Aneurine Hydrochloride, Antiberiberi Factor, Antiberiberi Vitamin, Antineuritic Factor, Antineuritic Vitamin, B Complex Vitamin, Chlorhydrate de Thiamine, Chlorure de Thiamine, Complexe de Vitamine B, Facteur Anti-béribéri, Facteur Antineuritique, Hydrochlorure de Thiamine, Mononitrate de Thiamine, Nitrate de Thiamine, Thiamine Chloride, Thiamine HCl, Thiamine Hydrochloride, Thiamin Mononitrate, Thiamine Mononitrate, Thiamine Nitrate, Thiaminium Chloride Hydrochloride, Tiamina, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B-1, Vitamina B1, Vitamine Anti-béribéri, Vitamine Antineuritique, Vitamine B1.<br/><br/>


Overview Information

Thiamine is a vitamin, also called vitamin B1. Vitamin B1 is found in many foods including yeast, cereal grains, beans, nuts, and meat. It is often used in combination with other B vitamins, and found in many vitamin B complex products. Vitamin B complexes generally include vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin/niacinamide), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), and folic acid. However, some products do not contain all of these ingredients and some may include others, such as biotin, para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), choline bitartrate, and inositol.

People take thiamine for conditions related to low levels of thiamine (thiamine deficiency syndromes), including beriberi and inflammation of the nerves (neuritis) associated with pellagra or pregnancy.

Thiamine is also used for digestive problems including poor appetite, ulcerative colitis, and ongoing diarrhea.

Thiamine is also used for AIDS and boosting the immune system, diabetic pain, heart disease, alcoholism, aging, a type of brain damage called cerebellar syndrome, canker sores, vision problems such as cataracts and glaucoma, motion sickness, and improving athletic performance. Other uses include preventing cervical cancer and progression of kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Some people use thiamine for maintaining a positive mental attitude; enhancing learning abilities; increasing energy; fighting stress; and preventing memory loss, including Alzheimer's disease.

Healthcare providers give thiamine shots for a memory disorder called Wernicke's encephalopathy syndrome, other thiamine deficiency syndromes in critically ill people, alcohol withdrawal, and coma.

How does it work?

Thiamine is required by our bodies to properly use carbohydrates.


Uses & Effectiveness?

Effective for

  • Metabolic disorders. Taking thiamine by mouth helps correct metabolic disorders associated with genetic diseases, including Leigh's disease, maple syrup urine disease, and others.
  • Thiamine deficiency. Taking thiamine by mouth helps prevent and treat thiamine deficiency.
  • Brain disorder due to thiamine deficiency (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome). Thiamine helps decrease the risk and symptoms of a specific brain disorder called Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). This brain disorder is related to low levels of thiamine (thiamine deficiency) and is often seen in alcoholics. Between 30% and 80% of alcoholics are believed to have thiamine deficiency. Giving thiamine shots seems to help decrease the risk of developing WKS and decrease symptoms of WKS during alcohol withdrawal.

Possibly Effective for

  • Cataracts. High thiamine intake as part of the diet is associated with a reduced risk of developing cataracts.
  • Kidney disease in people with diabetes. Early research shows that taking high-dose thiamine (100 mg three times daily) for 3 months decreases the amount of albumin in the urine in people with type 2 diabetes. Albumin in the urine is an indication of kidney damage.
  • Painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea). Early research suggests that taking thiamine for 90 days stops pain associated with menstruation in girls 12-21 years-old.

Possibly Ineffective for

  • Repelling mosquitos. Some research shows that taking B vitamins, including thiamine, does not help repel mosquitos.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Athletic performance. Some research suggests that taking thiamine together with pantethine and pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) does not improve muscle strength or endurance in athletes.
  • Preventing cervical cancer. Some research suggests that increasing intake of thiamine from dietary and supplement sources, along with other folic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin B12, might decrease the risk of precancerous spots on the cervix.
  • Poor appetite.
  • Ulcerative colitis.
  • Chronic diarrhea.
  • Stomach problems.
  • Brain conditions.
  • AIDS.
  • Heart disease.
  • Alcoholism.
  • Stress.
  • Aging.
  • Canker sores.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate thiamine for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Thiamine is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in appropriate amounts, although rare allergic reactions and skin irritation have occurred. It is also LIKELY SAFE when given appropriately intravenously (by IV) by a healthcare provider. Thiamine shots are an FDA-approved prescription product.

Thiamine might not properly enter the body in some people who have liver problems, drink a lot of alcohol, or have other conditions.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Thiamine is LIKELY SAFE for pregnant or breast-feeding women when taken in the recommended amount of 1.4 mg daily. Not enough is known about the safety of using larger amounts during pregnancy or breast-feeding.



We currently have no information for THIAMINE (VITAMIN B1) Interactions.



The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


  • For adults with somewhat low levels of thiamine in their body (mild thiamine deficiency): the usual dose of thiamine is 5-30 mg daily in either a single dose or divided doses for one month. The typical dose for severe deficiency can be up to 300 mg per day.
  • For reducing the risk of getting cataracts: a daily dietary intake of approximately 10 mg of thiamine.
As a dietary supplement in adults, 1-2 mg of thiamine per day is commonly used. The daily recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) of thiamine are: Infants 0-6 months, 0.2 mg; infants 7-12 months, 0.3 mg; children 1-3 years, 0.5 mg; children 4-8 years, 0.6 mg; boys 9-13 years, 0.9 mg; men 14 years and older, 1.2 mg; girls 9-13 years, 0.9 mg; women 14-18 years, 1 mg; women over 18 years, 1.1 mg; pregnant women, 1.4 mg; and breast-feeding women, 1.5 mg.

  • Healthcare providers give thiamine shots for treating and preventing symptoms of alcohol withdrawal (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome).

