WINE

OTHER NAME(S):

Alcohol, Alcool, Ethanol, Éthanol, Extrait de Vin, Red Wine, Vin, Vin Rouge, Vino, Vitis vinifera, Wine Extract.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Wine is an alcoholic beverage prepared by fermenting grapes.

Wine is used for preventing diseases of the heart and circulatory system, including coronary heart disease, "hardening of the arteries" (atherosclerosis), heart failure, heart attack, and stroke. Wine is also used for preventing decline of thinking skills in later life, Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes.

Some people use wine to reduce anxiety, stimulate the appetite, and improve digestion by increasing stomach acids.

Wine is sometimes applied directly to the skin to improve wound healing and resolve the small nodules near joints that sometimes occur with rheumatoid arthritis.

How does it work?

Wine contains ethanol (alcohol), which blocks various nerve pathways in the brain. It also contains chemicals that might have beneficial effects on the heart and blood circulation such as antioxidant effects, and preventing blood platelets from forming clots.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Likely Effective for

  • Preventing diseases of the heart and circulatory system, such as heart attack, stroke, "hardening of the arteries" (atherosclerosis), and chest pain (angina). There is some evidence that drinking alcohol can benefit the heart. Drinking one alcoholic beverage per day or drinking alcohol on at least 3 to 4 days per week is a good rule of thumb for people who drink alcohol. But don't drink more than 2 drinks per day. More than two drinks daily can increase the risk of over-all death as well as dying from heart disease. Here is what researchers have found:
    • Drinking alcoholic beverages, including wine, by healthy people seems to reduce the risk of developing heart disease. Moderate alcohol use (one to two drinks per day) reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, and heart attack by approximately 30% to 50% when compared with nondrinkers.
    • Light to moderate alcohol (one to two drinks per day) use reduces the risk of having the type of stroke that is caused by a clot in the blood vessel (ischemic stroke), but increases the risk of having the type of stroke caused by a broken blood vessel (hemorrhagic stroke).
    • Light to moderate alcohol consumption (one to two drinks per day) in the year before a first heart attack is associated with a reduced cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risk compared with non-drinkers.
    • In men with established coronary heart disease, consumption of 1-14 alcoholic drinks per week, including wine, doesn't seem to have any effect on heart disease or all-cause mortality compared with men who drink less than one drink per week. Drinking three or more drinks per day is associated with increased likelihood of death in men with a history of heart attacks.
  • Reducing the risk of dying from heart disease and stroke and other causes. There is some evidence that light to moderate consumption of alcoholic drinks can reduce the risk of all-cause death in people who are middle-aged and older.

