migraine headache attacks, by about 2 attacks per month. Taking riboflavin in combination with other vitamin sand minerals seems to also reduce the amount of pain experienced during a migraine.
Possibly Ineffective for
- Stomach cancer. Taking riboflavin along with niacin does help prevent gastric cancer.
- Malnutrition caused by too little protein in the diet (kwashiorkor). Some research suggests that taking riboflavin, vitamin E, selenium, and N-acetyl cysteine by mouth does not reduce fluid, increase height or weight, or decrease infections in children at risk for kwashiorkor.
- Lung cancer. Taking riboflavin by mouth along with niacin does not help prevent lung cancer.
- Malaria. Taking riboflavin along with iron, thiamine, and vitamin C by mouth, does not reduce the number or seriousness of malaria infections in children at risk of being exposed to malaria.
- High blood pressure during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia). In women that are 4 months pregnant, starting to take riboflavin by mouth does reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia during pregnancy.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Lactic acidosis (a serious blood-acid imbalance) in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Early research shows that taking riboflavin by mouth might by helpful for treating lactic acidosis caused by drugs called nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
- Cervical cancer. Increasing intake of riboflavin from dietary and supplement sources, along with thiamine, folic acid, and vitamin B12, might decrease the risk of developing cervical cancer.
- Cancer of the food pipe (esophageal cancer). Research on the effects of riboflavin for preventing esophageal cancer is conflicting. Some research shows that taking riboflavin by mouth may decrease the risk of getting esophageal cancer, while other research shows that it has no effect.
- High blood pressure. Early research shows that taking riboflavin by mouth in certain patients at higher risk of high blood pressure due to genetic differences may lower blood pressure when used in addition to prescribed blood pressure medications.
- Liver cancer. Early research shows that taking riboflavin and niacin by mouth might reduce the risk of liver cancer in people less than 55 years-old. However, it does not seem to reduce the risk of liver cancer in older people.
- Multiple sclerosis. Early research shows that taking riboflavin by mouth for 6 months does not improve disability in patients with multiple sclerosis.
- White patches inside the mouth (oral leukoplakia). Early research shows that low levels of riboflavin in the blood are linked with an increased risk of oral leukoplakia. However, taking riboflavin supplements by mouth for 20 months does not seem to prevent or treat oral leukoplakia.
- Iron deficiency during pregnancy. Early research shows that taking riboflavin, iron, and folic acid by mouth does not increase iron levels in pregnant women more than taking just iron and folic acid.
- Sickle cell disease. Early research shows that taking riboflavin by mouth for 8 weeks increases iron levels in people with low iron levels due to sickle cell disease.
- Stroke. Early research shows that taking riboflavin and niacin by mouth does not prevent stroke-related death in people at risk for stroke.
- Boosting the immune system.
- Canker sores.
- Maintaining healthy skin and hair.
- Memory loss including Alzheimer's disease.
- Muscle cramps.
- Other conditions.
Special Precautions and Warnings
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Riboflavin is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth and used appropriately for pregnant or breast-feeding women. The recommended amounts are 1.4 mg per day for pregnant women and 1.6 mg per day in breast-feeding women. Riboflavin is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth in larger doses, short-term. Some research shows that riboflavin is safe when taken at a dose of 15 mg once every 2 weeks for 10 weeks.
Hepatitis, Cirrhosis, Billary obstruction: Riboflavin absorption is decreased in people with these conditions.
Drying medications (Anticholinergic drugs) interacts with RIBOFLAVIN
Some drying medications can affect the stomach and intestines. Taking these drying medications with riboflavin (vitamin B2) can increase the amount of riboflavin that is absorbed in the body. But it's not known if this interaction is important.
Medications for depression (Tricyclic antidepressants) interacts with RIBOFLAVIN
Some medications for depression can decrease the amount of riboflavin in the body. This interaction is not a big concern because it only occurs with very large amounts of some medications for depression.
Phenobarbital (Luminal) interacts with RIBOFLAVIN
Riboflavin is broken down by the body. Phenobarbital might increase how quickly riboflavin is broken down in the body. It is not clear if this interaction is significant.
Probenecid (Benemid) interacts with RIBOFLAVIN
Probenecid (Benemid) can increase how much riboflavin is in the body. This might cause there to be too much riboflavin in the body. But it's not known if this interaction is a big concern.
Be watchful with this combination
- General: The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of riboflavin for adults is 1.3 mg per day for males, 1.1 mg per day for women, 1.4 mg per day for pregnant females, and 1.6 mg per day for lactating women. There is no daily Upper Intake Levels (UL) for riboflavin, which is the highest level of intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects.
- For preventing and treating low levels of riboflavin (riboflavin deficiency): Riboflavin 5-30 mg daily has been used.
- For cataracts: A combination of riboflavin 3 mg plus niacin 40 mg daily for 5-6 years has been used.
- For high levels of homocysteine in the blood): Riboflavin 1.6 mg daily for 12 weeks has been used. A combination containing 75 mg of riboflavin, 0.4 mg of folic acid, and 120 mg of pyridoxine daily for 30 days has also been used.
- For migraine headaches: The most common dose is riboflavin 400 mg daily for at least three months. A specific product (Dolovent; Linpharma Inc., Oldsmar, FL ) dosed at two capsules in morning and two capsules in the evening for 3 months has also been used. This dose provides a total of riboflavin 400 mg, magnesium 600 mg, and coenzyme Q10 150 mg per day.
- General: The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of riboflavin is 0.3 mg per day for infants up to 6 months old, 0.4 mg per day for infants 6-12 months old, 0.5 mg per day for children 1-3 years old, 0.6 mg per day for children 4-8 years old, 0.9 mg per day for children 9-13 years old, 1.3 mg per day for males 14-18 years old, and 1.0 mg per day for females 14-18. There is no daily Upper Intake Levels (UL) for riboflavin, which is the highest level of intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects.
- For preventing and treating low levels of riboflavin (riboflavin deficiency): Riboflavin 2 mg once, then 0.5-1.5 mg daily for 14 days has been used. Riboflavin 2-5 mg daily for up to two months has been used. Riboflavin 5 mg five days per week for up to one year has also been used.
Ajayi, O. A., George, B. O., and Ipadeola, T. Clinical trial of riboflavin in sickle cell disease. East Afr.Med J 1993;70(7):418-421. View abstract.
Apeland, T., Mansoor, M. A., Pentieva, K., McNulty, H., Seljeflot, I., and Strandjord, R. E. The effect of B-vitamins on hyperhomocysteinemia in patients on antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsy Res 2002;51(3):237-247. View abstract.
Bamji, M. S. Vitamin deficiencies in rice-eating populations. Effects of B-vitamin supplements. Experientia Suppl 1983;44:245-263. View abstract.
Bamji, M. S., Sarma, K. V., and Radhaiah, G. Relationship between biochemical and clinical indices of B-vitamin deficiency. A study in rural school boys. Br J Nutr 1979;41(3):431-441. View abstract.
Bates, C. J., Evans, P. H., Allison, G., Sonko, B. J., Hoare, S., Goodrich, S., and Aspray, T. Biochemical indices and neuromuscular function tests in rural Gambian schoolchildren given a riboflavin, or multivitamin plus iron, supplement. Br.J.Nutr. 1994;72(4):601-610. View abstract.
Bates, C. J., Flewitt, A., Prentice, A. M., Lamb, W. H., and Whitehead, R. G. Efficacy of a riboflavin supplement given at fortnightly intervals to pregnant and lactating women in rural Gambia. Hum.Nutr Clin Nutr 1983;37(6):427-432. View abstract.
Bates, C. J., Powers, H. J., Lamb, W. H., Gelman, W., and Webb, E. Effect of supplementary vitamins and iron on malaria indices in rural Gambian children. Trans.R.Soc.Trop.Med.Hyg. 1987;81(2):286-291. View abstract.
Bates, C. J., Prentice, A. M., and Paul, A. A. Seasonal variations in vitamins A, C, riboflavin and folate intakes and status of pregnant and lactating women in a rural Gambian community: some possible implications. Eur.J Clin Nutr 1994;48(9):660-668. View abstract.
Benton, D., Haller, J., and Fordy, J. Vitamin supplementation for 1 year improves mood. Neuropsychobiology 1995;32(2):98-105. View abstract.
Blot, W. J., Li, J. Y., Taylor, P. R., Guo, W., Dawsey, S. M., and Li, B. The Linxian trials: mortality rates by vitamin-mineral intervention group. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62(6 Suppl):1424S-1426S. View abstract.
Brosnan, J. T. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: interactions between nutrition, genetics and lifestyle. Can.J Appl.Physiol 2004;29(6):773-780. View abstract.
Bugiani, M., Lamantea, E., Invernizzi, F., Moroni, I., Bizzi, A., Zeviani, M., and Uziel, G. Effects of riboflavin in children with complex II deficiency. Brain Dev 2006;28(9):576-581. View abstract.
Bwibo, N. O. and Neumann, C. G. The need for animal source foods by Kenyan children. J Nutr 2003;133(11 Suppl 2):3936S-3940S. View abstract.
Caporossi, A., Baiocchi, S., Mazzotta, C., Traversi, C., and Caporossi, T. Parasurgical therapy for keratoconus by riboflavin-ultraviolet type A rays induced cross-linking of corneal collagen: preliminary refractive results in an Italian study. J Cataract Refract.Surg. 2006;32(5):837-845. View abstract.
Charoenlarp, P., Pholpothi, T., Chatpunyaporn, P., and Schelp, F. P. The effect of riboflavin on the hematologic changes in iron supplementation of schoolchildren. Southeast Asian J.Trop.Med.Public Health 1980;11(1):97-103. View abstract.
Chen, R. D. [Chemoprevention of cervical cancer--intervention study of cervical precancerous lesions by retinamide II and riboflavin]. Zhonghua Zhong.Liu Za Zhi 1993;15(4):272-274. View abstract.
Cherstvova, L. G. [Biological role of vitamin B2 in iron deficiency anemia]. Gematol.Transfuziol. 1984;29(6):47-50. View abstract.
Ciliberto, H., Ciliberto, M., Briend, A., Ashorn, P., Bier, D., and Manary, M. Antioxidant supplementation for the prevention of kwashiorkor in Malawian children: randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. BMJ 5-14-2005;330(7500):1109. View abstract.
D'Avanzo, B., Ron, E., La, Vecchia C., Francaschi, S., Negri, E., and Zleglar, R. Selected micronutrient intake and thyroid carcinoma risk. Cancer 6-1-1997;79(11):2186-2192. View abstract.
Desai, I. D., Doell, A. M., Officiati, S. A., Bianco, A. M., Van, Severen Y., Desai, M. I., Jansen, E., and de Oliveira, J. E. Nutritional needs assessment of rural agricultural migrants of southern Brazil: designing, implementing and evaluating a nutrition education program. World Rev.Nutr Diet. 1990;61:64-131. View abstract.
Ding, Z., Gao, F., and Lin, P. [Long-term effect of treating patients with precancerous lesions of the esophagus]. Zhonghua Zhong.Liu Za Zhi 1999;21(4):275-277. View abstract.
Dyer, A. R., Elliott, P., Stamler, J., Chan, Q., Ueshima, H., and Zhou, B. F. Dietary intake in male and female smokers, ex-smokers, and never smokers: the INTERMAP study. J Hum.Hypertens. 2003;17(9):641-654. View abstract.
Evers, S. [Alternatives to beta blockers in preventive migraine treatment]. Nervenarzt 2008;79(10):1135-40, 1142. View abstract.
Figueiredo, J. C., Levine, A. J., Grau, M. V., Midttun, O., Ueland, P. M., Ahnen, D. J., Barry, E. L., Tsang, S., Munroe, D., Ali, I., Haile, R. W., Sandler, R. S., and Baron, J. A. Vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and risk of new colorectal adenomas in a randomized trial of aspirin use and folic acid supplementation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17(8):2136-2145. View abstract.
Fischer Walker, C. L., Baqui, A. H., Ahmed, S., Zaman, K., El, Arifeen S., Begum, N., Yunus, M., Black, R. E., and Caulfield, L. E. Low-dose weekly supplementation of iron and/or zinc does not affect growth among Bangladeshi infants. Eur.J Clin Nutr 2009;63(1):87-92. View abstract.
Gariballa, S. and Ullegaddi, R. Riboflavin status in acute ischaemic stroke. Eur.J Clin Nutr 2007;61(10):1237-1240. View abstract.
Hargreaves, M. K., Baquet, C., and Gamshadzahi, A. Diet, nutritional status, and cancer risk in American blacks. Nutr Cancer 1989;12(1):1-28. View abstract.
Head, K. A. Natural therapies for ocular disorders, part two: cataracts and glaucoma. Altern.Med.Rev. 2001;6(2):141-166. View abstract.
Heseker, H. and Kubler, W. Chronically increased vitamin intake and vitamin status of healthy men. Nutrition 1993;9(1):10-17. View abstract.
Holmlund, D. and Sjodin, J. G. Treatment of ureteral colic with intravenous indomethacin. J Urol. 1978;120(6):676-677. View abstract.
Hoppel, C. L. and Tandler, B. Riboflavin deficiency. Prog.Clin Biol.Res 1990;321:233-248. View abstract.
Hovi, L., Hekali, R., and Siimes, M. A. Evidence of riboflavin depletion in breast-fed newborns and its further acceleration during treatment of hyperbilirubinemia by phototherapy. Acta Paediatr.Scand. 1979;68(4):567-570. View abstract.
Hunt, I. F., Jacob, M., Ostegard, N. J., Masri, G., Clark, V. A., and Coulson, A. H. Effect of nutrition education on the nutritional status of low-income pregnant women of Mexican descent. Am J Clin Nutr 1976;29(6):675-684. View abstract.
Hustad, S., McKinley, M. C., McNulty, H., Schneede, J., Strain, J. J., Scott, J. M., and Ueland, P. M. Riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide in human plasma and erythrocytes at baseline and after low-dose riboflavin supplementation. Clin Chem 2002;48(9):1571-1577. View abstract.
Hustad, S., Ueland, P. M., Vollset, S. E., Zhang, Y., Bjorke-Monsen, A. L., and Schneede, J. Riboflavin as a determinant of plasma total homocysteine: effect modification by the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism. Clin Chem 2000;46(8 Pt 1):1065-1071. View abstract.
Igbedioh, S. O. Undernutrition in Nigeria: dimension, causes and remedies for alleviation in a changing socio-economic environment. Nutr Health 1993;9(1):1-14. View abstract.
Ito, K. and Kawanishi, S. [Photosensitized DNA damage: mechanisms and clinical use]. Nihon Rinsho 1996;54(11):3131-3142. View abstract.
Ito, K., Hiraku, Y., and Kawanishi, S. Photosensitized DNA damage induced by NADH: site specificity and mechanism. Free Radic.Res 2007;41(4):461-468. View abstract.
Kabat, G. C., Miller, A. B., Jain, M., and Rohan, T. E. Dietary intake of selected B vitamins in relation to risk of major cancers in women. Br.J.Cancer 9-2-2008;99(5):816-821. View abstract.
Kamangar, F., Qiao, Y. L., Yu, B., Sun, X. D., Abnet, C. C., Fan, J. H., Mark, S. D., Zhao, P., Dawsey, S. M., and Taylor, P. R. Lung cancer chemoprevention: a randomized, double-blind trial in Linxian, China. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(8):1562-1564. View abstract.
Kodentsova, V. M., Pustograev, N. N., Vrzhesinskaia, O. A., Kharitonchik, L. A., Pereverzeva, O. G., Iakushina, L. M., Trofimenko, L. S., and Spirichev, V. B. [Comparison of metabolism of water-soluble vitamins in healthy children and in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus depending upon the level of vitamins in the diet]. Vopr.Med Khim. 1996;42(2):153-158. View abstract.
Koller, T. and Seiler, T. [Therapeutic cross-linking of the cornea using riboflavin/UVA]. Klin Monbl.Augenheilkd. 2007;224(9):700-706. View abstract.
Koller, T., Mrochen, M., and Seiler, T. Complication and failure rates after corneal crosslinking. J Cataract Refract.Surg. 2009;35(8):1358-1362. View abstract.
Lakshmi, A. V. Riboflavin metabolism--relevance to human nutrition. Indian J Med Res 1998;108:182-190. View abstract.
Lin, P. [Medicamentous inhibitory therapy of precancerous lesions of the esophagus--3 and 5 year inhibitory effect of antitumor B, retinamide and riboflavin]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke.Xue Yuan Xue Bao 1990;12(4):235-245. View abstract.
Lin, P. Z., Zhang, J. S., Cao, S. G., Rong, Z. P., Gao, R. Q., Han, R., and Shu, S. P. [Secondary prevention of esophageal cancer--intervention on precancerous lesions of the esophagus]. Zhonghua Zhong.Liu Za Zhi 1988;10(3):161-166. View abstract.
Lin, P., Chen, Z., Hou, J., Liu, T., and Wang, J. [Chemoprevention of esophageal cancer]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke.Xue Yuan Xue Bao 1998;20(6):413-418. View abstract.
