Can a Drop in Blood Pressure Signal Heart Failure?

Medically Reviewed by James Beckerman, MD, FACC on September 04, 2023
3 min read

It happens to most people from time to time: you stand up and suddenly the room starts to spin, or your vision gets fuzzy for a second or two.

These are signs of a drop in your blood pressure, and they’re usually not a cause for concern. But studies have found that people who get them a lot may have a higher chance of having heart failure later on. That’s a condition in which your heart doesn’t pump blood as well as it should.

Scientists need to do more research to understand the connection, but it’s a good idea to be aware of how often you have these blood pressure changes.

A drop in blood pressure when you stand up is technically called orthostatic hypotension. Some people who have it won’t notice it, but most commonly, you’ll have symptoms for a few seconds after you stand, including:

There are many reasons this shift can happen. You might be dehydrated, have low blood sugar, or be taking medication that changes your blood pressure. But some research suggests it could be an early sign that your heart isn’t pumping blood as well as it should.

Research has shown that people who have these dips in blood pressure on a regular basis are about 50% more likely to go on to have heart failure. In one study, those who had the symptom when they were under age 55 were even more likely to get heart failure years later than older people who had it.

Researchers aren’t sure why the two problems seem to be linked. Some think that orthostatic hypotension could be a sign of a buildup of plaque in the arteries, called atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart failure. Also, many of the same things that cause sudden blood pressure drops, such as some medications and health problems, also boost your odds for heart failure.

This doesn’t mean that everyone who gets sudden drops in blood pressure has -- or will have -- heart failure. Scientists need to do more research before they understand the connection and if it can predict the problem later on.

Feeling dizzy when you stand every once in a while is probably no cause for concern. But if you have the symptoms of orthostatic hypotension often, you should bring it up with your doctor so they can figure out what’s causing it. Before your appointment, keep a record of your symptoms, when they happen, and how long they last. If you fall during one of your dizzy spells, or have any of the following symptoms of heart failure, you should get medical help ASAP: