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    What Are Anxiety Disorders?

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    Everyone feels anxious now and then. It’s a normal emotion. Many people feel nervous when faced with a problem at work, before taking a test, or making an important decision.

    Anxiety disorders are different, though. They can cause such distress that it interferes with your ability to lead a normal life.

    This type of disorder is a serious mental illness. For people who have one, worry and fear are constant and overwhelming, and can be disabling. But with treatment, many people can manage those feelings and get back to a fulfilling life.

    What Are the Types of Anxiety Disorders?

    There are several kinds, including:

    Panic disorder. People with this condition have feelings of terror that strike suddenly and repeatedly with no warning. Other symptoms of a panic attack include sweating, chest pain, palpitations (unusually strong or irregular heartbeats), and a feeling of choking. It can feel like you’re having a heart attack or "going crazy."

    Social anxiety disorder. Also called social phobia, this involves overwhelming worry and self-consciousness about everyday social situations. The worry often centers on a fear of being judged by others, or behaving in a way that might cause embarrassment or lead to ridicule.

    Specific phobias. These are intense fears of a specific object or situation, such as heights or flying. The level of fear is usually inappropriate to the situation and may cause you to avoid common, everyday situations.

    Generalized anxiety disorder. This is excessive, unrealistic worry and tension, even if there's little or nothing to provoke the anxiety.

    What Are the Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders?

    It depends on the type of anxiety disorder, but general symptoms include:

    • Feelings of panic, fear, and uneasiness
    • Problems sleeping
    • Cold or sweaty hands or feet
    • Shortness of breath
    • Heart palpitations
    • Not being able to be still and calm
    • Dry mouth
    • Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet
    • Nausea
    • Muscle tension
    • Dizziness

    What Are the Causes of Anxiety Disorders?

    The exact cause of anxiety disorders is unknown, but anxiety disorders -- like other forms of mental illness -- are not the result of personal weakness, a character flaw, or poor upbringing. As scientists continue their research on mental illness, it is becoming clear that many of these disorders are caused by a combination of factors, including changes in the brain and environmental stress.

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