Lin, P., Zhang, J., Rong, Z., Han, R., Xu, S., Gao, R., Ding, Z., Wang, J., Feng, H., and Cao, S. Studies on medicamentous inhibitory therapy for esophageal precancerous lesions--3- and 5-year inhibitory effects of antitumor-B, retinamide and riboflavin. Proc.Chin Acad Med Sci Peking.Union Med Coll 1990;5(3):121-129. View abstract.
Liu, G., Lu, C., Yao, S., Zhao, F., Li, Y., Meng, X., Gao, J., Cai, J., Zhang, L., and Chen, Z. Radiosensitization mechanism of riboflavin in vitro. Sci China C.Life Sci 2002;45(4):344-352. View abstract.
Lo, C. S. Riboflavin status of adolescent southern Chinese: riboflavin saturation studies. Hum.Nutr Clin Nutr 1985;39(4):297-301. View abstract.
Lynch, S. Influence of infection/inflammation, thalassemia and nutritional status on iron absorption. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 2007;77(3):217-223. View abstract.
Ma, A. G., Schouten, E. G., Zhang, F. Z., Kok, F. J., Yang, F., Jiang, D. C., Sun, Y. Y., and Han, X. X. Retinol and riboflavin supplementation decreases the prevalence of anemia in Chinese pregnant women taking iron and folic Acid supplements. J Nutr 2008;138(10):1946-1950. View abstract.
Macdonald, H. M., McGuigan, F. E., Fraser, W. D., New, S. A., Ralston, S. H., and Reid, D. M. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism interacts with riboflavin intake to influence bone mineral density. Bone 2004;35(4):957-964. View abstract.
MacLennan, S. C., Wade, F. M., Forrest, K. M., Ratanayake, P. D., Fagan, E., and Antony, J. High-dose riboflavin for migraine prophylaxis in children: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Child Neurol. 2008;23(11):1300-1304. View abstract.
Madigan, S. M., Tracey, F., McNulty, H., Eaton-Evans, J., Coulter, J., McCartney, H., and Strain, J. J. Riboflavin and vitamin B-6 intakes and status and biochemical response to riboflavin supplementation in free-living elderly people. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68(2):389-395. View abstract.
Massiou, H. [Prophylactic treatments of migraine]. Rev.Neurol.(Paris) 2000;156 Suppl 4:4S79-4S86. View abstract.
Mattimoe, D. and Newton, W. High-dose riboflavin for migraine prophylaxis. J Fam.Pract. 1998;47(1):11. View abstract.
McNulty, H. and Scott, J. M. Intake and status of folate and related B-vitamins: considerations and challenges in achieving optimal status. Br J Nutr 2008;99 Suppl 3:S48-S54. View abstract.
McNulty, H., Dowey le, R. C., Strain, J. J., Dunne, A., Ward, M., Molloy, A. M., McAnena, L. B., Hughes, J. P., Hannon-Fletcher, M., and Scott, J. M. Riboflavin lowers homocysteine in individuals homozygous for the MTHFR 677C->T polymorphism. Circulation 1-3-2006;113(1):74-80. View abstract.
McNulty, H., McKinley, M. C., Wilson, B., McPartlin, J., Strain, J. J., Weir, D. G., and Scott, J. M. Impaired functioning of thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase is dependent on riboflavin status: implications for riboflavin requirements. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76(2):436-441. View abstract.
McNulty, H., Pentieva, K., Hoey, L., and Ward, M. Homocysteine, B-vitamins and CVD. Proc.Nutr Soc. 2008;67(2):232-237. View abstract.
Moat, S. J., Ashfield-Watt, P. A., Powers, H. J., Newcombe, R. G., and McDowell, I. F. Effect of riboflavin status on the homocysteine-lowering effect of folate in relation to the MTHFR (C677T) genotype. Clin Chem 2003;49(2):295-302. View abstract.
Modi, S. and Lowder, D. M. Medications for migraine prophylaxis. Am Fam.Physician 1-1-2006;73(1):72-78. View abstract.
Munoz, N., Wahrendorf, J., Bang, L. J., Crespi, M., Thurnham, D. I., Day, N. E., Ji, Z. H., Grassi, A., Yan, L. W., Lin, L. G., and . No effect of riboflavine, retinol, and zinc on prevalence of precancerous lesions of oesophagus. Randomised double-blind intervention study in high-risk population of China. Lancet 7-20-1985;2(8447):111-114. View abstract.
Navarro, M. and Wood, R. J. Plasma changes in micronutrients following a multivitamin and mineral supplement in healthy adults. J Am Coll Nutr 2003;22(2):124-132. View abstract.
Neugebauer, J., Zanre, Y., and Wacker, J. Riboflavin supplementation and preeclampsia. Int J Gynaecol.Obstet. 2006;93(2):136-137. View abstract.
Odigwe, C. C., Smedslund, G., Ejemot-Nwadiaro, R. I., Anyanechi, C. C., and Krawinkel, M. B. Supplementary vitamin E, selenium, cysteine and riboflavin for preventing kwashiorkor in preschool children in developing countries. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2010;(4):CD008147. View abstract.
Park, Y. H., de Groot, L. C., and van Staveren, W. A. Dietary intake and anthropometry of Korean elderly people: a literature review. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr 2003;12(3):234-242. View abstract.
Pascale, J. A., Mims, L. C., Greenberg, M. H., Gooden, D. S., and Chronister, E. Riboflaven and bilirubin response during phototherapy. Pediatr.Res 1976;10(10):854-856. View abstract.
Pinto, J. T. and Rivlin, R. S. Drugs that promote renal excretion of riboflavin. Drug Nutr Interact. 1987;5(3):143-151. View abstract.
Porcelli, P. J., Adcock, E. W., DelPaggio, D., Swift, L. L., and Greene, H. L. Plasma and urine riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in enterally fed very-low-birth-weight neonates. J Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr 1996;23(2):141-146. View abstract.
