Electroconvulsive Therapy and Other Depression Treatments

When medication fails to ease the symptoms of clinical depression, there are other options to try. Brain stimulation techniques such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), for example, can be used to treat major depression that hasn't responded to standard treatments.

The least invasive of these techniques is called transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), in which a magnetic field is created by a device held to the forehead. causing a weak electrical signal to be applied to the prefrontal cortex, the region of the brain that is connected to mood.

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is another treatment for depression that uses a surgically implanted pacemaker-like device that electrically stimulates a nerve that runs up the neck into the brain. The nerve is called the vagus nerve. With ECT, an electric current is briefly applied through the scalp to the brain, inducing a seizure.

In addition, alternative therapies such as yoga and hypnosis sometimes work for mild depression.

What Is Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)?

ECT is among the safest and most effective treatments available for depression. With ECT, electrodes are placed on the patient's scalp and a finely controlled electric current is applied while the patient is under general anesthesia. The current causes a brief seizure in the brain. ECT is one of the fastest ways to relieve symptoms in severely depressed or suicidal patients. It's also very effective for patients who suffer from mania or other mental illnesses.

ECT is generally used when severe depression is unresponsive to other forms of therapy. Or it might be used when patients pose a severe threat to themselves or others and it is too dangerous to wait until medications take effect.

Although ECT has been used since the 1940s and 1950s, it remains misunderstood by the general public. Many of the procedure's risks and side effects are related to the misuse of equipment, incorrect administration, or improperly trained staff. It is also a misconception that ECT is used as a "quick fix" in place of long-term therapy or hospitalization. Nor is it correct to believe that the patient is painfully "shocked" out of the depression. Unfavorable news reports and media coverage have contributed to the controversy surrounding this treatment.

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How Is ECT Performed?

Prior to ECT treatment, a patient is given a muscle relaxant and is put to sleep with a general anesthesia. Electrodes are placed on the patient's scalp and a finely controlled electric current is applied. This current causes a brief seizure in the brain.

Because the muscles are relaxed, the visible effects of the seizure will usually be limited to slight movement of the hands and feet. Patients are carefully monitored during the treatment. The patient awakens minutes later, does not remember the treatment or events surrounding it, and is often confused. The confusion typically lasts for only a short period of time.

ECT is usually given up to three times a week for a total of two to four weeks.

Who Might Benefit From ECT?

According to the American Psychiatric Association, ECT can be beneficial and safe in the following situations:

  • When a need exists for rapid treatment response, such as in pregnancy
  • When a patient refuses food and that leads to nutritional deficiencies
  • When a patient's depression is resistant to antidepressant therapy
  • When other medical ailments prevent the use of antidepressant medication
  • When the patient is in a catatonic stupor
  • When the depression is accompanied by psychotic features
  • When treating bipolar disorder, including both mania and depression
  • When treating mania
  • When treating patients who have a severe risk of suicide
  • When treating patients who have had a previous response to ECT
  • When treating patients with psychotic depression or psychotic mania
  • When treating patients with major depression
  • When treating schizophrenia

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What Is Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)?

While ECT uses an electric current to induce seizure, TMS creates a magnetic field to induce a much smaller electric current in a specific part of the brain without causing seizure or loss of consciousness. The current is caused by the magnetic field created by an electromagnetic coil that delivers the pulses through the forehead.

Approved by the FDA in 2008 for treatment-resistant depression, TMS works best in patients who have failed to benefit from one, but not two or more, antidepressant treatments. Also, unlike ECT, TMS does not require sedation and is administered on an outpatient basis. Patients undergoing TMS must be treated four or five times a week for four to six weeks.

Research has shown that TMS produces few side effects and is both safe and effective for medication-resistant depression. However, its effectiveness as currently performed appears to be less than that of ECT.

What Is Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS)?

A vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) device was approved by the FDA for adult patients with long-term or recurrent major depression. Some of these patients take seven to 10 drugs at a time and continue to suffer with depression.

How VNS works: The small stimulator is implanted under the skin of the collarbone and runs under the skin to the vagus nerve in the neck. The device emits electrical pulses to stimulate the brain.

What Alternative Treatments Are Used for Depression?

Alternative treatments can sometimes provide relief that traditional Western medicine cannot. While some alternative therapies have become accepted as part of modern health care practice, others still have not been proven safe or effective.

Whether or not they are scientifically proven, alternative therapies, by providing forms of relaxation and relief from stress, may have a place in healing and general health and well-being. Examples of alternative therapies include acupuncture, guided imagery, chiropractic treatments, yoga, hypnosis, biofeedback, aromatherapy, relaxation, herbal remedies, and massage.

In general, alternative therapies by themselves are reasonable to use for mild but not more severe forms of clinical depression.

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Are There any Experimental Depression Therapies Being Tested?

Experimental therapies are treatments that are not regularly used by doctors. Their safety and effectiveness are still being studied.

Some experimental therapies currently being investigated for treatment of depression include:

  • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women: Depression is more common in women than in men. Changes in mood with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), post-childbirth, and postmenopause are all linked with sudden drops in hormone levels. Hormone replacement is a treatment currently used to relieve symptoms of menopause such as night sweats and hot flashes. HRT can also help prevent bone-thinning osteoporosis. However, the true contribution of hormones to depression is not known. Be sure to tell your doctor if you have had depression before and are considering HRT.
  • Intravenous ketamine:The anesthetic agent ketamine has been shown in preliminary studies to produce a rapid (within hours) improvement in depression for same patients.
  • Riluzole: This medicine, originally used to treat motor neuron disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gehrig's Disease), has been shown also to affect neurotransmitters involved in depression, and has begun to show promise in treating depression that is unresponsive to more traditional medicines.

Can Depression Return if You Stop Treatment?

Even when treatment such as ECT, TMS, vagus nerve stimulation, or other alternative therapies is successful, depression can return. Psychotherapy and/or maintenance antidepressant medication can help prevent depression from coming back. Psychotherapy does this by correcting the beliefs, perceptions, and behaviors that contribute to your depression. If you do experience recurring symptoms, don't hesitate to seek help again.

What Is the Outlook for Depression?

The outlook for depressed people who seek treatment is very promising. By working with a qualified and experienced mental health care professional, you can regain control of your life.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Joseph Goldberg, MD on August 21, 2014

Sources

SOURCES:

National Institute of Mental Health: "What is Depression?" ''Brain Stimulation Therapies.''

FDA: "The Lowdown on Depression."

American Psychiatric Association, Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Major Depression, 2000.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5.

Fieve, R, MD. Bipolar II, Rodale Books, 2006.

Connelly, KR. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, April 2012.

Carpenter, LL. Depression and anxiety, July 2012.

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