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This topic provides
information about pleurisy, which usually results in chest pain. If you have
chest pain that concerns you and that your doctor does not know about, see the
What is pleurisy?
Pleurisy is swelling (inflammation) of the thin layers of tissue (pleura)
covering the lungs and the chest wall.
The outer layer of the
pleura lines the inside of the chest wall, and the
inner layer covers the lungs. The tiny space between the two layers is called
the pleural cavity. This cavity normally contains a small amount of lubricating
fluid that allows the two layers to slide over each other when you
When the pleura becomes inflamed, the layers rub
together, causing chest pain. This is known as pleuritic pain.
Pleurisy is sometimes called pleuritis.
What causes pleurisy?
In young, healthy people an
infection of the
lower respiratory system by a
virus or bacteria may cause pleurisy. Pleurisy usually
lasts a few days to 2 weeks. In very rare cases, the virus or bacteria may
spread and cause pleurisy in others.
Other causes of pleurisy
include air leaking into the pleural cavity from a hole in
a lung (pneumothorax), injury to the chest
(such as a broken rib),
tuberculosis or other infections, or a tumor in the
conditions may also cause pleurisy. These include
sickle cell crisis,
pulmonary embolism, or
pancreatitis. Pleurisy may also develop as a
complication of heart surgery.
What are the symptoms?
The symptoms of
pleurisy are chest pain and difficulty breathing. The chest pain usually starts
suddenly. People often describe it as a stabbing pain, and it usually gets worse
with breathing. The pain:
- May always be present, but it usually gets
worse when you breathe in. You may avoid breathing deeply to prevent the
- Usually is on only one side of the chest.
extend to a shoulder or the belly.
- Is usually worse when you cough,
sneeze, or suddenly move.
- May ease when you hold your breath or
press on the painful area.
But this type of chest pain can be caused by conditions
that do not affect the pleura, such as chest muscle strain and
If a viral infection is
causing your pleurisy, you may or may not have common viral symptoms, such as
fever, headache, and muscle aches.
The inflammation of the pleura
sometimes causes fluid to build up in the pleural cavity (pleural effusion). You may have less pain after this happens, because the fluid
prevents the two layers of the pleura from rubbing together. If there is a
large amount of fluid, it may prevent the lung from expanding when you breathe
in. This can make it hard to breathe. Other symptoms of pleural effusion
include fever, chest pain, and a dry cough.
See a picture of
pleural effusion .
Pleural effusion may occur without pleurisy in
other conditions, such as
heart failure or liver or kidney disease.