Possibly Effective for

  • Mental function. Elderly men who have a history of drinking one alcoholic drink per day seem to maintain better general thinking ability during their late 70s and 80s compared to non-drinkers. However, drinking more than four alcoholic drinks per day during middle age seems to be linked with significantly poorer thinking ability later in life.
  • Diabetes. People who drink alcohol, including wine, in moderate amounts seem to have a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes who consume alcohol in moderate amounts seem to have a reduced risk of heart disease. Also, drinking moderate amounts of wine also seems to reduce blood sugar in some people with type 2 diabetes.
  • Preventing ulcers caused by a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori. There is some evidence that moderate to high consumption of alcohol (more than 75 grams) per week from beverages such as beer and wine can reduce the risk of H. pylori infection.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Alzheimer's disease. There is some evidence that 1 to 2 drinks per day can reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in both men and women compared with non-drinkers.
  • Anxiety. The effect of alcohol on anxiety is complicated and may be affected by the psychological state of the user. Alcohol sometimes reduces anxiety, sometimes increases it, and sometimes has no effect.
  • Cancer. Drinking up to 21 alcoholic drinks per week, including wine, has been linked with a slightly lower risk of cancer-related death. Moderate wine intake has also been linked with a lower risk of certain cancers such as bladder cancer, brain cancer, colon cancer, and some others. But wine intake isn't linked with a lower chance of stomach cancer or cancer of the uterus. And wine intake has been linked with an increased risk of breast and skin cancer.
  • Congestive heart failure (CHF). There is some evidence that consuming moderate amounts of alcohol per day reduces the risk of heart failure in people aged 65 years or older. It's unclear if moderate alcohol consumption improves symptoms in people that already have heart failure.
  • Dementia. Drinking one alcoholic drink daily has been linked with a lower risk of dementia compared to never drinking. But drinking large amounts of alcoholic drinks (more than 23 drinks per week) has been linked with an increased risk of dementia.
  • Depression. Moderate wine intake (about 2-7 drinks per week) has been linked with a 32% lower chance of depression.
  • Metabolic syndrome. Drinking moderate amounts of red wine (at least one 5-ounce glass per day) has been linked with a decreased risk of having metabolic syndrome. Drinking white wine hasn't been linked with the risk of metabolic syndrome.
  • Weak bones (osteoporosis). There is some developing evidence that suggests moderate alcohol consumption in women who have passed menopause is linked with stronger bones. Alcohol intake of one-half to one drink per day seems to have the greatest effect on bone strength compared with non-drinkers and heavy drinkers of alcohol.
  • Lupus. Drinking alcoholic drinks, including wine, at least 2 times per week has been linked with a reduced risk of lupus in women.
  • Wounds.
  • Ulcers.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of wine for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Wine is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when no more than 2 five-ounce glasses are drunk per day. Avoid higher amounts. Larger amounts can cause flushing, confusion, blackouts, trouble walking, seizures, vomiting, diarrhea, and other serious problems.

Long-term use of large amounts of wine causes many serious health problems including dependence, mental problems, heart problems, liver problems, pancreas problems, and certain types of cancer.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Alcohol is UNSAFE to drink during pregnancy. It can cause birth defects and other serious harm to the unborn infant. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy, especially during the first two months, is associated with significant risk of miscarriage, fetal alcohol syndrome, as well as developmental and behavioral disorders after birth. Don't drink alcohol if you are pregnant.

Don't drink alcohol if you are breast-feeding. Alcohol passes into breast milk and can cause abnormal development of skills that involve both mental and muscular coordination, such as the ability to turn over. Alcohol can also disturb the infant's sleep pattern. Alcohol also seems to reduce milk production.

Asthma: Drinking wine has been linked with triggering asthma attacks. This may be due to salicylates in the wine and/or nitrites that have been added.

Gout: Using alcohol can make gout worse.

Heart conditions: While there is some evidence that drinking wine in moderation might help to prevent congestive heart failure, wine is harmful when used by someone who already has this condition. Using alcohol can make chest pain and congestive heart failure worse.

High blood pressure: Drinking three or more alcoholic drinks per day can increase blood pressure and make high blood pressure worse.

High levels of blood fats called triglycerides (hypertriglyceridemia): Drinking alcohol can make this condition worse.

Trouble sleeping (insomnia): Drinking alcohol can make insomnia worse.

Liver disease: Drinking alcohol can make liver disease worse.

Neurological conditions: Drinking alcohol can make certain disorders of the nervous system worse.

A condition of the pancreas called pancreatitis: Drinking alcohol can make pancreatitis worse.

Stomach ulcers or a type of heartburn called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Drinking alcohol can make these conditions worse.

A blood condition called porphyria: Alcohol use can make porphyria worse.

Mental problems: Drinking three or more drinks of alcohol per day can make mental problems worse and reduce thinking skills.

Surgery: Wine can slow down the central nervous system. There is a concern that combining wine with anesthesia and other medications used during and after surgery might slow the central nervous system down too much. Stop drinking wine at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Interactions

Interactions?

Major Interaction

Do not take this combination

!
  • Chlorpropamide (Diabinese) interacts with WINE

    The body breaks down the alcohol in wine to get rid of it. Chlorpropamide (Diabinese) might decrease how quickly the body breaks down alcohol. Drinking wine and taking chlorpropamide (Diabinese) might cause a headache, vomiting, flushing, and other unpleasant reactions. Don't drink wine if you are taking chlorpropamide (Diabinese).

