A burning sensation in your feet may be caused by nerve damage in the legs, also called neuropathy. Although many medical conditions can cause burning feet, diabetes is the most common. Most burning feet treatments focus on preventing further nerve damage and reducing pain.
Most often, neuropathy is the cause of burning feet. Damaged nerve fibers are more likely to become overactive and misfire. The damaged nerves send pain signals to the brain even though there is no wound or injury.
In most people with neuropathy, the leg nerves become damaged first. These people often have tingling and numbness in the feet as well. Many people complain that their feet are overly sensitive to touch (hyperesthesia) and can have varying degrees of burning pain. It can range from mild to disabling.
Diabetes and alcohol abuse are by far the most common causes of neuropathy in the legs. Many other conditions can cause neuropathy or a burning sensation in the feet:
Most people who have burning feet have a likely cause (such as diabetes) that can be identified. For these people, the diagnosis of burning feet due to neuropathy is straightforward, and additional testing is not needed.
In a few people whose burning sensation is sudden, rapidly worsening, or has no explainable cause, further testing may be needed to make a correct diagnosis. These tests may include:
Electromyography (EMG). A test of muscle function using recordings of electrical activity inside the muscles. A probe may be placed on the skin, or a needle may be inserted into the muscle, for an EMG test.
Nerve conduction study. A nerve conduction study tests the ability of nerves to transmit impulses. A nerve is stimulated, and the response in the muscle controlled by that nerve is measured.
Laboratory tests. Sometimes, tests of blood, urine, or spinal fluid may be suggested to help diagnose the cause of burning feet. Vitamin levels can be checked with a simple blood test.
Nerve biopsy. Very rarely, a doctor may suggest cutting out a piece of nerve tissue and examining it under a microscope.