View References


  • Palsson, A. The efficacy of early chlormethiazole medication in the prevention of delirium tremens. A retrospective study of the outcome of different drug treatment strategies at the Helsingborg psychiatric clinics, 1975-1980. Acta Psychiatr.Scand Suppl 1986;329:140-145. View abstract.
  • Poppell, T. D., Keeling, S. D., Collins, J. F., and Hassell, T. M. Effect of folic acid on recurrence of phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth following gingivectomy. J Clin Periodontol. 1991;18(2):134-139. View abstract.
  • Poutanen, P. Experience with carbamazepine in the treatment of withdrawal symptoms in alcohol abusers. Br J Addict.Alcohol Other Drugs 1979;74(2):201-204. View abstract.
  • Proctor, M. L. and Farquhar, C. M. Dysmenorrhoea. Clin Evid (Online) 2007;2007 View abstract.
  • Proctor, M. L. and Murphy, P. A. Herbal and dietary therapies for primary and secondary dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2001;(3):CD002124. View abstract.
  • Prough, D. S., Roy, R., Bumgarner, J., and Shannon, G. Acute pulmonary edema in healthy teenagers following conservative doses of intravenous naloxone. Anesthesiology 1984;60(5):485-486. View abstract.
  • Pulsinelli, W. A., Levy, D. E., Sigsbee, B., Scherer, P., and Plum, F. Increased damage after ischemic stroke in patients with hyperglycemia with or without established diabetes mellitus. Am J Med 1983;74(4):540-544. View abstract.
  • Pulsinelli, W. A., Waldman, S., Rawlinson, D., and Plum, F. Moderate hyperglycemia augments ischemic brain damage: a neuropathologic study in the rat. Neurology 1982;32(11):1239-1246. View abstract.
  • Rado, J. P. Effect of mineralocorticoids on the paradoxical glucose-induced hyperkalemia in nondiabetic patients with selective hypoaldosteronism. Res Commun Chem Pathol.Pharmacol 1977;18(2):365-368. View abstract.
  • Radouco-Thomas, S., Garcin, F., Guay, D., Marquis, P. A., Chabot, F., Huot, J., Chawla, S., Forest, J. C., Martin, S., Stewart, G., and . Double blind study on the efficacy and safety of tetrabamate and chlordiazepoxide in the treatment of the acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Prog.Neuropsychopharmacol.Biol Psychiatry 1989;13(1-2):55-75. View abstract.
  • Ralston, A. J., Snaith, R. P., and Hinley, J. B. Effects of folic acid on fit-frequency and behaviour in epileptics on anticonvulsants. Lancet 4-25-1970;1(7652):867-868. View abstract.
  • Ranganathan, L. N. and Ramaratnam, S. Vitamins for epilepsy. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2005;(2):CD004304. View abstract.
  • Reuler, J. B., Girard, D. E., and Cooney, T. G. Current concepts. Wernicke's encephalopathy. N.Engl J Med 4-18-1985;312(16):1035-1039. View abstract.
  • Rieck, J., Halkin, H., Almog, S., Seligman, H., Lubetsky, A., Olchovsky, D., and Ezra, D. Urinary loss of thiamine is increased by low doses of furosemide in healthy volunteers. J Lab Clin Med 1999;134(3):238-243. View abstract.
  • Rindi, G. and Laforenza, U. Thiamine intestinal transport and related issues: recent aspects. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 2000;224(4):246-255. View abstract.
  • Ritson, B. and Chick, J. Comparison of two benzodiazepines in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal: effects on symptoms and cognitive recovery. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1986;18(4):329-334. View abstract.
  • Robinson, B. H., MacKay, N., Chun, K., and Ling, M. Disorders of pyruvate carboxylase and the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. J Inherit.Metab Dis 1996;19(4):452-462. View abstract.
  • Robinson, B. J., Robinson, G. M., Maling, T. J., and Johnson, R. H. Is clonidine useful in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal? Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1989;13(1):95-98. View abstract.
  • Rock, P., Silverman, H., Plump, D., Kecala, Z., Smith, P., Michael, J. R., and Summer, W. Efficacy and safety of naloxone in septic shock. Crit Care Med 1985;13(1):28-33. View abstract.
  • Rodriguez-Martin, J. L., Lopez-Arrieta, J. M., and Qizilbash, N. Thiamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database.Syst.Rev 2000;(2):CD001498. View abstract.
  • Rodriguez-Martin, J. L., Qizilbash, N., and Lopez-Arrieta, J. M. Thiamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database.Syst.Rev 2001;(2):CD001498. View abstract.
  • Rogovik, A. L., Vohra, S., and Goldman, R. D. Safety considerations and potential interactions of vitamins: should vitamins be considered drugs? Ann.Pharmacother. 2010;44(2):311-324. View abstract.
  • Roje, S. Vitamin B biosynthesis in plants. Phytochemistry 2007;68(14):1904-1921. View abstract.
  • ROSENFELD, J. E. and BIZZOCO, D. H. A controlled study of alcohol withdrawal. Q.J Stud.Alcohol 1961;Suppl 1:77-84. View abstract.
  • Rothstein, E. Prevention of alcohol withdrawal seizures: the roles of diphenylhydantoin and chlordiazepoxide. Am J Psychiatry 1973;130(12):1381-1382. View abstract.
  • Saris, W. H., Schrijver, J., van Erp Baart, M. A., and Brouns, F. Adequacy of vitamin supply under maximal sustained workloads: the Tour de France. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res Suppl 1989;30:205-212. View abstract.
  • Sarma, S. and Gheorghiade, M. Nutritional assessment and support of the patient with acute heart failure. Curr.Opin.Crit Care 2010;16(5):413-418. View abstract.
  • Schiff, L. Collapse following parenteral administration of solution of thiamine hydrochloride. JAMA 1941;117:609.
  • Schmitz, R. E. The prevention and management of the acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome by the use of alcohol. Curr Alcohol 1977;3:575-589.