Powers, H. J. Riboflavin (vitamin B-2) and health. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77(6):1352-1360. View abstract.
Powers, H. J. Riboflavin-iron interactions with particular emphasis on the gastrointestinal tract. Proc.Nutr Soc 1995;54(2):509-517. View abstract.
Powers, H. J., Bates, C. J., Eccles, M., Brown, H., and George, E. Bicycling performance in Gambian children: effects of supplements of riboflavin or ascorbic acid. Hum.Nutr Clin Nutr 1987;41(1):59-69. View abstract.
Powers, H. J., Bates, C. J., Prentice, A. M., Lamb, W. H., Jepson, M., and Bowman, H. The relative effectiveness of iron and iron with riboflavin in correcting a microcytic anaemia in men and children in rural Gambia. Hum.Nutr.Clin.Nutr. 1983;37(6):413-425. View abstract.
Premkumar, V. G., Yuvaraj, S., Sathish, S., Shanthi, P., and Sachdanandam, P. Anti-angiogenic potential of CoenzymeQ10, riboflavin and niacin in breast cancer patients undergoing tamoxifen therapy. Vascul.Pharmacol. 2008;48(4-6):191-201. View abstract.
Premkumar, V. G., Yuvaraj, S., Shanthi, P., and Sachdanandam, P. Co-enzyme Q10, riboflavin and niacin supplementation on alteration of DNA repair enzyme and DNA methylation in breast cancer patients undergoing tamoxifen therapy. Br.J Nutr 2008;100(6):1179-1182. View abstract.
Premkumar, V. G., Yuvaraj, S., Vijayasarathy, K., Gangadaran, S. G., and Sachdanandam, P. Effect of coenzyme Q10, riboflavin and niacin on serum CEA and CA 15-3 levels in breast cancer patients undergoing tamoxifen therapy. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30(2):367-370. View abstract.
Premkumar, V. G., Yuvaraj, S., Vijayasarathy, K., Gangadaran, S. G., and Sachdanandam, P. Serum cytokine levels of interleukin-1beta, -6, -8, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor in breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen and supplemented with co-enzyme Q(10), riboflavin and niacin. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2007;100(6):387-391. View abstract.
Qu, C. X., Kamangar, F., Fan, J. H., Yu, B., Sun, X. D., Taylor, P. R., Chen, B. E., Abnet, C. C., Qiao, Y. L., Mark, S. D., and Dawsey, S. M. Chemoprevention of primary liver cancer: a randomized, double-blind trial in Linxian, China. J Natl.Cancer Inst. 8-15-2007;99(16):1240-1247. View abstract.
Riboflavin deficiency, galactose metabolism and cataract. Nutr Rev. 1976;34(3):77-79. View abstract.
Rosado, J. L., Bourges, H., and Saint-Martin, B. [Vitamin and mineral deficiency in Mexico. A critical review of the state of the art. II. Vitamin deficiency]. Salud Publica Mex. 1995;37(5):452-461. View abstract.
Rudolph, N., Parekh, A. J., Hittelman, J., Burdige, J., and Wong, S. L. Postnatal decline in pyridoxal phosphate and riboflavin. Accentuation by phototherapy. Am J Dis Child 1985;139(8):812-815. View abstract.
Sammon, A. M. and Alderson, D. Diet, reflux and the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus in Africa. Br J Surg. 1998;85(7):891-896. View abstract.
Sanchez-Castillo, C. P., Lara, J., Romero-Keith, J., Castorena, G., Villa, A. R., Lopez, N., Pedraza, J., Medina, O., Rodriguez, C., Chavez-Peon, Medina F., and James, W. P. Nutrition and cataract in low-income Mexicans: experience in an Eye camp. Arch.Latinoam.Nutr 2001;51(2):113-121. View abstract.
Sandor, P. S. and Afra, J. Nonpharmacologic treatment of migraine. Curr Pain Headache Rep 2005;9(3):202-205. View abstract.
Schindel, L. The placebo dilemma. Eur.J Clin Pharmacol 5-31-1978;13(3):231-235. View abstract.
Siassi, F. and Ghadirian, P. Riboflavin deficiency and esophageal cancer: a case control-household study in the Caspian Littoral of Iran. Cancer Detect.Prev 2005;29(5):464-469. View abstract.
Silberstein, S. D., Goadsby, P. J., and Lipton, R. B. Management of migraine: an algorithmic approach. Neurology 2000;55(9 Suppl 2):S46-S52. View abstract.
Singh, A., Moses, F. M., and Deuster, P. A. Vitamin and mineral status in physically active men: effects of a high-potency supplement. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55(1):1-7. View abstract.
Solomons, N. W. Micronutrients and urban life-style: lessons from Guatemala. Arch.Latinoam.Nutr 1997;47(2 Suppl 1):44-49. View abstract.
Spirichev, V. B., Kodentsova, V. M., Isaeva, V. A., Vrzhesinskaia, O. A., Sokol'nikov, A. A., Blazhevvich, N. V., and Beketova, N. A. [Vitamin status of the population from regions suffering from the accident at the Chernobyl power plant, and its correction with multivitamins "Duovit" and "Undevit" and multivitamin premix 730/4 of the firm "Roche"]. Vopr.Pitan. 1997;(3):11-16. View abstract.
Sporl, E., Raiskup-Wolf, F., and Pillunat, L. E. [Biophysical principles of collagen cross-linking]. Klin Monbl.Augenheilkd. 2008;225(2):131-137. View abstract.
Srihari, G., Eilander, A., Muthayya, S., Kurpad, A. V., and Seshadri, S. Nutritional status of affluent Indian school children: what and how much do we know? Indian Pediatr. 2007;44(3):204-213. View abstract.