  • Cisapride (Propulsid) interacts with WINE

    Cisapride (Propulsid) might decrease how quickly the body gets rid of the alcohol in wine. Taking cisapride (Propulsid) along with wine might increase the effects and side effects of alcohol.

  • Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) interacts with WINE

    Wine might increase how much cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) the body absorbs. Taking wine along with cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) might increase the side effects of cyclosporine.

  • Disulfiram (Antabuse) interacts with WINE

    The body breaks down the alcohol in wine to get rid of it. Disulfiram (Antabuse) decreases how quickly the body breaks down alcohol. Drinking wine and taking disulfiram (Antabuse) can cause a pounding headache, vomiting, flushing, and other unpleasant reactions. Don't drink any alcohol if you are taking disulfiram (Antabuse).

  • Felodipine (Plendil) interacts with WINE

    Red wine can change the way the body absorbs and breaks down felodipine. Drinking red wine while taking felodipine for high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low.

  • Medications for depression (MAOIs) interacts with WINE

    Wine contains a chemical called tyramine. Large amounts of tyramine can cause high blood pressure. But the body naturally breaks down tyramine to get rid of it. This usually prevents the tyramine from causing high blood pressure. Some medications used for depression stop the body from breaking down tyramine. This can cause there to be too much tyramine and lead to dangerously high blood pressure. <br><nb>Some of these medications used for depression include phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate), and others.

  • Medications for pain (Narcotic drugs) interacts with WINE

    The body breaks down some medications for pain to get rid of them. The alcohol in wine might decrease how quickly the body gets rid of some medications for pain. Taking some medications for pain along with wine might increase the effects and side effects of some medications for pain.<br><nb>Some medications for pain include meperidine (Demerol), hydrocodone, morphine, OxyContin, and many others.

  • Medications that can harm the liver (Hepatotoxic drugs) interacts with WINE

    The alcohol in wine can harm the liver. Drinking wine along with medication that can harm the liver can increase the risk of liver damage. Do not drink wine if you are taking a medication that can harm the liver.<br><nb>Some medications that can harm the liver include acetaminophen (Tylenol and others), amiodarone (Cordarone), carbamazepine (Tegretol), isoniazid (INH), methotrexate (Rheumatrex), methyldopa (Aldomet), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), erythromycin (Erythrocin, Ilosone, others), phenytoin (Dilantin) , lovastatin (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), simvastatin (Zocor), and many others.

  • Metformin (Glucophage) interacts with WINE

    Metformin (Glucophage) is broken down by the body in the liver. The alcohol in wine is also broken down in the body by the liver. Drinking wine and taking metformin (Glucophage) might cause serious side effects.

  • Metronidazole (Flagyl) interacts with WINE

    The alcohol in wine can interact with metronidazole (Flagyl). This can lead to upset stomach, vomiting, sweating, headache, and an increased heartbeat. Do not drink wine while taking metronidazole (Flagyl).

  • Phenytoin (Dilantin) interacts with WINE

    The body breaks down phenytoin (Dilantin) to get rid of it. The alcohol in wine might increase how quickly the body breaks down phenytoin (Dilantin). Drinking wine and taking phenytoin (Dilantin) might decrease the effectiveness of phenytoin (Dilantin) and increase the possibility of seizures.

  • Sedative medications (Barbiturates) interacts with WINE

    The alcohol in wine might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness and drowsiness are called sedative medications. Taking wine along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness. Do not drink wine if you are taking sedative medications.

  • Sedative medications (Benzodiazepines) interacts with WINE

    The alcohol in wine might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness and drowsiness are called sedative medications. Taking wine along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness. Do not drink wine if you are taking sedative medications.<br><nb>Some of these sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), and others.

  • Sedative medications (CNS depressants) interacts with WINE

    The alcohol in wine might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness and drowsiness are called sedative medications. Drinking wine and taking sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness and other serious side effects.<br><nb>Some sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), phenobarbital (Donnatal), zolpidem (Ambien), and others.