  • Seibert, D. G. Reversible decerebrate posturing secondary to hypoglycemia. Am J Med 1985;78(6 Pt 1):1036-1037. View abstract.
  • Seifert, B., Wagler, P., Dartsch, S., Schmidt, U., and Nieder, J. [Magnesium--a new therapeutic alternative in primary dysmenorrhea]. Zentralbl.Gynakol. 1989;111(11):755-760. View abstract.
  • Sellers, E. M., Cooper, S. D., Zilm, D. H., and Shanks, C. Lithium treatment during alcoholic withdrawal. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1976;20(2):199-206. View abstract.
  • Sellers, E. M., Zilm, D. H., and Degani, N. C. Comparative efficacy of propranolol and chlordiazepoxide in alcohol withdrawal. J Stud.Alcohol 1977;38(11):2096-2108. View abstract.
  • Sica, D. A. Loop diuretic therapy, thiamine balance, and heart failure. Congest.Heart Fail. 2007;13(4):244-247. View abstract.
  • Siemkowicz, E. and Gjedde, A. Post-ischemic coma in rat: effect of different pre-ischemic blood glucose levels on cerebral metabolic recovery after ischemia. Acta Physiol Scand 1980;110(3):225-232. View abstract.
  • Sillanpaa, M. and Sonck, T. Finnish experiences with carbamazepine (Tegretol) in the treatment of acute withdrawal symptoms in alcoholics. J Int Med Res 1979;7(3):168-173. View abstract.
  • Simpson, R. K., Fitz, E., Scott, B., and Walker, L. Delirium tremens: a preventable iatrogenic and environmental phenomenon. J Am Osteopath.Assoc 1968;68(2):123-130. View abstract.
  • Singleton, C. K. and Martin, P. R. Molecular mechanisms of thiamine utilization. Curr Mol.Med 2001;1(2):197-207. View abstract.
  • Smit, A. J. and Gerrits, E. G. Skin autofluorescence as a measure of advanced glycation endproduct deposition: a novel risk marker in chronic kidney disease. Curr Opin.Nephrol.Hypertens. 2010;19(6):527-533. View abstract.
  • Sohrabvand, F., Shariat, M., and Haghollahi, F. Vitamin B supplementation for leg cramps during pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol.Obstet. 2006;95(1):48-49. View abstract.
  • Sonck, T., Malinen, L., and Janne, J. Carbamazepine in the treatment of acute withdrawal syndrome in alcoholics: methodological aspects. In: Rationality of Drug Development: Exerpta Medica International Congress Series No. 38. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Exerpta Medica;1976.
  • Soukoulis, V., Dihu, J. B., Sole, M., Anker, S. D., Cleland, J., Fonarow, G. C., Metra, M., Pasini, E., Strzelczyk, T., Taegtmeyer, H., and Gheorghiade, M. Micronutrient deficiencies an unmet need in heart failure. J Am Coll.Cardiol. 10-27-2009;54(18):1660-1673. View abstract.
  • Sperl, W. [Diagnosis and therapy of mitochondriopathies]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2-14-1997;109(3):93-99. View abstract.
  • Stanhope, J. M. and McCaskie, C. S. Assessment method and medication requirement in chlormethoazole detoxification from alcohol. Aust Drug Alcohol Rev 1986;5:273-277.
  • Stiles, M. H. Hypersensitivity to thiamine chloride with a note on sensitivity to pyridoxine hydrochloride. J Allergy 1941;12:507-509.
  • Stojek, A. and Napierala, K. Physostigmine in eyedrops decreases craving for alcohol in early withdrawal treated with carbamazepine. Mater.Med Pol. 1986;18(4):249-254. View abstract.
  • Stojek, A., Bilikiewicz, A., and Lerch, A. Carbamazepine and physostigmine eyedrops in the treatment of early alcohol withdrawal and alcohol-related hypertension. Psychiatr.Pol. 1987;21(5):369-375. View abstract.
  • Such, Diaz A., Sanchez, Gil C., Gomis, Munoz P., and Herreros de, Tejada A. [Vitamins stability in parenteral nutrition]. Nutr Hosp. 2009;24(1):1-9. View abstract.
  • Sumner, A. D. and Simons, R. J. Delirium in the hospitalized elderly. Cleve.Clin J Med 1994;61(4):258-262. View abstract.
  • Suzuki, S. [Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy]. Nippon Rinsho 2005;63 Suppl 6:103-110. View abstract.
  • Taff, R. H. Pulmonary edema following naloxone administration in a patient without heart disease. Anesthesiology 1983;59(6):576-577. View abstract.
  • Tallaksen, C. M., Sande, A., Bohmer, T., Bell, H., and Karlsen, J. Kinetics of thiamin and thiamin phosphate esters in human blood, plasma and urine after 50 mg intravenously or orally. Eur.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 1993;44(1):73-78. View abstract.
  • Tanaka, G. Y. Letter: Hypertensive reaction to naloxone. JAMA 4-1-1974;228(1):25-26. View abstract.
  • Tanaka, K., Kean, E. A., and Johnson, B. Jamaican vomiting sickness. Biochemical investigation of two cases. N.Engl J Med 8-26-1976;295(9):461-467. View abstract.
  • Tasevska, N., Runswick, S. A., McTaggart, A., and Bingham, S. A. Twenty-four-hour urinary thiamine as a biomarker for the assessment of thiamine intake. Eur J Clin Nutr 2008;62(9):1139-1147. View abstract.
  • Thomson, A. D., Baker, H., and Leevy, C. M. Patterns of 35S-thiamine hydrochloride absorption in the malnourished alcoholic patient. J Lab Clin Med 1970;76(1):34-45. View abstract.
  • Thornalley, P. J. Glycation in diabetic neuropathy: characteristics, consequences, causes, and therapeutic options. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2002;50:37-57. View abstract.
  • Thornalley, P. J. The potential role of thiamine (vitamin B1) in diabetic complications. Curr Diabetes Rev 2005;1(3):287-298. View abstract.
  • Tubridy, P. Alprazolam versus chlormethiazole in acute alcohol withdrawal. Br J Addict. 1988;83(5):581-585. View abstract.
  • Turkington, R. W. Encephalopathy induced by oral hypoglycemic drugs. Arch Intern Med 1977;137(8):1082-1083. View abstract.
  • Viberti, G. C. Glucose-induced hyperkalaemia: A hazard for diabetics? Lancet 4-1-1978;1(8066):690-691. View abstract.
  • VICTOR, M. and ADAMS, R. D. The effect of alcohol on the nervous system. Res Publ.Assoc Res Nerv Ment.Dis 1953;32:526-573. View abstract.