Stott, D. J., MacIntosh, G., Lowe, G. D., Rumley, A., McMahon, A. D., Langhorne, P., Tait, R. C., O'Reilly, D. S., Spilg, E. G., MacDonald, J. B., MacFarlane, P. W., and Westendorp, R. G. Randomized controlled trial of homocysteine-lowering vitamin treatment in elderly patients with vascular disease. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2005;82(6):1320-1326. View abstract.
Stracciari, A., D'Alessandro, R., Baldin, E., and Guarino, M. Post-transplant headache: benefit from riboflavin. Eur.Neurol. 2006;56(4):201-203. View abstract.
Strain, J. J., Dowey, L., Ward, M., Pentieva, K., and McNulty, H. B-vitamins, homocysteine metabolism and CVD. Proc.Nutr Soc 2004;63(4):597-603. View abstract.
Suboticanec, K., Stavljenic, A., Schalch, W., and Buzina, R. Effects of pyridoxine and riboflavin supplementation on physical fitness in young adolescents. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res. 1990;60(1):81-88. View abstract.
Sun-Edelstein, C. and Mauskop, A. Foods and supplements in the management of migraine headaches. Clin J Pain 2009;25(5):446-452. View abstract.
Taylor, P. R., Li, B., Dawsey, S. M., Li, J. Y., Yang, C. S., Guo, W., and Blot, W. J. Prevention of esophageal cancer: the nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China. Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials Study Group. Cancer Res 4-1-1994;54(7 Suppl):2029s-2031s. View abstract.
Tepper, S. J. Complementary and alternative treatments for childhood headaches. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2008;12(5):379-383. View abstract.
Trygg, K., Lund-Larsen, K., Sandstad, B., Hoffman, H. J., Jacobsen, G., and Bakketeig, L. S. Do pregnant smokers eat differently from pregnant non-smokers? Paediatr.Perinat.Epidemiol 1995;9(3):307-319. View abstract.
Turkki, P. R., Ingerman, L., Schroeder, L. A., Chung, R. S., Chen, M., Russo-McGraw, M. A., and Dearlove, J. Riboflavin intakes and status of morbidly obese females during the first postoperative year following gastroplasty. J Am Coll Nutr 1990;9(6):588-599. View abstract.
van der Beek, E. J., van, Dokkum W., Schrijver, J., Wedel, M., Gaillard, A. W., Wesstra, A., van de Weerd, H., and Hermus, R. J. Thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamins B-6 and C: impact of combined restricted intake on functional performance in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;48(6):1451-1462. View abstract.
van der Beek, E. J., van, Dokkum W., Wedel, M., Schrijver, J., and Van den Berg, H. Thiamin, riboflavin and vitamin B6: impact of restricted intake on physical performance in man. J Am Coll Nutr 1994;13(6):629-640. View abstract.
Wadhwa, A., Sabharwal, M., and Sharma, S. Nutritional status of the elderly. Indian J Med Res 1997;106:340-348. View abstract.
Wahrendorf, J., Munoz, N., Lu, J. B., Thurnham, D. I., Crespi, M., and Bosch, F. X. Blood, retinol and zinc riboflavin status in relation to precancerous lesions of the esophagus: findings from a vitamin intervention trial in the People's Republic of China. Cancer Res 4-15-1988;48(8):2280-2283. View abstract.
Wang, Z. Y. [Chemoprevention in the high incidence area of lung cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong.Liu Za Zhi 1989;11(3):207-210. View abstract.
Williams, P. G. Vitamin retention in cook/chill and cook/hot-hold hospital food-services. J Am Diet.Assoc. 1996;96(5):490-498. View abstract.
Wittig-Silva, C., Whiting, M., Lamoureux, E., Lindsay, R. G., Sullivan, L. J., and Snibson, G. R. A randomized controlled trial of corneal collagen cross-linking in progressive keratoconus: preliminary results. J Refract.Surg. 2008;24(7):S720-S725. View abstract.
Wollensak, G. Crosslinking treatment of progressive keratoconus: new hope. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2006;17(4):356-360. View abstract.
Wollensak, G., Spoerl, E., and Seiler, T. Riboflavin/ultraviolet-a-induced collagen crosslinking for the treatment of keratoconus. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;135(5):620-627. View abstract.
Wollensak, G., Sporl, E., and Seiler, T. [Treatment of keratoconus by collagen cross linking]. Ophthalmologe 2003;100(1):44-49. View abstract.
Woolhouse, M. Migraine and tension headache--a complementary and alternative medicine approach. Aust Fam.Physician 2005;34(8):647-651. View abstract.
Wynn, M. and Wynn, A. Can improved diet contribute to the prevention of cataract? Nutr Health 1996;11(2):87-104. View abstract.
Yoon, H. R., Hahn, S. H., Ahn, Y. M., Jang, S. H., Shin, Y. J., Lee, E. H., Ryu, K. H., Eun, B. L., Rinaldo, P., and Yamaguchi, S. Therapeutic trial in the first three Asian cases of ethylmalonic encephalopathy: response to riboflavin. J Inherit.Metab Dis 2001;24(8):870-873. View abstract.
Zaridze, D. G., Kuvshinov, J. P., Matiakin, E., Polakov, B. I., Boyle, P., and Blettner, M. Chemoprevention of oral and esophageal cancer in Uzbekistan, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Natl.Cancer Inst.Monogr 1985;69:259-262. View abstract.
Zaridze, D., Evstifeeva, T., and Boyle, P. Chemoprevention of oral leukoplakia and chronic esophagitis in an area of high incidence of oral and esophageal cancer. Ann.Epidemiol 1993;3(3):225-234. View abstract.
Zempleni, J., Galloway, J. R., and McCormick, D. B. Pharmacokinetics of orally and intravenously administered riboflavin in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63(1):54-66. View abstract.
Zempleni, J., Galloway, J. R., and McCormick, D. B. The identification and kinetics of 7 alpha-hydroxyriboflavin (7-hydroxymethylriboflavin) in blood plasma from humans following oral administration of riboflavin supplements. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 1996;66(2):151-157. View abstract.
