Bipolar Disorder Emergencies and Suicide Prevention
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Bipolar disorder may raise the risk of suicide. Mania and depression, the hallmarks of bipolar disorder, can be dangerous. During a manic phase, a person with bipolar disorder may be reckless. In about half the cases, people with mania can become psychotic -- hearing or sometimes seeing things that aren't real. During a depressive state, things may seem so hopeless that life doesn't seem worth living. Manic or depressed phase episodes that involve mixed features (symptoms of mania during a depressive episode, or symptoms of depression during a manic episode) are particularly dangerous: A person might feel depressed but keyed-up, agitated and energized at the same time.
Suicide is a very real risk for people with bipolar disorder, particularly when they're in a manic or depressive episode -- 10%-15% of people with bipolar disorder kill themselves. Many more attempt suicide. It's an alarming statistic, but you have to remember that treatment greatly lowers the risk.
Bipolar disorder is a serious diagnosis that affects more than 10 million Americans. Unlike depression, bipolar disorder is equally common in men and women. The onset of the condition typically occurs in the early 20s, but (although rare) the first symptoms can appear in early childhood or late in life.
Although some people may have only one episode, bipolar disorder is a lifelong condition that usually involves recurrent episodes. It's usually marked by episodes of mania or hypomania (low-grade...
Putting one's affairs in order, as if preparing for death
Doing dangerous or potentially life-threatening things
Traumas and starting or stopping medication may also increase the risk of suicide. If your loved one is in a crisis and immediately threatening to harm himself, you should:
Call 911 or emergency services.
Make sure your loved one isn't left alone.
Take away any weapons, large amounts or medication, or anything else potentially dangerous. In some cases, this may include car keys.
Your loved one may reveal suicidal feelings in confidence. He or she may not want you to tell anyone else. But if you think your friend or loved one is at risk, you can't afford to keep it a secret. Get help.
Talking about suicide isn't easy. But you need to. Discussing it won't make it more likely to happen. See if your loved one will agree to a "plan for life," a set of steps that he or she will follow in a crisis to stay safe.
SOURCES: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth edition, Text Revision. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
The Nation's Voice on Mental Illness.
Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance.
American Psychiatric Association.
National Institute of Mental Health.
WebMD Medical Reference: "Bipolar Disorder."
Compton, M. Depression and Bipolar Disorder, ACP Medicine.
Medscape: "Psychiatry and Mental Health."