You now have more ways to control your diabetes and boost your overall health than ever before. You and your doctor will create a plan to keep your blood sugar (glucose) in check, get to a healthy weight, and reach other goals.

You may need different types of medicine to keep your sugar levels normal or to make enough insulin, the hormone that helps control your glucose. You'll probably start with one medicine and add others later.

Diabetes Drugs You Take by Mouth

Most people with type 2 diabetes start their treatment with metformin (Glucophage), a pill that helps your liver make less blood sugar.

Metformin also makes your muscles absorb insulin better. This lets your body process glucose better.

You'll probably take the drug twice a day. Swallow your pills with food. That will lower your chance of having diarrhea, a common side effect.

If you can't reach your blood sugar targets with metformin alone, your doctor may raise your dose or add another diabetes pill. Medicines they may suggest include:

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors: These help lower your blood sugar by blocking your body's breakdown of starchy foods you eat, like potatoes and bread.

Examples include:

  • Acarbose (Precose)
  • Miglitol (Glyset)

Bile acid sequestrant pills like colesevelam (Welchol): They lower levels of LDL "bad" cholesterol in your body, and they also seem to lower glucose. If you have liver problems and can't take other diabetes pills, you might be able to take this drug safely.

DPP-4 inhibitors: Your doctor may suggest:

  • Alogliptin (Nesina)
  • Linagliptin (Tradjenta)
  • Saxagliptin (Onglyza)
  • Sitagliptin (Januvia)

They help control your diabetes by lowering your blood sugar levels.

GLP-1 receptor agonists: These include:

  • Dulaglutide (Trulicity)
  • Exenatide (Byetta)
  • Extended-release exenatide (Bydureon)
  • Liraglutide (Victoza)
  • Lixisenatide (Adlyxin)
  • Semaglutide (Ozempic, Rybelsus)

These tell your body it needs to make more insulin and slows down digestion to make you feel full.

Meglitinides: This type of medication includes:

  • Nateglinide (Starlix)
  • Repaglinide (Prandin)

They help your body make more insulin. You take these drugs before your meals.

SGLT2 inhibitors: Your doctor may prescribe:

  • Canagliflozin (Invokana)
  • Dapagliflozin (Farxiga)
  • Empagliflozin (Jardiance)
  • Ertugliflozin (Steglatro)

They help your kidneys get rid of extra glucose by removing it from your blood and putting it into your urine.

Sulfonylureas: You may need to take medicine like:

  • Chlorpropamide (Diabinese)
  • Glimepiride (Amaryl)
  • Glipizide (Glucotrol)
  • Glyburide (Diabeta, Glynase)

They help your pancreas make more insulin.

Thiazolidinediones: These include:

  • Pioglitazone (Actos)
  • Rosiglitazone (Avandia)

They help insulin work better in your muscles or fat tissues. They also let your liver make less sugar.


  • Pramlintide (Symlin)


This helps move blood sugar into your body's cells so you can use it for energy and stay healthy.

If you need to take insulin, don't feel like you've failed to manage your diabetes. Every person's body is different. If you've had type 2 diabetes for a long time, have very high blood sugar, or have other health problems that make it hard for you to control your glucose, you might need to take insulin along with your pills.

Insulin is a hormone. Most people inject it into the fat of their skin. Your doctor will figure out how much you need to take each day to keep your body healthy.

Some types of insulin act quickly. Others last for a long time to keep your blood sugar levels steady. You might give yourself shots of it with a syringe or a prefilled injection pen. Or you might use an insulin pump or infuser. Your doctor puts these devices under your skin to give you insulin when you need it.

Types of insulin include:

  • Insulin aspart (NovoLog)
  • Insulin degludec (Tresiba)
  • Insulin detemir (Levemir)
  • Insulin lispro (Humalog)
  • Insulin glargine (Basaglar, Lantus, Toujeo)
  • Insulin glulisine (Apidra)
  • Insulin isophane (Humulin N, Novolin N)

Take Your Meds the Right Way

Follow your doctor's directions. You’ll need to take some drugs with food to help ease side effects.

It's also important to follow your pharmacist's instructions about how to store your medicine. That way, it will stay fresh and effective.

You shouldn't drink alcohol if you take some drugs, including metformin. When you have type 2 diabetes, you might feel the effects of alcoholic drinks more than other people. So use caution if you drink.

WebMD Medical Reference

WebMD Voices

Quinn N., 31
Baxter, MN
Don't let diabetes shrink your borders. When I was diagnosed, I heard it would be tough to move to college, travel internationally, and have a baby. I've done two out of three. When I focus on outward goals, it motivates me to take better care of myself. Diabetes doesn't have to define me; I can use it to refine me.
Kayla B., 26
Ontario, Canada
I find it incredibly important to connect with others living with the same condition. Having someone to talk to, either online or in person, gives you an opportunity to share your experiences and vent about the ups and downs of diabetes. Knowing someone's going through what you've gone through is helpful.
Allison C., 41
Syosset, NY
I switched to a low-carb diet. The less carbs I eat, the less insulin I need. I also eliminated wheats and grains since they seem to spike me. I joined CrossFit, which was empowering. To avoid going low at the gym, I eat a low-carb breakfast. I also keep glucose tabs on me and leave Gatorade in the gym fridge.
Sam T., 39
Brooklyn, NY
I've been really into smoothies recently, as they're a great way to start my day. I make them fresh every morning. Anything in my fridge, I throw into my Vitamix — always greens included — with yogurt, ice, and my favorite nut milk. This helps maintain my blood sugar and keeps me going throughout the day.
Greg W., 24
Sudbury, MA
The thing that has helped me most is managing my relationship with type 1 diabetes. It may sound funny, but I now know it's not in charge of my life. Day-to-day struggles, whether it be high blood sugars or otherwise, are simply road blocks on a long run towards a successful life with type 1 diabetes.
Rachel Z., 51
Byron Bay, Australia
Yoga keeps me on an even keel. When I see a low number, I breathe slowly and evenly, in and out through my nose. Making my exhalation twice as long as my inhalation relaxes the nervous system. When I'm struggling with insulin resistance, I practice postures that actively work the legs — squatting and lunges.
Stacy H., 40
Houston, TX
I run every day. I think the key to managing diabetes while exercising is to never give up. I've learned new ways to be safe but still run hard. I always carry some type of nut bar. If my blood sugar gets low during a run, the bar has enough carbs to bring my sugar back up and let me make it home.
Joe E., 34
Alpharetta, GA
At restaurants, you aren't in the kitchen so you don't know exactly what's going into what you order. Asking your server about portion sizes or making a simple substitution, like a grilled vegetable side instead of mashed potatoes, can be a very smart move in managing your blood sugar.
Phyllisa D., 37
Pompano Beach, FL
Going for evening walks has helped me. Mentally, I use that time to release the stress of being a working mother. Physically, it helps me maintain my weight. I also enjoy doing 5k races. I started walking. Now I can jog a little bit. Eating dinner on a dessert plate helped lower my fasting blood sugar and I lost weight.