Ahmed F, Bamji MS, Iyengar L. Effect of oral contraceptive agents on vitamin nutrition status. Am J Clin Nutr 1975;28:606-15.. View abstract.
Bell IR, Edman JS, Morrow FD, et al. Brief communication. Vitamin B1, B2, and B6 augmentation of tricyclic antidepressant treatment in geriatric depression with cognitive dysfunction. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:159-63.. View abstract.
Blot WJ, Li JY, Taylor PR. Nutritional intervention trials in Linxian, China: supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993;85:1483-92. View abstract.
Boehnke C, Reuter U, Flach U, et al. High-dose riboflavin treatment is efficacious in migraine prophylaxis: an open study in a tertiary care centre. Eur J Neurol 2004;11:475-7. View abstract.
Briggs M. Oral contraceptives and vitamin nutrition (letter). Lancet 1974;1:1234-5. View abstract.
Cumming RG, Mitchell P, Smith W. Diet and cataract: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 2000;10:450-6. View abstract.
Dalton SD, Rahimi AR. Emerging role of riboflavin in the treatment of nucleoside analogue-induced type B lactic acidosis. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2001;15:611-4.. View abstract.
Dietary reference intakes (DRIs): estimated average requirements. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academics. https://www.nal.usda.gov/sites/default/files/fnic_uploads//recommended_intakes_individuals.pdf Accessed July 24, 2017.
Dutta P, Pinto J, Rivlin R. Antimalarial effects of riboflavin deficiency. Lancet 1985;2:1040-3. View abstract.
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
Fairweather-Tait SJ, Powers HJ, Minski MJ, et al. Riboflavin deficiency and iron absorption in adult Gambian men. Ann Nutr Metab. 1992;36(1):34-40. View abstract.
Fishman SM, Christian P, West KP. The role of vitamins in the prevention and control of anaemia. Public Health Nutr 2000;3:125-50.. View abstract.
Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (2000). Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. Available at: https://books.nap.edu/books/0309065542/html/.
Fouty B, Frerman F, Reves R. Riboflavin to treat nucleoside analogue-induced lactic acidosis. Lancet 1998;352:291-2. View abstract.
Gaul C, Diener HC, Danesch U; Migravent Study Group. Improvement of migraine symptoms with a proprietary supplement containing riboflavin, magnesium and Q10: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter trial. J Headache and Pain. 2015;16:516. View abstract.
Gupta SK, Gupta RC, Seth AK, Gupta A. Reversal of fluorosis in children. Acta Paediatr Jpn 1996;38:513-9. View abstract.
Hamajima S, Ono S, Hirano H, Obara K. Induction of the FAD synthetase system in rat liver by phenobarbital administration. Int J Vit Nutr Res 1979;49:59-63.. View abstract.
Hardman JG, Limbird LL, Molinoff PB, eds. Goodman and Gillman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.
Hernandez BY, McDuffie K, Wilkens LR, et al. Diet and premalignant lesions of the cervix: evidence of a protective role for folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin B12. Cancer Causes Control 2003;14:859-70. View abstract.
Hill MJ. Intestinal flora and endogenous vitamin synthesis. Eur J Cancer Prev 1997;6:S43-5. View abstract.
Holland S, Silberstein SD, Freitag F, et al. Evidence-based guideline update: NSAIDs and other complementary treatments for episodic migraine prevention in adults: Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Headache Society. Neurology 2012;78:1346-53. View abstract.
Jacques PF, Taylor A, Moeller S, et al. Long-term nutrient intake and 5-year change in nuclear lens opacities. Arch Ophthalmol 2005;123:517-26. View abstract.
Jusko WJ, Levy G, Yaffe SJ, Gorodischer R. Effect of probenecid on renal clearance of riboflavin in man.J Pharm Sci 1970;59:473-7. View abstract.
Jusko WJ, Levy G. Effect of probenecid on riboflavin absorption and excretion in man. J Pharm Sci 1967;56:1145-9. View abstract.
Kastrup EK. Drug Facts and Comparisons. 1998 ed. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, 1998.
Kulkarni PM, Schuman PC, Merlino NS, Kinzie JL. Lactic acidosis and hepatic steatosis in HIV seropositive patients treated with nucleoside analogues. Natl AIDS Treatment Advocacy Project. Dig Disease Week Liver Conf, San Diego,CA. 2000;May 21-4:Rep11.
Kunsman GW, Levine B, Smith ML. Vitamin B2 interference with TDx drugs-of-abuse assays. J Forensic Sci 1998;43:1225-7. View abstract.
Leeson LJ, Weidenheimer JF. Stability of tetracycline and riboflavin. J Pharm Sci. 1969;58(3):355-7. View abstract.
Lewis CM, King JC. Effect of oral contraceptive agents on thiamin, riboflavin, and pantothenic acid status in young women. Am J Clin Nutr 1980;33:832-8.. View abstract.
Maizels M, Blumenfeld A, Burchette R. A combination of riboflavin, magnesium, and feverfew for migraine prophylaxis: a randomized trial. Headache 2004;44:885-90. View abstract.
Mark SD, Wang W, Fraumeni JF Jr, et al. Do nutritional supplements lower the risk of stroke or hypertension? Epidemiology 1998;9:9-15. View abstract.
McCormick DB. Riboflavin. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1999. pg.391-9.
Mooij PN, Thomas CM, Doesburg WH, Eskes TK. Multivitamin supplementation in oral contraceptive users. Contraception 1991;44:277-88. View abstract.
Naghashpour M, Majdinasab N, Shakerinejad G, et al. Riboflavin supplementation to patients with multiple sclerosis does not improve disability status nor is riboflavin supplementation correlated to homocysteine. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2013;83(5):281-90. View abstract.
