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Allergy to Natural Rubber (Latex) - Topic Overview

What is latex allergy?

Latex is natural rubber, a product made primarily from the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis. Some people develop allergic reactions after repeated contact with latex, especially latex gloves. Allergy to latex is an increasing health problem.

What are the symptoms?

Latex reactions can vary from minor to life-threatening, or they may progress from a less serious reaction to a more serious one. Examples include:

  • Skin reactions such as contact dermatitis, hives, or generalized itching.
  • Respiratory reactions. A person who is having a mild respiratory reaction may sneeze, cough, or have a runny nose. A person who is having a severe respiratory reaction may develop shortness of breath from swelling of the throat (angioedema) or severe wheezing (allergic asthma).
  • Life-threatening allergic reactions (anaphylaxis). For more information, see the Check Your Symptoms section of the topic Allergic Reaction.

Who is affected by latex allergy?

Latex allergy usually affects people who are routinely exposed to rubber products, such as health care workers and rubber industry workers, and people who have had multiple surgeries or multiple medical procedures in which latex equipment and supplies were used.

What increases the risk of latex allergy?

People who have allergies to foods, such as bananas, chestnuts, kiwifruit, avocados, and tomatoes, have an increased risk of developing latex allergy. People with latex allergies may develop allergies to these foods because the protein in these foods is similar to the protein in rubber. Latex allergies are also more common in people who have a history of atopic dermatitis, a skin condition that causes intense itching and a red, raised rash.

Where is latex likely to be encountered?

Medical products that may contain latex include:

  • Gloves.
  • Drains, tourniquets, urinary catheters, and wraps.
  • Adhesives used for dressings and tapes.

Personal or household products that may contain latex include:

  • Contraceptives, such as condoms or diaphragms.
  • Diapers and sanitary pads.
  • Pacifiers and baby bottle nipples.
  • Balloons and rubber toys.
  • Rubber bands.
  • Computer mouse pads.

How is latex allergy diagnosed?

Latex allergy is diagnosed with a thorough medical history, physical exam, and tests. Tests may include a blood test to detect latex antibodies and glove-use tests and skin tests to detect an adverse reaction to latex exposure. Glove-use tests and skin tests should always be done by doctors who are experienced and equipped to respond to a serious reaction.

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