Fruit chicken and dairy
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What Are FODMAPs?

They are a group of carbohydrates that’s in lots of foods, from fruits to meats to dairy. Most people eat them with no problem. But some can’t absorb or digest FODMAPs well. They stay around in your stomach or intestines and feed the bacteria. This can lead to bloating, gas, nausea, and pain. They also can bring extra water into your intestines and give you diarrhea. 

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Orange and apple
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Low FODMAP Diet 101

If you often have tummy troubles, eating less FODMAPs may help.  You swap foods that have lots of those carbs for those that don’t. For example, you might give up an apple for an orange or switch out peas for green beans. You stay on this plan for 2-6 weeks. If you feel better, that means you’re sensitive to FODMAPs. 

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Woman stomach pain
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Benefits of Going Low

Do you have irritable bowel syndrome? Research shows that eating less FODMAPs may help a lot with symptoms like bloat, constipation, diarrhea, and pain. People with a more serious condition called inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), like Crohn’s and ulcerative colitis, also may get relief.  

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Crohn’s s disease Intestinal illustration
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FODMAPs and Crohn’s Disease

If you have Crohn’s or another IBD, FODMAPs are especially likely to cause you trouble. Cutting back on them can help. But a low FODMAP diet is not a cure. Talk to your doctor and see a dietitian before you switch your diet.  

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Calendar pages
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A Short-Term Tryout

You don’t stick to the diet forever. The goal is to test if you’re sensitive to FODMAPs. Some people feel better in a few days. But you should still stay on the eating plan for the full 2-6 weeks. This gives your gut time to heal and reset. Then you add back high-FODMAP foods, one by one. The step helps you figure out which FODMAPs set off your symptoms.

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Nutritionist with client
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A Diet for All?

If you’re healthy, a low FODMAP diet won’t do much for you. Try it only if you have digestive problems. And it’s best to work with a dietitian. It’s tough to guard against so many high FODMAP picks on your own. If you don’t do it right, you may not benefit at all. You also can miss out on valuable nutrients.

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Variety of vegetables
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Veggies to Eat and Skip

Go for:

  • Carrots
  • Lettuce
  • Potatoes
  • Tomatoes
  • Zucchini 

Steer away from:

  • Cauliflower
  • Asparagus
  • Mushrooms
  • Onion 
  • Garlic
  • Artichokes

Pro tip: If you love garlic, cook a couple of pieces in oil and then toss them. Flavor with the infused oil instead.
 

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fruit variety
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Fruits to Eat and Skip

Fructose, a type of sugar in fruits, is a FODMAP. Some fruits have more of it than others. 

Reach for:

  • Grapes
  • Cantaloupe
  • Kiwis
  • Oranges 
  • Pineapple
  • Strawberries

Instead of:

  • Apples
  • Cherries
  • Mangoes
  • Watermelon
  • Nectarines and peaches
  • Pears
  • Plums
  • Dried and canned fruits 
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Breads rice grains
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Grains to Eat and Skip

Love bread, pasta, cereal, and crackers? Sorry. Foods made with wheat, barley, and rye are off-limits on a low FODMAP diet. What can you have instead? Try quinoa, rice, millet, and cornmeal. You can also enjoy many gluten-free breads and pastas. Just check the label for any high-FODMAP ingredients like onion or honey.   

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dairy products and almond milk
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Dairy Products to Eat and Skip

Cow’s milk, ice cream, yogurt, and many dairy foods have a FODMAP called lactose. Trade them for lactose-free versions or for almond milk. Hard cheeses like cheddar and aged cheeses like brie also are low in lactose. What about soy milk? Read the label. Skip those from whole or hulled beans. Look for brands made with soy protein, which are low in FODMAPs.

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Salmon, oil, eggs, nuts, pumpkin seeds and tofu
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Proteins to Eat and Skip

Meat, poultry, and seafood are low in FODMAPs. Same goes for:

  • Eggs
  • Firm tofu
  • Tempeh
  • Peanuts
  • Pumpkin seeds
  • Macadamia nuts
  • Walnuts

Watch out for:

  • Meats marinated with honey, garlic, or onions
  • Beans
  • Cashews 
  • Pistachios
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Variety of sugars and sweetners
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Sweeteners to Eat and Skip

You can have:

  • White and brown sugar
  • Pure maple syrup
  • Sucralose, an artificial sweetener sold as Splenda 
  • Stevia, a natural sugar substitute from a plant 

Limit or cut out:

  • High-fructose corn syrup
  • Honey
  • Agave
  • Sorbitol, a low-calorie sweetener made from fruit sugars
  • Xylitol, a sugar alcohol often used in sugar-free candies and cookies

Sweeteners of all types are in many processed foods, like breads, soup, and sauces. So read the labels.

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Variety of breads
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Similarities to Gluten-Free Diet

Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Those foods also happen to be high in FODMAPs. So if you feel better on a gluten-free diet, it just might be because you’re eating less of the problematic sugars and other carbs. A low FODMAP diet is more restrictive. It targets not only grains but fruits, veggies, legumes, and dairy as well.

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Male patient and doctor
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Not Seeing Results?

You’ve cut out high FODMAP foods, but you don’t feel any better. Now what? Double-check how closely you stuck to the diet. Slip-ups can keep you from reaping results. But what if you followed the diet closely? That means you’re not sensitive to FODMAPs. There’s no reason to stay on the diet. Talk to your doctor about how else you can manage your symptoms.

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Sautéed mushroom
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How to Bring FODMAPs Back

If you feel better after the low FODMAP diet, that means you’re sensitive to them. The next step is to find out which foods -- and how much -- trigger your symptoms. To do that, you bring back foods from each FODMAP group one at a time. You try it for 3-5 days and see how you feel. This can take up to 3 months. At the end, you’ll know exactly which foods you need to avoid. 

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woman writing in journal
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A New Way of Eating

Once you figure out which foods mean trouble, target only those items. You can eat other high FODMAP foods. This strategy can help you manage your digestive problems. Keep in mind that over time, your body may change the way it reacts to FODMAPs. So try those off-limit foods again in a few months and see how you feel. 

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Sources | Medically Reviewed on 04/03/2018 Reviewed by Minesh Khatri, MD on April 03, 2018

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SOURCES:

Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology: “Efficacy of a Low-FODMAP Diet for Treating Irritable Bowel Syndrome: The Evidence to Date.”

Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology: “Use of the Low-FODMAP Diet in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.”

Kristi King, MPH, RDN, spokesperson, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

Monash University: “Low FODMAP Diet.”

Peter Gibson, MD, professor of gastroenterology, Monash University, Australia.

Robin Foroutan, RDN, spokesperson, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

Stanford Health Care: “Low FODMAP Diet.”

University of Virginia Health System: “Low FODMAP Diet.”

FDA: “Additional Information about High-Intensity Sweeteners Permitted for Use in Food in the United States.”

National Health Service (UK): “Sorbitol: helpful for diabetics?”

Gluten Intolerance Group: “Gluten Sensitivity and FODMAPS.”

Reviewed by Minesh Khatri, MD on April 03, 2018

This tool does not provide medical advice. See additional information.

THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.