Negri E, Franceschi S, Bosetti C, et al. Selected micronutrients and oral and pharyngeal cancer. Int J Cancer 2000;86:122-7.. View abstract.
Newman LJ, Lopez R, Cole HS, et al. Riboflavin deficiency in women taking oral contraceptive agents. Am J Clin Nutr 1978;31:247-9.. View abstract.
Nimmo WS. Drugs, diseases, and altered gastric emptying. Clin Pharmacokinet 1967;1:189-203. View abstract.
Ogura R, Ueta H, Hino Y, et al. Riboflavin deficiency caused by treatment with adriamycin. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 1991;37:473-7.. View abstract.
Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Hydroxylation of the 7- and 8-methyl groups of riboflavin by the microsomal electron transfer system of rat liver. J Biol Chem 1983;258:5629-33.. View abstract.
Pelliccione N, Pinto J, Huang YP, Rivlin RS. Accelerated development of riboflavin deficiency by treatment with chlorpromazine. Biochem Pharmacol 1983;32:2949-53.. View abstract.
Pinto J, Huang YP, Pelliccione N, Rivlin RS. Adriamycin inhibits flavin synthesis in heart: possible relation to cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines (abstract). Clin Res 1983;31;467A.
Pinto J, Huang YP, Pelliccione N, Rivlin RS. Cardiac sensitivity to the inhibitory effects of chlorpromazine, imipramine, and amitriptyline upon formation of flavins. Biochem Pharmacol 1982;31:3495-9.. View abstract.
Pinto J, Huang YP, Rivlin RS. Inhibition of riboflavin metabolism in rat tissues by chlorpromazine, imipramine and amitriptyline. J Clin Invest 1981;67:1500-6. View abstract.
Pinto J, Raiczyk GB, Huang YP, Rivlin RS. New approaches to the possible prevention of side effects of chemotherapy by nutrition. Cancer 1986;58:1911-4.. View abstract.
Pringsheim T, Davenport W, Mackie G, et al. Canadian Headache Society guideline for migraine prophylaxis. Can J Neurol.Sci 2012;39:S1-59. View abstract.
Raiczyk GB, Dutta P, Pinto J. Chlorpromazine and quinacrine inhibit flavin adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis in skeletal muscle. Physiologist 1985;28:322.
Raiczyk GB, Pinto J. Inhibition of flavin metabolism by adriamycin in skeletal muscle. Biochem Pharmacol 1988;37:1741-4.. View abstract.
Roe DA, Bogusz S, Sheu J, et al. Factors affecting riboflavin requirements of oral contraceptive users and non-users. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;35:495-501.. View abstract.
Roe DA, Kalkwarf H, Stevens J. Effect of fiber supplements on the apparent absorption of pharmacological doses of riboflavin. J Am Diet Assoc 1988;88:211-3.. View abstract.
Sandor PS, Afra J, Ambrosini A, Schoenen J. Prophylactic treatment of migraine with beta-blockers and riboflavin: differential effects on the intensity dependence of auditory evoked cortical potentials. Headache 2000;40:30-5. View abstract.
Sandor PS, Di Clemente L, Coppola G, et al. Efficacy of coenzyme Q10 in migraine prophylaxis: A randomized controlled trial. Neurology 2005;64:713-5. View abstract.
Sanpitak N, Chayutimonkul L. Oral contraceptives and riboflavin nutrition. Lancet 1974;1:836-7. View abstract.
Sazawal S, Black RE, Menon VP, et al. Zinc supplementation in infants born small for gestational age reduces mortality: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2001;108:1280-6. View abstract.
Schoenen J, Jacquy J, Lenaerts M. Effectiveness of high-dose riboflavin in migraine prophylaxis. A randomized controlled trial. Neurology 1998;50:466-70. View abstract.
Schoenen J, Lenaerts M, Bastings E. High-dose riboflavin as a prophylactic treatment of migraine: results of an open pilot study. Cephalalgia 1994;14:328-9. View abstract.
Shargel L, Mazel P. Effect of riboflavin deficiency on phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene induction of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes of the rat. Biochem Pharmacol. 1973;22(19):2365-73. View abstract.
Skalka HW, Prchal JT. Cataracts and riboflavin deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:861-3.. View abstract.
Sperduto RD, Hu TS, Milton RC, et al. The Linxian cataract studies. Two nutrition intervention trials. Arch Ophthalmol 1993;111:1246-53. View abstract.
Tyrer LB. Nutrition and the pill. J Reprod Med 1984;29:547-50.. View abstract.
Vir SC, Love AH. Riboflavin nutriture of oral contraceptive users. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1979;49:286-90.. View abstract.
Wang GQ, Dawsey SM, Li JY, et al. Effects of vitamin/mineral supplementation on the prevalence of histological dysplasia and early cancer of the esophagus and stomach: results from the General Population Trial in Linxian, China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1994;3:161-6. View abstract.
Wilson CP, McNulty H, Ward M, et al. Blood pressure in treated hypertensive individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype is responsive to intervention with riboflavin: findings of a targeted randomized trial. Hypertension. 2013;61(6):1302-8. View abstract.
Wilson CP, Ward M, McNulty H, et al. Riboflavin offers a targeted strategy for managing hypertension in patients with the MTHFR 677TT genotype: a 4-y follow-up. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95(3):766-72. View abstract.
Yanagawa N, Shih RN, Jo OD, Said HM. Riboflavin transport by isolated perfused rabbit renal proximal tubules. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2000;279:C1782-6.. View abstract.
Yates AA, Schlicker SA, Suitor CW. Dietary reference intakes: The new basis for recommendations for calcium and related nutrients, B vitamins, and choline. J Am Diet Assoc 1998;98:699-706. View abstract.
Young DS. Effects of Drugs on Clinical Laboratory Tests 4th ed. Washington: AACC Press, 1995.
Select a condition to view a list of vitamins
You Might Also Like
CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.
This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2020.