  • Vimokesant, S. L., Hilker, D. M., Nakornchai, S., Rungruangsak, K., and Dhanamitta, S. Effects of betel nut and fermented fish on the thiamin status of northeastern Thais. Am J Clin Nutr 1975;28(12):1458-1463. View abstract.
  • Wadstein, J., Manhem, P., Nilsson, L. H., Moberg, A. L., and Hokfelt, B. Clonidine versus chlomethiazole in alcohol withdrawal. Acta Psychiatr.Scand Suppl 1986;327:144-148. View abstract.
  • Hansten PD, Horn JR. Drug Interactions Analysis and Management. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics Inc., 1997 and updates.
  • Hardman JG, Limbird LL, Molinoff PB, eds. Goodman and Gillman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.
  • Harrison EH, Hussain MM. Mechanisms involved in the intestinal digestion and absorption of dietary vitamin A. J Nutr 2001;131:1405-8.. View abstract.
  • Hathcock JN, Hattan DG, Jenkins MY, et al. Evaluation of vitamin A toxicity. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;52:183-202.. View abstract.
  • Hathcock JN. Metabolic mechanisms of drug-nutrient interactions. Fed Proc 1985;44:124-9. View abstract.
  • Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Manson JE, et al. Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with beta-carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1145-9. View abstract.
  • Hercberg S, Galan P, Preziosi P, et al. The SU.VI.MAX Study: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the health effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:2335-42. View abstract.
  • Hickenbottom SJ, Follett JR, Lin Y, et al. Variability in conversion of beta-carotene to vitamin A in men as measured by using a double-tracer study design. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:900-7. View abstract.
  • Hunter DJ, Manson JE, Colditz GA, et al. A prospective study of the intake of vitamins C, E, and A and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1993;329:234-40. View abstract.
  • Imdad A, Mayo-Wilson E, Herzer K, Bhutta ZA. Vitamin A supplementation for preventing morbidity and mortality in children from six months to five years of age. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;3:CD008524. View abstract.
  • Jagadeesan V, Reddy V. Interrelationship between vitamin E and A: a clinical study. Clin Chim Acta 1978;90:71-4. View abstract.
  • Johansson S, Lind PM, Hakansson H, et al. Subclinical hypervitaminosis A causes fragile bones in rats. Bone 2002;31:685-9.. View abstract.
  • Kabat GC, Kim MY, Wactawski-Wende J, Shikany JM, Vitolins MZ, Rohan TE. Intake of antioxidant nutrients and risk of non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in the Women's Health Initiative. Nutr Cancer. 2012;64(2):245-54. View abstract.
  • Katz J, West KP Jr, Khatry SK, et al. Maternal low-dose vitamin A or {beta}-carotene supplementation has no effect on fetal loss and early infant mortality: a randomized, cluster trial in Nepal. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1570-6. View abstract.
  • Kiraly N, Balde A, Lisse IM, Eriksen HB, Aaby P, Benn CS. Vitamin A supplementation and risk of atopy: long-term follow-up of a randomized trial of vitamin A supplementation at six and nine months of age. BMC Pediatr. 2013 19;13:190. View abstract.
  • Kiraly N, Benn CS, Biering-Sørensen S, Rodrigues A, Jensen KJ, Ravn H, Allen KJ, Aaby P. Vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth may affect atopy in childhood: long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Allergy. 2013;68(9):1168-76. View abstract.
  • Kokkonen J, Mottonen M, Karttunen TJ, Lanning M. Mucosal pathology of the upper gastrointestinal tract associated with intensive chemotherapy in children: vitamin A supplements do not prevent lesions. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2002;19:181-92.. View abstract.
  • Kowalski TE, Falestiny M, Furth E, Malet PF. Vitamin A hepatotoxicity: a cautionary note regarding 25,000 IU supplements. Am J Med 1994;97:523-8. View abstract.
  • Kumar B, Cole WC, Prasad KN. Alpha tocopheryl succinate, retinoic acid and polar carotenoids enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of a cholesterol-lowering drug on immortalized and transformed nerve cells in culture. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:628-36. View abstract.
  • Kusin JA, Reddy V, Sivakumar B. Vitamin E supplements and the absorption of a massive dose of vitamin A. Am J Clin Nutr 1974;27:774-6. View abstract.
  • Lee IM, Cook NR, Gaziano JM, et al. Vitamin E in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: The Women's Health Study: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2005;294:56-65. View abstract.
  • Leelakanok N, D'Cunha RR, Sutamtewagul G, Schweizer ML. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between vitamin A intake, serum vitamin A, and risk of liver cancer. Nutr Health. 2018 Jan 1:260106018777170. View abstract.
  • Leo MA, Lieber CS. Alcohol, vitamin A, and beta-carotene: adverse interactions, including hepatotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:1071-85. View abstract.
  • Lipid Research Clinics Program. The Lipid Research Clinics' Coronary Primary Prevention Trial Results: 1. Reduction in incidence of coronary heart disease. JAMA 1984;251:351-64. View abstract.
  • Lippmann SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial (SELECT). JAMA 2009;301:39-51. View abstract.
  • Lips P. Hypervitaminosis A and fractures. N Engl J Med 2003;348:347-9. View abstract.
  • Liu C, Russell RM, Seitz HK, et al. Ethanol enhances retinoic acid metabolism into polar metabolites in rat liver via induction of cytochrome P4502E1. Gastroenterology 2001;120:179-89. View abstract.