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

!
  • Antibiotics (Sulfonamide antibiotics) interacts with WINE

    The alcohol in wine can interact with some antibiotics. This can lead to upset stomach, vomiting, sweating, headache, and an increased heartbeat. Do not drink wine while taking antibiotics.<br><nb>Some antibiotics that interact with wine include sulfamethoxazole (Gantanol), sulfasalazine (Azulfidine), sulfisoxazole (Gantrisin), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra), and others.

  • Aspirin interacts with WINE

    Aspirin can sometimes damage the stomach and cause ulcers and bleeding. The alcohol in wine can also damage the stomach. Taking aspirin along with wine might increase the chance of ulcers and bleeding in the stomach. Avoid taking wine and aspirin together.

  • Cefamandole (Mandol) interacts with WINE

    The alcohol in wine can interact with cefamandole (Mandol). This can lead to upset stomach, vomiting, sweating, headache, and an increased heartbeat. Do not drink wine while taking cefamandole (Mandol).

  • Cefoperazone (Cefobid) interacts with WINE

    The alcohol in wine can interact with cefoperazone (Cefobid). This can lead to upset stomach, vomiting, sweating, headache, and an increased heartbeat. Do not drink wine while taking cefoperazone (Cefobid).

  • Erythromycin interacts with WINE

    The body breaks down the alcohol in wine to get rid of it. Erythromycin can decrease how quickly the body gets rid of alcohol. Drinking wine and taking erythromycin might increase the effects and side effects of alcohol.

  • Griseofulvin (Fulvicin) interacts with WINE

    The body breaks down the alcohol in wine to get rid of it. Griseofulvin (Fulvicin) decreases how quickly the body breaks down alcohol. Drinking wine and taking griseofulvin can cause a pounding headache, vomiting, flushing, and other unpleasant reactions. Don't drink any alcohol if you are taking griseofulvin.

  • Medications that decrease stomach acid (H2-Blockers) interacts with WINE

    Some medications that decrease stomach acid might interact with the alcohol in wine. Drinking wine with some medications that decrease stomach acid might increase how much alcohol the body absorbs, and increase the risk of side effects of alcohol.<br><nb>Some medications that decrease stomach acid and might interact with alcohol include cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac), nizatidine (Axid), and famotidine (Pepcid).

  • NSAIDs (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) interacts with WINE

    NSAIDs are anti-inflammatory medications used for decreasing pain and swelling. NSAIDs can sometimes damage the stomach and intestines and cause ulcers and bleeding. The alcohol in wine can also damage the stomach and intestines. Taking NSAIDs along with wine might increase the chance of ulcers and bleeding in the stomach and intestines. Avoid taking wine and NSAIDs together.<br><nb>Some NSAIDs include ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, Nuprin, others), indomethacin (Indocin), naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan, Naprosyn), piroxicam (Feldene), aspirin, and others.

  • Tolbutamide (Orinase) interacts with WINE

    The body breaks down the alcohol in wine to get rid of it. Tolbutamide (Orinase) can decrease how quickly the body breaks down alcohol. Drinking wine and taking tolbutamide (Orinase) can cause pounding headache, vomiting, flushing, and other unpleasant reactions. Don't drink wine if you are taking tolbutamide (Orinase).

  • Warfarin (Coumadin) interacts with WINE

    Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. The alcohol in wine can interact with warfarin (Coumadin). Drinking large amounts of alcohol can change the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin). Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.

Dosing

Dosing

Alcohol intake is often measured in number of "drinks." One drink is equivalent to a 4 oz or a 120 mL glass of wine, 12 oz of beer, or 1 oz of spirits.

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:

  • For reducing the risk of heart disease and stroke: 1-2 drinks (120-240 mL) per day.
  • For reducing the risk of heart failure: up to four drinks of wine per day.
  • For reducing loss of thinking skills in older men: up to one drink per day.
  • For reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes in healthy men: between two drinks per week and three or four drinks per day.
  • For reducing the risk of heart disease in people with type 2 diabetes: up to seven drinks per week.
  • For reducing the risk of infection with the ulcer-causing bacteria called Helicobacter pylori: more than 75 grams of alcohol from beverages such as wine.

View References

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