  • Lonn E, Bosch J, Yusuf S, et al. HOPE and HOPE-TOO Trial Investigators. Effects of long-term vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular events and cancer: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2005;293:1338-47. View abstract.
  • Barbeau, A. Emerging treatments: replacement therapy with choline or lecithin in neurological diseases. Can.J.Neurol.Sci. 1978;5(1):157-160. View abstract.
  • Barbeau, A. Lecithin in neurologic disorders. N.Engl.J Med 7-27-1978;299(4):200-201. View abstract.
  • Bellelli, A., Giomini, M., Giuliani, A. M., Giustini, M., Lorenzon, I., Rusconi, V., Sezzi, M. L., Trotta, E., and Belleli, L. Antitumor effect and cardiotoxicity of a doxorubicin-lecithin association. Anticancer Res 1988;8(1):177-186. View abstract.
  • Benton, D. and Donohoe, R. T. The influence on cognition of the interactions between lecithin, carnitine and carbohydrate. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2004;175(1):84-91. View abstract.
  • Branconnier, R. J., Dessain, E. C., Cole, J. O., and McNiff-Langille, M. E. An analysis of dose-response of plasma choline to oral lecithin. Biol.Psychiatry 1984;19(5):765-770. View abstract.
  • Brinkman, S. D., Pomara, N., Goodnick, P. J., Barnett, N., and Domino, E. F. A dose-ranging study of lecithin in the treatment of primary degenerative dementia (Alzheimer disease). J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1982;2(4):281-285. View abstract.
  • Caine, E. D. Cholinomimetic treatment fails to improve memory disorders. N.Engl.J Med 9-4-1980;303(10):585-586. View abstract.
  • Canter, N. L., Hallett, M., and Growdon, J. H. Lecithin does not affect EEG spectral analysis or P300 in Alzheimer disease. Neurology 1982;32(11):1260-1266. View abstract.
  • Chuaqui, P. and Levy, R. Fluctuations of free choline levels in plasma of Alzheimer patients receiving lecithin: preliminary observations. Br.J.Psychiatry 1982;140:464-469. View abstract.
  • Crapper McLachlan, D. R., Dalton, A. J., Kruck, T. P., Bell, M. Y., Smith, W. L., Kalow, W., and Andrews, D. F. Intramuscular desferrioxamine in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Lancet 6-1-1991;337(8753):1304-1308. View abstract.
  • Davidson, M., Mohs, R. C., Hollander, E., Zemishlany, Z., Powchik, P., Ryan, T., and Davis, K. L. Lecithin and piracetam in Alzheimer's disease. Biol.Psychiatry 1987;22(1):112-114. View abstract.
  • Duffy, F. H., McAnulty, G., Albert, M., Durwen, H., and Weintraub, S. Lecithin: absence of neurophysiologic effect in Alzheimer's disease by EEG topography. Neurology 1987;37(6):1015-1019. View abstract.
  • Dysken, M. W., Fovall, P., Harris, C. M., Davis, J. M., and Noronha, A. Lecithin administration in Alzheimer dementia. Neurology 1982;32(10):1203-1204. View abstract.
  • Foster, N. L., Petersen, R. C., Gracon, S. I., and Lewis, K. An enriched-population, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of tacrine and lecithin in Alzheimer's disease. The Tacrine 970-6 Study Group. Dementia 1996;7(5):260-266. View abstract.
  • Gauthier, S., Bouchard, R., Bacher, Y., Bailey, P., Bergman, H., Carrier, L., Charbonneau, R., Clarfield, M., Collier, B., Dastoor, D., and . Progress report on the Canadian Multicentre Trial of tetrahydroaminoacridine with lecithin in Alzheimer's disease. Can.J Neurol.Sci 1989;16(4 Suppl):543-546. View abstract.
  • Gauthier, S., Bouchard, R., Lamontagne, A., Bailey, P., Bergman, H., Ratner, J., Tesfaye, Y., Saint-Martin, M., Bacher, Y., Carrier, L., and . Tetrahydroaminoacridine-lecithin combination treatment in patients with intermediate-stage Alzheimer's disease. Results of a Canadian double-blind, crossover, multicenter study. N Engl.J Med 5-3-1990;322(18):1272-1276. View abstract.
  • Gelenberg, A. J., Doller-Wojcik, J. C., and Growdon, J. H. Choline and lecithin in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: preliminary results from a pilot study. Am J Psychiatry 1979;136(6):772-776. View abstract.
  • Growdon, J. H., Wheeler, S., and Graham, H. N. Plasma choline responses to lecithin-enriched soup. Psychopharmacol.Bull 1984;20(3):603-606. View abstract.
  • Hallett, M., Canter, N., and Growdon, J. Neurophysiologic Parameters in Alzheimer Disease: Effect of Lecithin. Neurology 1982;32(2):a126.
  • Halliday, H. L., McClure, G., Reid, M. M., Lappin, T. R., Meban, C., and Thomas, P. S. Controlled trial of artificial surfactant to prevent respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet 3-3-1984;1(8375):476-478. View abstract.
  • Holford, N. H. and Peace, K. The effect of tacrine and lecithin in Alzheimer's disease. A population pharmacodynamic analysis of five clinical trials. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1994;47(1):17-23. View abstract.
  • Jackson, I. V., Nuttall, E. A., Ibe, I. O., and Perez-Cruet, J. Treatment of tardive dyskinesia with lecithin. Am J Psychiatry 1979;136(11):1458-1460. View abstract.
  • Kaye, W. H., Sitaram, N., Weingartner, H., Ebert, M. H., Smallberg, S., and Gillin, J. C. Modest facilitation on memory in dementia with combined lecithin and anticholinerestase treatment. Biol.Psychiatry 1982;17(2):275-280. View abstract.
  • Kushnir, S. L., Ratner, J. T., and Gregoire, P. A. Multiple nutrients in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. J Am Geriatr.Soc 1987;35(5):476-477. View abstract.
  • Lampe, T. H., Norris, J., Risse, S. C., Owen-Williams, E., and Keenan, T. Therapeutic Potential of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) and Lecithin Co-administration in Alzheimer's Disease. Neurobiology of Aging 1990;11:346.
  • Levin, H. S. and Peters, B. H. Long-term administration of oral physostigmine and lecithin improve memory in Alzheimer's disease. Ann.Neurol. 1984;15(2):210. View abstract.
  • Levy, R., Little, A., Chuaqui, P., and Reith, M. Early results from double-blind, placebo controlled trial of high dose phosphatidylcholine in Alzheimer's disease. Lancet 4-30-1983;1(8331):987-988. View abstract.
  • Lieber, C. S., DeCarli, L. M., Mak, K. M., Kim, C. I., and Leo, M. A. Attenuation of alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis by polyunsaturated lecithin. Hepatology 1990;12(6):1390-1398. View abstract.
  • McLachlan, D. R., Smith, W. L., and Kruck, T. P. Desferrioxamine and Alzheimer's disease: video home behavior assessment of clinical course and measures of brain aluminum. Ther.Drug Monit. 1993;15(6):602-607. View abstract.
  • Melancon, S. B., Dallaire, L., Potier, M., Vanasse, M., Marois, P., Geoffroy, G., and Barbeau, A. Oral lecithin and linoleic acid in Friedreich's ataxia: I. Design of the study, material and methods. Can.J Neurol.Sci 1982;9(2):151-154. View abstract.
  • Nair, M. P., Kudchodkar, B. J., Pritchard, P. H., and Lacko, A. G. Purification of recombinant lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase. Protein Expr.Purif. 1997;10(1):38-41. View abstract.
  • Pentland, B., Martyn, C. N., Steer, C. R., and Christie, J. E. Lecithin treatment in Friedreich's ataxia. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 4-11-1981;282(6271):1197-1198. View abstract.
  • Perez-Cruet, J., Menendez, I., Alvarez-Ghersi, J., Falcon, J. R., Valderrabano, O., Castro-Urrutia, E. C., Ifarraguerri, C., and Perez, L. L. Double-blind study of lecithin in the treatment of persistent tardive dyskinesia. Bol.Asoc.Med P.R. 1981;73(11):531-537. View abstract.
  • Perryman, K. M. and Fitten, L. J. Delayed matching-to-sample performance during a double-blind trial of tacrine (THA) and lecithin in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Life Sci 1993;53(6):479-486. View abstract.
  • Perryman, K. M. and Fitten, L. J. Quantitative EEG during a double-blind trial of THA and lecithin in patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1991;4(3):127-133. View abstract.
  • Peters, B. H. and Levin, H. S. Effects of physostigmine and lecithin on memory in Alzheimer disease. Ann Neurol. 1979;6(3):219-221. View abstract.
  • Sannita, W. G., Balestra, V., Rosadini, G., Salama, M., and Timitilli, C. Quantitative EEG and neuropsychological effects of piracetam and of the association piracetam-lecithin in healthy volunteers. Neuropsychobiology 1985;14(4):203-209. View abstract.
  • Smith, R. C., Vroulis, G., Johnson, R., and Morgan, R. Comparison of therapeutic response to long-term treatment with lecithin versus piracetam plus lecithin in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Psychopharmacol.Bull. 1984;20(3):542-545. View abstract.
  • Sorgatz, H. [Effect of lecithin on health status and concentration. Placebo-controlled double-blind study in healthy probands]. Fortschr Med 4-10-1988;106(11):233-236. View abstract.
  • Stoll, A. L., Sachs, G. S., Cohen, B. M., Lafer, B., Christensen, J. D., and Renshaw, P. F. Choline in the treatment of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: clinical and neurochemical findings in lithium-treated patients. Biol.Psychiatry 9-1-1996;40(5):382-388. View abstract.
  • Thal, L. J., Fuld, P. A., Masur, D. M., and Sharpless, N. S. Oral physostigmine and lecithin improve memory in Alzheimer disease. Ann Neurol. 1983;13(5):491-496. View abstract.
  • Thal, L. J., Masur, D. M., Sharpless, N. S., Fuld, P. A., and Davies, P. Acute and chronic effects of oral physostigmine and lecithin in Alzheimer's disease. Prog.Neuropsychopharmacol.Biol.Psychiatry 1986;10(3-5):627-636. View abstract.
  • Tudorache, B., Lupulescu, R., Dutan, I., and Sarbulescu, A. Assessment of various psychopharmacological combinations in the treatment of presenile and senile primary degenerative dementia. Rom.J Neurol.Psychiatry 1990;28(4):277-294. View abstract.
  • Tuzhilin, S. A., Dreiling, D. A., Narodetskaja, R. V., and Lukash, L. K. The treatment of patients with gallstones by lecithin. Am J Gastroenterol. 1976;65(3):231-235. View abstract.
  • Uney, J. B., Jones, G. M., Rebeiro, A., and Levy, R. The effect of long-term high dose lecithin on erythrocyte choline transport in Alzheimer patients. Biol.Psychiatry 3-15-1992;31(6):630-633. View abstract.
  • Vida, S., Gauthier, L., and Gauthier, S. Canadian collaborative study of tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) and lecithin treatment of Alzheimer's disease: effect on mood. Can.J Psychiatry 1989;34(3):165-170. View abstract.
  • Amato P, Christophe S, Mellon PL. Estrogenic activity of herbs commonly used as remedies for menopausal symptoms. Menopause 2002;9:145-50. View abstract.
  • Andrade ASA, Hendrix C, Parsons TL, et al. Pharmacokinetic and metabolic effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in healthy volunteers receiving the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir. BMC Complement Alt Med. 2008;8:50. View abstract.
  • <p><span>Walker, U. A. and Byrne, E. The therapy of respiratory chain encephalomyopathy: a critical review of the past and current perspective. Acta Neurol.Scand 1995;92(4):273-280.</span></p> View abstract.
  • <p><span>Wolters, M., Hermann, S., and Hahn, A. B vitamin status and concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid in elderly German women. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78(4):765-772.</span></p> View abstract.
  • <p><span>Wooley, J. A. Characteristics of thiamin and its relevance to the management of heart failure. Nutr Clin.Pract. 2008;23(5):487-493.</span></p> View abstract.
  • <p><span>Yang, F. L., Liao, P. C., Chen, Y. Y., Wang, J. L., and Shaw, N. S. Prevalence of thiamin and riboflavin deficiency among the elderly in Taiwan. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr 2005;14(3):238-243.</span></p> View abstract.
  • <p><span>Younes-Mhenni, S., Derex, L., Berruyer, M., Nighoghossian, N., Philippeau, F., Salzmann, M., and Trouillas, P. Large-artery stroke in a young patient with Crohn's disease. Role of vitamin B6 deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. J Neurol.Sci 6-15-2004;221(1-2):113-115.</span></p> View abstract.
  • <p><span>Zittoun, J. [Macrocytic anemia]. Rev Prat. 10-21-1989;39(24):2133-2137.</span></p> View abstract.
  • <p>Davis, L. S. Stress, vitamin B6 and magnesium in women with and without dysmenorrhea: a comparison and intervention study [dissertation]. 1988;</p>
  • <p>Esperanza-Salazar-De-Roldan, M. and Ruiz-Castro, S. Primary dysmenorrhea treatment with ibuprofen and vitamin E. Revista de Obstetricia y Ginecologia de Venezuela 1993;53(1):35-37.</p>
  • <p>Fontana-Klaiber, H. and Hogg, B. Therapeutic effects of magnesium in dysmenorrhea. Schweizerische Rundschau fur Medizin Praxis 1990;79(16):491-494.</p>
  • Aksoy M, Basu TK, Brient J, Dickerson JW. Thiamin status of patients treated with drug combinations containing 5-fluorouracil. Eur J Cancer 1980;16:1041-5. View abstract.
  • Alaei Shahmiri F, Soares MJ, Zhao Y, et al. High-dose thiamine supplementation improves glucose tolerance in hyperglycemic individuals: a randomized, double-blind cross-over trial. Eur J Nutr. 2013 Oct;52(7):1821-4. View abstract.
  • Alaei-Shahmiri F, Soares MJ, Zhao Y, et al. The impact of thiamine supplementation on blood pressure, serum lipids and C-reactive protein in individuals with hyperglycemia: a randomised, double-blind cross-over trial. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2015 Apr 29. pii: S1871-4021(15)00042-9. View abstract.
  • Alston TA. Does metformin interfere with thiamine? (letter) Arch Int Med 2003;163:983. View abstract.
  • Alston TA. Does metformin interfere with thiamine?--Reply. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:983. View abstract.
  • Arruti N, Bernedo N, Audicana MT, Villarreal O, Uriel O, Muñoz D. Systemic allergic dermatitis caused by thiamine after iontophoresis. Contact Dermatitis. 2013 Dec;69(6):375-6. View abstract.
  • Babaei-Jadidi R, Karachalias N, Ahmed N, et al. Prevention of incipient diabetic nephropathy by high-dose thiamine and benfotiamine. Diabetes. 2003;52:2110-20. View abstract.
  • Bates CJ. Chapter 8: Thiamine. In: Zempleni J, Rucker RB, McCormick DB, Suttie JW, eds. Handbook of Vitamins. 4th edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2007. 253-287.
  • Beers MH, Berkow R. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. 17th ed. West Point, PA: Merck and Co., Inc., 1999.
  • Berger MM, Shenkin A, Revelly JP, et al. Copper, selenium, zinc, and thiamine balances during continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration in critically ill patients. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:410-6. View abstract.
  • Botez MI, Botez T, Ross-Chouinard A, Lalonde R. Thiamine and folate treatment of chronic epileptic patients: a controlled study with the Wechsler IQ scale. Epilepsy Res 1993;16:157-63.. View abstract.
  • Botez MI, Joyal C, Maag U, Bachevalier J. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood thiamine concentrations in phenytoin-treated epileptics. Can J Neurol Sci 1982;9:37-9.. View abstract.
  • Brady JA, Rock CL, Horneffer MR. Thiamin status, diuretic medications, and the management of congestive heart failure. J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:541-4. View abstract.
  • Briggs MH, Briggs M. Thiamine status and oral contraceptives. Contraception 1975;11:151-4. View abstract.
  • Brown RS, Di Stanislao PT, Beaver WT, et al. The administration of folic acid to institutionalized epileptic adults with phenytoin-induced gingival hyperplasia. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1991;70:565-8. View abstract.
  • Cumming RG, Mitchell P, Smith W. Diet and cataract: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 2000;10:450-6. View abstract.
  • Day E, Bentham P, Callaghan R, et al. Thiamine for Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome in people at risk from alcohol abuse. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;(1):CD004033. View abstract.
  • De Reuck JL, Sieben GJ, Sieben-Praet MR, et al. Wernicke's encephalopathy in patients with tumors of the lymphoid-hemopoietic systems. Arch Neurol 1980;37:338-41.. View abstract.
  • Drew HJ, Vogel RI, Molofsky W, et al. Effect of folate on phenytoin hyperplasia. J Clin Periodontol 1987;14:350-6. View abstract.
  • Gallimberti L, Canton G, Gentile N, et al. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid for treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Lancet 1989;2:787-9. View abstract.
  • Goldin BR, Lichtenstein AH, Gorbach SL. Nutritional and metabolic roles of intestinal flora. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th ed. Malvern, PA: Lea & Febiger, 1994.
  • Hamon NW, Awang DVC. Horsetail. Can Pharm J 1992:399-401.
  • Harel Z, Biro FM, Kottenhahn RK, Rosenthal SL. Supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the management of dysmenorrhea in adolescents. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996;174:1335-8. View abstract.
  • Hernandez BY, McDuffie K, Wilkens LR, et al. Diet and premalignant lesions of the cervix: evidence of a protective role for folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin B12. Cancer Causes Control 2003;14:859-70. View abstract.
  • Hilker DM, Somogyi JC. Antithiamins of plant origin: their chemical nature and mode of action. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1982;378:137-44. View abstract.
  • Hosseinlou A, Alinejad V, Alinejad M, Aghakhani N. The effects of fish oil capsules and vitamin B1 tablets on duration and severity of dysmenorrhea in students of high school in Urmia-Iran. Glob J Health Sci 2014;6(7 Spec No):124-9. View abstract.
  • Ives AR, Paskewitz SM. Testing vitamin B as a home remedy against mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2005;21:213-7. View abstract.
  • Jacques PF, Taylor A, Moeller S, et al. Long-term nutrient intake and 5-year change in nuclear lens opacities. Arch Ophthalmol 2005;123:517-26. View abstract.
  • Koike H, Iijima M, Sugiura M, et al. Alcoholic neuropathy is clinicopathologically distinct from thiamine-deficiency neuropathy. Ann Neurol 2003;54:19-29. View abstract.
  • Kuroki F, Iida M, Tominaga M, et al. Multiple vitamin status in Crohn's disease. Correlation with disease activity. Dig Dis Sci 1993;38:1614-8. View abstract.
  • Leslie D, Gheorghiade M. Is there a role for thiamine supplementation in the management of heart failure? Am Heart J 1996;131:1248-50. View abstract.
  • Levy WC, Soine LA, Huth MM, Fishbein DP. Thiamine deficiency in congestive heart failure (letter). Am J Med 1992;93:705-6. View abstract.
  • Lewis CM, King JC. Effect of oral contraceptive agents on thiamin, riboflavin, and pantothenic acid status in young women. Am J Clin Nutr 1980;33:832-8.. View abstract.
  • Lubetsky A, Winaver J, Seligmann H, et al. Urinary thiamine excretion in the rat: effects of furosemide, other diuretics, and volume load. J Lab Clin Med 1999;134:232-7.. View abstract.
  • Ogunmekan AO, Hwang PA. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of D-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E), as add-on therapy, for epilepsy in children. Epilepsia 1989;30:84-9. View abstract.
  • Patrini C, Perucca E, Reggiani C, Rindi G. Effects of phenytoin on the in vivo kinetics of thiamine and its phosphoesters in rat nervous tissues. Brain Res 1993;628:179-86.. View abstract.
  • Pfitzenmeyer P, Guilland JC, d'Athis P, et al. Thiamine status of elderly patients with cardiac failure including the effects of supplementattion. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1994;64:113-8. View abstract.
  • Rabbani N, Alam SS, Riaz S, et al. High-dose thiamine therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study. Diabetologia 2009;52:208-12. View abstract.
  • Saif MW. Is there a role for thiamine in the management of congestive heart failure? (letter) South Med J 2003;96:114-5. View abstract.
  • Schoenenberger AW, Schoenenberger -Berzins R, der Maur CA, et al. Thiamine supplementation in symptomatic chronic heart failure: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot study. Clin Res Cardiol. 2012 Mar;101(3):159-64. View abstract.
  • Seligmann H, Halkin H, Rauchfleisch S, et al. Thiamine deficiency in patients with congestive heart failure receiving long-term furosemide therapy: a pilot study. Am J Med 1991;91:151-5. View abstract.
  • Shimon I, Almog S, Vered Z, et al. Improved left ventricular function after thiamine supplementation in patients with congestive heart failure receiving long-term furosemide therapy. Am J Med 1995;98:485-90. View abstract.
  • Smidt LJ, Cremin FM, Grivetti LE, Clifford AJ. Influence of folate status and polyphenol intake on thiamin status in Irish women. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;52:1077-92.. View abstract.
  • Somogyi JC, Nageli U. Antithiamine effect of coffee. Int J Vit Nutr Res 1976;46:149-53.
  • Tanphaichitr V. Thiamin. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, Eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1999. pg.381-9.
  • Thorp VJ. Effect of oral contraceptive agents on vitamin and mineral requirements. J Am Diet Assoc 1980;76:581-4.. View abstract.
  • Ulusakarya A, Vantelon JM, Munck JN, et al. Thiamine deficiency in a patient receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloblastic leukemia (letter). Am J Hematol 1999;61:155-6. View abstract.
  • Vimokesant S, Kunjara S, Rungruangsak K, et al. Beriberi caused by antithiamin factors in food and its prevention. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1982;378:123-36. View abstract.
  • Vimokesant S, Nakornchai S, Rungruangsak K, et al. Food habits causing thiamine deficiency in humans. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 1976;22:1-2. View abstract.
  • Vir SC, Love AH. Effect of oral contraceptive agents on thiamin status. Int J Vit Nutr Res 1979;49:291-5.
  • Waldenlind L. Studies on thiamine and neuromuscular transmission. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 1978;459:1-35. View abstract.
  • Wilkinson TJ, Hanger HC, Elmslie J, et al. The response to treatment of subclinical thiamine deficiency in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:925-8. View abstract.
  • Wuest HM. The history of thiamine. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1962;98:385-400. View abstract.
  • Xu G, Lv ZW, Xu GX, Tang WZ. Thiamine, cobalamin, locally injected alone or combination for herpetic itching: a single-center randomized controlled trial. Clin J Pain 2014;30(3):269-78. View abstract.
  • Yates AA, Schlicker SA, Suitor CW. Dietary reference intakes: The new basis for recommendations for calcium and related nutrients, B vitamins, and choline. J Am Diet Assoc 1998;98:699-706. View abstract.

Vitamins Survey

Have you ever purchased THIAMINE (VITAMIN B1)?

Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)

Vitamins Survey

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

Do you buy vitamins online or instore?

What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)

More Resources for THIAMINE (VITAMIN B1)

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.